Sheriff

A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated to English as sheriff, and this is discussed below.

Description

Historically, a sheriff was a legal official with responsibility for a shire, the term being a contraction of "shire reeve" (Old English scīrgerefa).[1]

[2] In British English, the political or legal office of a sheriff, term of office of a sheriff, or jurisdiction of a sheriff, is called a shrievalty[1] in England and Wales, and a sheriffdom[2] in Scotland.

In modern times, the specific combination of legal, political and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country.

  • In England, Northern Ireland, or Wales, a sheriff (or high sheriff) is a ceremonial county or city official.
  • In Scotland, sheriffs are judges.[3]
  • In the Republic of Ireland, in some counties and in the cities of Dublin and Cork, sheriffs are legal officials similar to bailiffs.
  • In the United States, a sheriff is a sworn law enforcement officer, whose duties vary across states and counties. A sheriff is generally an elected county official, with duties that typically include policing unincorporated areas, maintaining county jails, providing security to courts in the county, and (in some states) serving warrants and court papers. In addition to these policing and correction services, a sheriff is often responsible for enforcing civil law within the jurisdiction.
  • In Canada, sheriffs exist in most provinces. The provincial sheriff services generally manage and transport court prisoners, serve court orders, and in some provinces sheriffs provide security for the court system, protect public officials, support investigations by local police services and in Alberta, sheriffs carry out traffic enforcement.
  • In Australia and South Africa sheriffs are legal officials similar to bailiffs. In these countries there is no link maintained between counties and sheriffs.
  • In India, a sheriff is a largely ceremonial office in some major cities.

Great Britain and Ireland

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

The Old English term designated a royal official (a reeve) responsible for keeping the peace throughout a shire or county on behalf of the king.[4] The term was preserved in England notwithstanding the Norman Conquest.

Today, sheriff or high sheriff is a ceremonial county or city official.

Scotland

In Scotland the sheriff is a judicial office holder in the sheriff courts, and they are members of the judiciary of Scotland.[5]

Sheriffs principal

The most senior sheriffs are the sheriffs principal, who have administrative as well as judicial authority in the six sheriffdoms, and are responsible for the effective running and administration of all the sheriff courts in their jurisdiction. Sheriffs principal also sit as appeal sheriffs in the Sheriff Appeal Court; hearing appeals against sentencing and conviction from summary trials in the sheriff courts and justice of the peace courts.[6] The additional duties of a sheriff principal include being Commissioners of the Northern Lighthouse Board (which is the general lighthouse authority for Scotland), and chairing local criminal justice boards which bring together local representatives of procurator fiscal, Police Scotland and Community Justice Scotland, and Scottish Courts and Tribunals Service.[7][8]

Sheriffs

Sheriffs deal with the majority of civil and criminal court cases in Scotland, with the power to preside in solemn proceedings with a jury of 15 for indictable offences and sitting alone in summary proceedings for summary offences. A sheriff must be legally qualified, and have been qualified as an advocate or solicitor for at least 10 years. The maximum sentencing power of sheriff in summary proceedings is 12 months imprisonment, or a fine of up to £10,000. In solemn proceedings the maximum sentence is 5 years imprisonment, or an unlimited fine.[5]

Sheriffs also preside over fatal accident inquiries which are convened to examine the circumstances around sudden or suspicious deaths, including those who die in the course of employment, in custody, or in secure accommodation.[9][10]

Summary sheriffs

Summary sheriffs hear civil cases brought under Simple Procedure and criminal cases brought under summary proceedings. Their sentencing powers are identical to a sheriff sitting in summary proceedings.[11]

Republic of Ireland

Sheriffs have been appointed in Ireland since the Norman conquest (late 12th century) to enforce court judgements. In the modern day, a sheriff (Irish: sirriam) is an officer who collects taxes on behalf of the Collector General (part of the Revenue Commissioners). There are sixteen sheriffs in the country: two in Dublin, two in Cork City and twelve for the rest of the country. These twelve sheriffs are also county registrars. Sheriffs enforce the repayment of a debt which has been specified by court order. This can be in the form of payment or, failing that, in the removal and subsequent disposal of assets (a property and/or its contents).[12]

Australia

A sheriff's office exists in most Australian states and territories, with various duties.

  • Before 1824, prisons in the British penal colony of New South Wales were overseen by the Provost Marshal. This title/position was replaced by that of Sheriff when a Charter of Justice was proclaimed in 1824.[13] In addition to detaining accused criminals awaiting trial, the sheriff executed death sentences and other sentences, controlled gaols, and handled prison movements, including the chain gangs that worked on Goat Island and in Sydney.[13] In 1867, the sheriff began to be replaced by an independent Prisons Department, led by an inspector general, which was later renamed comptroller general. Most Australian states adopted this mode of prison oversight for many years.[13] In New South Wales, the Office of the Sheriff is part of Courts and Tribunal Services. The office has more than 400 employees at 58 sheriffs' offices. In addition to enforcing writs, warrants, and property seizure orders issued by New South Wales courts and tribunals, the Office of the Sheriff also provides court security and administers the state's jury service.[14]
  • The Sheriff of Western Australia – also known as the Sheriff of the Supreme Court, Marshal of the Family Court and Marshal of the Federal Court in Western Australia – is an officer of those courts, as well as the District Court and the Magistrates Court.[17] The Sheriff has two main roles.
    • "Enforcement services": managing the serving of court documents, including summonses, and the execution of writs, warrants and orders to recover unpaid fines or debts resulting from court judgments; as such, the Sheriff is also responsible for the appointment of bailiffs – who carry out the above services on behalf of the Sheriff.
    • "Jury services": preparing jury books, which list people potentially available for jury duty, within 17 jury districts in Western Australia, as well as actually summoning people to act as jurors in the Supreme and District courts; the Sheriff also investigates any failure by jurors to attend court and also has responsibility for the day-to-day management of juries sitting in the Perth metropolitan area.

North America

Canada

Most provinces and territories in Canada operate a sheriffs service. Sheriffs are primarily concerned with services such as courtroom security, post-arrest prisoner transfer, serving legal processes and executing civil judgements. Sheriffs are defined under section 2 of the Criminal Code as "peace officers". Sheriffs' duties in Ontario deal only with serving legal processes and executing civil judgments. They do not perform court security-related duties. Court security functions are handled by the jurisdictional police (municipal police or the Ontario Provincial Police) in which the courthouse is located. In other parts of Canada, where sheriff's services do not exist, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police perform these duties. Quebec has a two-tiered court security system where armed provincial special constables perform court security and the provincial correctional officers perform prisoner escort/transport duties.

Alberta

In 2006, the Province of Alberta expanded the duties[18] of the Alberta Sheriffs Branch (the successor to the former Courts and Prisoner Security agency) to include traffic enforcement, protective security and some investigation functions (Sheriffs Investigative Support Unit and Safer Communities and Neighbourhoods Unit). As of June 2008, the Alberta Sheriffs Branch traffic division includes 105 traffic sheriffs who are assigned to one of seven regions in the province. Sheriffs also assist various police services in Alberta with prisoner management.

British Columbia

The responsibilities of sheriffs in the Province of British Columbia include providing security for the Provincial Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Appeal; planning high-security trials; providing an intelligence unit; assessing threats towards public officials and those employed in the justice system; protecting judges and Crown prosecutors; managing detention cells; transporting prisoners by ground and air; managing and providing protection for juries; serving court-related documents; executing court orders and warrants; and assisting with the coroner's court.

Nova Scotia

In the Province of Nova Scotia, the sheriffs service focuses on the safety and security of the judiciary, court staff, the public, and persons in custody. There are local sheriffs for every county in Nova Scotia, numbering over 200 in total. They work with up to 20,000 inmates and travel over 2 million kilometers in a year. Sheriffs are responsible for: court security; the transportation of prisoners to and from institutions and all levels of court; the service of some civil and criminal documents; and the execution of court orders. [19]

United States

The office of sheriff as county official in colonial North America is recorded from the 1660s. In the modern United States, the scope of a sheriff varies across states and counties (which in Louisiana are called "parishes" and in Alaska "boroughs"). The sheriff is most often an elected county official who serves as the chief civil-law enforcement officer of their jurisdiction. The sheriff enforces court orders and mandates and may perform duties such as evictions, seizing property and assets pursuant to court orders, and serving warrants and legal papers. In some counties where urban areas have their own police departments, a sheriff may be restricted to civil procedure enforcement duties, while in other counties, the sheriff may serve as the principal police force and have jurisdiction over all of the county's municipalities, regardless if they have their own city or town/township police department. A sheriff often administers the county jails and is responsible for court security functions within their jurisdiction.

India

Among cities in India, only Mumbai (Bombay), Kolkata (Calcutta) and Chennai (Madras), the three former British Presidencies, have had a Sheriff. First established in the 1700s based on the English High Sheriffs, they were the executive arm of the Judiciary, responsible for assembling jurors, bringing people to trial, supervising the gaoling (imprisonment) of prisoners and seizing and selling property. After the mid-1800s the responsibilities and powers of the role were reduced and the positions became ceremonial. The Sheriffs of Mumbai and Kolkata still exist, although the post in Chennai was abolished in 1998.

In present times the sheriff has an apolitical, non-executive role, presides over various city-related functions and conferences and welcomes foreign guests. The post is second to the mayor in the protocol list.

South Africa

In South Africa, the sheriffs are officers of the court and function as the executive arm of the court. They are responsible for serving court processes like summonses and subpoenas. They play an important role in the execution of court orders like the attachments of immovable and movable property; evictions, demolitions etc.

The Sheriffs Act 90 of 1986, which came into operation on 1 March 1990, governs the profession. A sheriff is appointed by the Minister for Justice and Constitutional Development in terms of Section 2 of the Act.[20]

Related offices

Iceland

In Iceland, sýslumenn (singular sýslumaður, translated "sheriff") are administrators of the state, holders of the executive power in their jurisdiction and heads of their Sheriff's Office. Sheriffs are in charge of certain legal matters that typically involve registration of some sort and executing the orders of the court. The duties of the sheriffs differ slightly depending on their jurisdiction but they can be broadly categorised as:

  • Duties of all sheriffs except in Reykjavík: collection of public fees, publication of licences and permits for various personal and business purposes and more.[22]

There are 24 sheriffs and sheriff jurisdictions in Iceland. The jurisdictions are not defined by the administrative divisions of Iceland but are mainly a mixture of counties and municipalities.

The post of sheriff was mandated by the Old Covenant, an agreement between the Icelandic Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Norway. The agreement which was ratified between 1262 and 1264 makes the post of sheriff the oldest secular position of government still operating in Iceland.[24]

References

  1. ^ "Definition of SHRIEVALTY".
  2. ^ "Sheriff Courts and Sheriffdoms in Scotland - Scots Law". Kevin F Crombie. 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  3. ^ "Sheriffs - Judicial Office Holders - About the Judiciary - Judiciary of Scotland".
  4. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary".
  5. ^ a b "Sheriffs - Judicial Office Holders - About the Judiciary - Judiciary of Scotland". www.scotland-judiciary.org.uk. Judicial Office for Scotland. 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  6. ^ Judicial Office for Scotland (March 2016). "The Office of Sheriff Principal". www.judicialappointments.scot. Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Schedule 8 of Merchant Shipping Act 1995". www.legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. 19 July 1995. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  8. ^ "Local Criminal Justice Boards". www.gov.scot. Scottish Government. 3 April 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  9. ^ "Fatal Accidents and Sudden Deaths Inquiry (Scotland) Act 1976". Legislation.gov.uk. 13 April 1976. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  10. ^ Judicial Office for Scotland. "The Office of Sheriff" (DOC). www.judicialappointments.scot. Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland. p. 9. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 34) The sheriff is required to make certain findings and is empowered to make recommendations to avoid a recurrence of the incident.
  11. ^ "Summary Sheriffs - Judicial Office Holders - About the Judiciary - Judiciary of Scotland". www.scotland-judiciary.org.uk. Judicial Office for Scotland. 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  12. ^ Hyland, Paul. "Explainer: Who and what are Ireland's sheriffs?".
  13. ^ a b c Sean O'Toole, The History of Australian Corrections (University of New South Wales Press, 2006) p. 48.
  14. ^ Office of the Sheriff of New South Wales, Government of New South Wales (accessed August 20, 2016).
  15. ^ Sheriffs in Victoria, Victoria Department of Justice and Regulation (accessed August 20, 2016).
  16. ^ Sheriff enforcement powers, Victoria Department of Justice and Regulation (accessed August 20, 2016).
  17. ^ General, Department of the Attorney. "Sheriff of Western Australia".
  18. ^ "Alberta sheriffs make highway debut this weekend". CBC. September 1, 2006. Archived from the original on July 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  19. ^ "Sheriff Services - novascotia.ca".
  20. ^ "home". www.sheriffs.org.za.
  21. ^ "Verkefni allra sýslumanna" [Tasks of all sheriffs] (in Icelandic). Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  22. ^ "Verkefni sýslumanna utan Reykjavíkur" [Tasks of sheriffs outside Reykjavík] (in Icelandic). Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  23. ^ "Sérstök verkefni sýslumanna" [Special tasks of sheriffs] (in Icelandic). Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  24. ^ "Saga sýslumanna" [History of sheriffs] (in Icelandic). Retrieved 31 January 2012. Sýslumanna er fyrst getið hérlendis í einu handriti að sáttmála þeim sem Íslendingar gerðu við Noregskonung og öðlaðist staðfestingu á árunum 1262 til 1264 og síðar var nefndur Gamli sáttmáli, en með sáttmála þessum má segja að Íslendingar hafi gerst þegnar Noregskonungs. Eru sýslumenn elstu veraldlegu embættismenn sem enn starfa hérlendis og hafa alla tíð verið mikilvægur hluti stjórnsýslunnar.
Act of Sederunt

An Act of Sederunt ( sə-DERR-ənt; meaning a meeting or sitting of a court) is secondary legislation made by the Court of Session, the supreme civil court of Scotland, to regulate the proceedings of Scottish courts and tribunals hearing civil matters. Originally made under an Act of the Parliament of Scotland of 1532, the modern power to make Acts of Sederunt is largely derived from the Courts Reform (Scotland) Act 2014. Since 2013, draft Acts have also been prepared by the Scottish Civil Justice Council and submitted to the Court of Session for approval.Following Scottish devolution and the establishment of the Scottish Parliament, Acts of Sederunt are made as Scottish Statutory Instruments. Previously, Acts were made as United Kingdom Statutory Instruments, and before that were a separate class of legislation.

Allegheny County Sheriff's Office

The Allegheny County Sheriff's Office is a law enforcement agency that serves Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and is the largest sheriff's office in the state. The ACSO serves as a local arm of the Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System in a number of roles, including: court security, writ services, sales, prisoner transportation, issuing of firearm licenses and execution of warrants. A primary responsibility of the office is fugitive apprehension.

FA Community Shield

The Football Association Community Shield (formerly the Charity Shield) is English football's annual match contested between the champions of the previous Premier League season and the holders of the FA Cup at Wembley Stadium. If the Premier League champions also won the FA Cup then the league runners-up provide the opposition. The fixture is recognised as a competitive super cup by the Football Association.Organised by the FA, proceeds from the game are distributed to community-based initiatives and charities around the country. Revenue from the gate receipts and match programme sales is distributed to the 124 clubs who competed in The FA Cup from the First Round onwards, for onward distribution to charities and projects of their choice, while the remainder is distributed to the FA's national charity partners. The fixture was first played in the 1908–09 season, replacing the Sheriff of London Charity Shield.

The current holders are Manchester City, who defeated Chelsea 2–0 in the 2018 match.

FC Sheriff Tiraspol

Fotbal Club Sheriff (Russian: ФК Шериф Тирасполь), commonly known as Sheriff Tiraspol or simply Sheriff, is a Moldovan football club based in Tiraspol.

Formed in 1996 as Tiras Tiraspol, the team was refounded as Sheriff the following year, taking its name from the company which has since been sponsoring it. The first trophy of "the Wasps" was the Moldovan Cup, which they won in the 1998–99 season, when they also made their debut in the first division. Their honours include 17 championship titles, 9 Cups and 7 Super Cups – all competition records. On the European stage, Sheriff reached the group stage of the UEFA Europa League on four occasions.

They play their home games in yellow and black kits at the Sheriff Stadium, which has a capacity of 12,746.

High Sheriff of Gwynedd

The office of High Sheriff of Gwynedd was established in 1974 as part of the creation of the county of Gwynedd in Wales following the Local Government Act 1972, and effectively replaced the shrievalties of the amalgamated counties of Anglesey, Caernarfonshire and Merionethshire.

High Sheriff of the East Riding of Yorkshire

The High Sheriff of the East Riding of Yorkshire is a current High Sheriff title which has existed since 1996. For around 1,000 years the entire area of Yorkshire was covered by a single High Sheriff of Yorkshire. After the Local Government Act 1972 the title was split to cover several newly created counties. Most of the former area of the East Riding became part of the county of Humberside and under the High Sheriff of Humberside title. Humberside was abolished in 1996 and a High Sheriff title was created for the newly reconstituted East Riding of Yorkshire.

Below is a list of the sheriffs.

High sheriff

A high sheriff is a ceremonial officer for each shrieval county of England and Wales and Northern Ireland or the chief sheriff of a number of paid sheriffs in U.S. states who outranks and commands the others in their court-related functions. In Canada, the High Sheriff provides administrative services to the supreme and provincial courts.

The office existed in what is now the Republic of Ireland but was abolished there in 1926.

In England and Wales, the offices of high sheriff were created at the direction of the Local Government Act 1972 incepting on 1 April 1974. The purpose was to distinguish sheriffs of counties proper from sheriffs of cities and boroughs designated counties corporate. Except for the City of London, which has two sheriffs, these cities and boroughs no longer have sheriffs, leaving only high sheriffs in England and Wales in the sheriff's office. The office is now an unpaid privilege with ceremonial duties, the sheriffs being appointed annually by the Crown through a warrant from the Privy Council except in Cornwall, where the high sheriff is appointed by the Duke of Cornwall and Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Lancashire, where the High Sheriff is appointed by the Duke of Lancaster (currently the Queen). In England and Wales the office's civil (civil judgement) enforcement powers exist but are not exercised by convention.

I Shot the Sheriff

"I Shot the Sheriff" is a song written by Bob Marley and released in 1973 by Bob Marley and the Wailers.

Joe Arpaio

Joseph Michael Arpaio (; born June 14, 1932) is an American former law enforcement officer and politician. He served as the 36th Sheriff of Maricopa County, Arizona for 24 years, from 1993 to 2017, losing reelection to Democrat Paul Penzone in 2016.

Starting in 2005, Arpaio took an outspoken stance against illegal immigration, styling himself as "America's Toughest Sheriff". In 2010, he became a flashpoint for opposition to Arizona's SB1070 anti-illegal immigrant law, which was largely struck down by the Supreme Court of the United States. Arpaio is also known for investigating former U.S. President Barack Obama's birth certificate, and, as of 2018, he continued to claim without evidence that it was forged.Arpaio has been accused of numerous types of police misconduct, including abuse of power, misuse of funds, failure to investigate sex crimes, criminal negligence, abuse of suspects in custody, improper clearance of cases, unlawful enforcement of immigration laws, and election law violations. A Federal court monitor was appointed to oversee his office's operations because of complaints of racial profiling. The U.S. Department of Justice concluded that Arpaio oversaw the worst pattern of racial profiling in U.S. history, and subsequently filed suit against him for unlawful discriminatory police conduct. Arpaio and the MCSO were named as defendants in dozens of civil lawsuits brought by citizens arrested by Arpaio and his deputies alleging wrongful arrest, wrongful death, entrapment and other claims, costing taxpayers in Maricopa County over $140 million in litigation against Arpaio during his tenure as sheriff.Over the course of his career, Arpaio was the subject of several federal civil rights lawsuits. In one case he was a defendant in a decade-long suit in which a federal court issued an injunction barring him from conducting further "immigration round-ups". A federal court subsequently found that after the order was issued, Arpaio's office continued to detain "persons for further investigation without reasonable suspicion that a crime has been or is being committed." In July 2017, he was convicted of criminal contempt of court, a crime for which he was pardoned by President Donald Trump on August 25, 2017. In a separate racial-profiling case which concluded in 2013, Arpaio and his subordinates were found to have unfairly targeted Hispanics in conducting traffic stops. Though Arpaio sought another term as Sheriff in 2016, the contempt of court conviction eroded much of his remaining political support, and he was defeated in the election by Paul Penzone, a Democrat who reversed many of Arpaio's policies after taking office. Arpaio was an unsuccessful candidate in Arizona's Republican primary election for U.S. Senate in 2018.

Moldovan National Division

The Moldovan National Division (Romanian: Divizia Națională) is the top association football division of the Moldovan football league system. The competition was established in 1992, when the country became independent from the Soviet Union.

There are currently 10 teams in the competition. At the end of the season, the bottom club is relegated to the "A" Division and replaced by the lower league's champion.

Sheriff Tiraspol is the most successful league club with 16 titles, followed by Zimbru Chișinău with 8 wins. Dacia Chișinău, FC Tiraspol and Milsami Orhei also conquered the title on one occasion each.

Moldovan Super Cup

Moldovan Super Cup (Romanian: Supercupa Moldovei) is the national football super cup competition in Moldova, officially having the winners of the previous season's Moldovan National Division and Moldovan Cup face-off against each other. In case when the national cup was won by a national champion, the game doesn't take place. Since the 2003 inception, this match was decided to take place annually. In 2006 and between 2008 and 2010, Sheriff Tiraspol have won both the cup and the league.

Murder, She Wrote

Murder, She Wrote is an American crime drama television series starring Angela Lansbury as mystery writer and amateur detective Jessica Fletcher. The series aired for 12 seasons with 264 episodes from 1984 to 1996 on the CBS network. It was followed by four TV films. Among the most successful and longest-running television shows in history, it averaged more than 30 million viewers per week in its prime (sometimes hitting above 40 million viewers), and was a staple of the CBS Sunday night lineup for a decade. In syndication, the series is still highly successful throughout the world.

Lansbury was nominated for ten Golden Globes and 12 Emmy Awards for her work on Murder, She Wrote. She holds the record for the most Golden Globe nominations and wins for Best Actress in a television drama series and the most Emmy nominations for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series for Murder, She Wrote, with those nominations netting her four Golden Globe awards. The series received three nominations in the Outstanding Drama Series category at the Emmys. It was nominated for a Golden Globe in the same category six times and won twice.

After the series finished in 1996, four TV movies were released between 1997 and 2003. In 2009, a point-and-click video game was released for the PC platform, followed in 2012 by a sequel. A spin-off book series continues publication at present.

Sheriff court

A sheriff court (Scottish Gaelic: cùirt an t-siorraim) is the principal local civil and criminal court in Scotland, with exclusive jurisdiction over all civil cases with a monetary value up to £100,000, and with the jurisdiction to hear any criminal case except treason, murder, and rape which are in the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court of Justiciary. Though the sheriff courts have concurrent jurisdiction with the High Court over armed robbery, drug trafficking, and sexual offences involving children, the vast majority of these cases are heard by the High Court. Each court serves a sheriff court district within one of the six sheriffdoms of Scotland. Each sheriff court is presided over by a sheriff, who is a legally qualified judge, and part of the judiciary of Scotland.

Sheriff courts hear civil cases as a bench trial without a jury, and make determinations and judgments alone. However, the specialist all-Scotland Sheriff Personal Injury Court (based in Edinburgh) has the ability to hear cases at proof with a jury of twelve. Sheriff courts hear criminal trials on complaint as a bench trial for summary offences, and as a trial with a jury of fifteen for indictable offences. Where a person is convicted following a case heard on complaint they can be sentenced to a maximum of twelve months imprisonment and/or a £10,000 fine, and in solemn cases 5 years imprisonment or an unlimited fine.

Judgments of the sheriff courts in criminal offences handled through summary procedures, and civil cases handled through small claims and summary process, can be appealed to the Sheriff Appeal Court. Criminal offences heard on indictment through solemn procedure are appealed to the High Court of Justiciary. Other civil actions are appealed to the Inner House of the Court of Session.

Sheriff courts deal with a myriad of legal procedures which include:

Solemn and summary criminal cases

Large and small estates upon a death

Fine payments

Civil actions under ordinary and simple procedures

Adoption cases

Bankruptcy actions

Sheriff of Madras

The Sheriff of Madras was an apolitical titular position of authority bestowed for one year on a prominent citizen of Madras. The post was abolished in 1998.

The position of Sheriff of Madras was created in the Madras Charter of 1726 which came into force on 17 August 1727. As the executive arm of the Jurisdiction the Sheriff was sworn in for a period of one year to carry out such duties as the summoning of people to the High Court, the provision of jurors, the attaching and sealing of properties and, if required, the arranging of their auction. The Sheriff had an office and staff and in the order of precedence ranked just below the Mayor. From the mid-1800s the position lost its powers and responsibilities and became primarily ceremonial.Mumbai (Bombay) and Kolkata (Calcutta) continue (2017) to maintain their similar posts.

Sheriff of Nottingham

The Sheriff of Nottingham is the main antagonist in the legend of Robin Hood. He is generally depicted as an unjust tyrant, who mistreats the local people of Nottinghamshire, subjecting them to unaffordable taxes. Robin Hood fights against him, stealing from the rich, and the Sheriff, in order to give to the poor; a characteristic for which Robin Hood is best known.

It is not conclusively known exactly who this character is based on, but it would have been one of (or a composite of multiple of) the people who have occupied the post of the High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and the Royal Forests. If, as in many versions of the Robin Hood legend, the action of the story is placed during the absence of King Richard I of England during the Third Crusade, the character could be identified with the little-known William de Wendenal; however, the Sheriff more usually remains either anonymous or pseudonymous.

Sheriff principal

In Scotland a sheriff principal (pl. sheriffs principal) is a judge in charge of a sheriffdom with judicial, quasi-judicial, and administrative responsibilities. Sheriffs principal have been part of the judiciary of Scotland since the 11th century. Sheriffs principal were originally appointed by the Monarch of Scotland, and evolved into a heritable jurisdiction before appointment was again vested in the Crown and the Monarch of the United Kingdom following the passage of the Heritable Jurisdictions (Scotland) Act 1746.

Under the Sheriff Courts (Scotland) Act 1971 (as amended), each sheriff principal is appointed by the Monarch of the United Kingdom on the advice of the First Minister of Scotland, who is advised by the Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland. As of May 2017 there were six sheriffs principal, each of whom has responsibility not only as a judge, but for the administration of justice in their respective sheriffdoms. Sheriffs principal have to ensure the effective running of the sheriff courts and justice of the peace courts within their jurisdiction. Following the passage of both the Courts Reform (Scotland) Act 2014 and the Judiciary and Courts (Scotland) Act 2008, sheriffs principal are subject to the authority and direction of the Lord President of the Court of Session as Head of the Judiciary of Scotland.

Sheriffs principal hold additional judicial offices, including the Sheriff Principal of Lothian and Borders who is Sheriff in Chancery, and President of the Sheriff Personal Injury Court. All of the sheriffs principal are Appeal Sheriffs and ex officio members of the Sheriff Appeal Court.

Outside their judicial office, each sheriff principal holds several other offices ex officio, including Commissioner of Northern Lighthouses and General Commissioner of Income Tax, with each sheriff principal having a ceremonial role in their respective sheriffdom that means they outrank all but members of the royal family and the Lord Lieutenant.

When researching the history of the sheriffs principal there is much confusion over the use of different names to refer sheriffs in Scotland. Sheriffs principal are those sheriffs who have held office over a sheriffdom, whether through inheritance or through direct appointment by the Crown. Thus, hereditary sheriff (before 1746) and sheriff-depute (after 1746) are the precursors to the modern office of sheriff principal. The precursor to the modern office of sheriff was historically referred to as sheriff substitute.

Sheriffs in the United States

In the United States, a sheriff is an official in a county or independent city responsible for keeping the peace and enforcing the law. Unlike most officials in law enforcement in the United States, sheriffs are usually elected, although many states (such as California) have state laws requiring that a person possess certain law enforcement qualifications before being able to run for the office. Elected sheriffs are accountable directly to the constitution of their state, the United States Constitution, statutes, and the citizens of their county.The responsibilities of sheriffs and their agencies vary considerably by county. Many sheriffs have the role of a police chief, though some lead agencies with limited law enforcement duties. Sheriffs are also often responsible for managing county jails and security at local government buildings.

Sheriffs of the City of London

Two sheriffs are elected annually for the City of London by the Liverymen of the City Livery Companies. Today's sheriffs have only nominal duties, but the historical officeholders had important judicial responsibilities. They have attended the Justices at the Central Criminal Court, Old Bailey, since its original role as the Court for the City and Middlesex.

The sheriffs live in the court house complex during their year of service, so that one of them can always be attendant on the judges. In Court No 1 the principal chairs on the bench are reserved for their and the Lord Mayor's use, with the Sword of the City hanging behind the bench. It is an invariable custom that the Lord Mayor of London must previously have served as a sheriff.

By a "custom of immemorial usage in the City", the two sheriffs are elected at the Midsummer Common Hall by the Liverymen by acclamation, unless a ballot is demanded from the floor, which takes place within fourteen days. The returning officers at the Common Hall are the Recorder of London (senior Judge of the 'Old Bailey') and the outgoing Sheriffs. As of September 2018, the current sheriffs are Alderman Vincent Keaveny and The Honourable Elizabeth Green.The sheriffs' jurisdiction covers only the square mile of the City of London. The High Sheriff of Greater London covers areas of London outside the City, which today incorporates parts of several old counties, most notably Middlesex.

The Devil's Rejects

The Devil's Rejects is a 2005 American horror film written and directed by Rob Zombie, and the sequel to his 2003 film House of 1000 Corpses. The film is centered on the run of three members of the psychopathic antagonist family from the previous film, now seen as villainous protagonists, with Sid Haig, Bill Moseley, and Zombie's wife Sheri Moon Zombie reprising their roles, with Leslie Easterbrook replacing Karen Black as the matriarch.

The film was released on July 22, 2005, to minor commercial success and mixed but more positive reviews over its predecessor. At the time of release and in the years since, the film has garnered a cult following. This is the final film of Matthew McGrory before his death the same year; the film's DVD release is dedicated to his "loving memory".

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