Shenandoah Valley

The Shenandoah Valley /ˌʃɛnənˈdoʊə/ is a geographic valley and cultural region of western Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia in the United States. The valley is bounded to the east by the Blue Ridge Mountains, to the west by the eastern front of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians (excluding Massanutten Mountain), to the north by the Potomac River and to the south by the James River. The cultural region covers a larger area that includes all of the valley plus the Virginia highlands to the west, and the Roanoke Valley to the south. It is physiographically located within the Ridge and Valley province and is a portion of the Great Appalachian Valley.

Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah River, aerial
A view across the Shenandoah Valley
Floor elevation500–1,500 feet (150–460 m)
Long-axis directionNortheast to southwest
Geography
LocationVirginia, Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia
Population centersWinchester
Harrisonburg
Staunton
Lexington
Martinsburg, West Virginia
Borders onBlue Ridge Mountains (east)
Ridge and Valley Appalachians (west)
Potomac River (north)
James River (south)
Traversed by US 50 / US 33 / US 250 / I-64 / US 11 / I-81
Map of the Shenandoah Valley
ShenandoahValley Bear'sDen
The Shenandoah Valley in autumn
HPIM1096
A poultry farm with the Blue Ridge Mountains in background
Shenandoah valley farm 0163
A farm in the fertile Shenandoah Valley

Geography

Named for the river that stretches much of its length, the Shenandoah Valley encompasses eight counties in Virginia and two counties in West Virginia.

The antebellum composition included four additional counties that are now in West Virginia.[1]

The cultural region includes five more counties in Virginia:

Between the Roanoke Valley in the south and Harpers Ferry in the north, where the Shenandoah River joins the Potomac, the Valley cultural region contains 10 independent cities:

The central section of the Shenandoah Valley is split in half by the Massanutten Mountain range, with the smaller associated Page Valley lying to its east and the Fort Valley within the mountain range.

Notable caves

The Shenandoah Valley contains a number of geologically and historically significant limestone caves:

Etymology

The word Shenandoah is of unknown Native American origin. It has been described as being derived from the Anglicization of Native American terms, resulting in words such as Gerando, Gerundo, Genantua, Shendo and Sherando. The meaning of these words is of some question. Schin-han-dowi, the "River Through the Spruces"; On-an-da-goa, the "River of High Mountains" or "Silver-Water"; and an Iroquois word for "Big Meadow", have all been proposed by Native American etymologists. The most popular, romanticized belief is that the name comes from a Native American expression for "Beautiful Daughter of the Stars".[2]

Another legend relates that the name is derived from the name of the Iroquoian chief Sherando (Sherando was also the name of his people), who fought against the Algonquian Chief Opechancanough, ruler of the Powhatan Confederacy (1618–1644). Opechancanough liked the interior country so much that he sent his son Sheewa-a-nee from the Tidewater with a large party to colonize the valley. Sheewa-a-nee drove Sherando back to his former territory near the Great Lakes. According to this account, descendants of Sheewanee's party became the Shawnee. According to tradition, another branch of Iroquoians, the Senedo, lived in present-day Shenandoah County. They were exterminated by "Southern Indians" (Catawba or Cherokee) before the arrival of white settlers.[3][4]

Another story dates to the American Revolutionary War. Throughout the war, Chief Skenandoa of the Oneida, an Iroquois nation based in New York, persuaded many of the tribe to side with the colonials against the British. Four Iroquois nations became British allies, and caused many fatalities and damage in the frontier settlements west of Albany. Skenandoa led 250 warriors against the British and Iroquois allies. According to Oneida oral tradition, during the harsh winter of 1777–1778 at Valley Forge, where the colonials suffered, Chief Skenando provided aid to the soldiers. The Oneida delivered bushels of dry corn to the troops to help them survive. Polly Cooper, an Oneida woman, stayed some time with the troops to teach them how to cook the corn properly and care for the sick. General Washington gave her a shawl in thanks, which is displayed at Shako:wi, the museum of the Oneida Nation near Syracuse, New York. Many Oneida believe that after the war, George Washington named the Shenandoah River and valley after his ally.[5][6]

History

Shenandoah Valley William Louis Sonntag.jpeg
Shenandoah Valley, oil on canvas, William Louis Sonntag, Sr., 1859–1860. Virginia Historical Society

First European explorers

Despite the valley's potential for productive farmland, colonial settlement from the east was long delayed by the barrier of the Blue Ridge Mountains. These were crossed by explorers John Lederer at Manassas Gap in 1671, Batts and Fallam the same year, and Cadwallader Jones in 1682. The Swiss Franz Ludwig Michel and Christoph von Graffenried explored and mapped the Valley in 1706 and 1712, respectively. Von Graffenried reported that the Indians of Senantona (Shenandoah) had been alarmed by news of the recent Tuscarora War in North Carolina.

18th century

Governor Alexander Spotswood's legendary Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition of 1716 crossed the Blue Ridge at Swift Run Gap and reached the river at Elkton, Virginia. Settlers did not immediately follow, but someone who heard the reports and later became the first permanent settler in the Valley was Adam Miller (Mueller), who in 1727 staked out claims on the south fork of the Shenandoah River, near the line that now divides Rockingham County from Page County.[7]

The Great Wagon Road (later called the Valley Pike or Valley Turnpike) began as the Great Warriors Trail or Indian Road, a Native road through common hunting grounds shared by several tribes settled around the periphery, which included Iroquoian, Siouan and Algonquian-language family tribes. Known native settlements within the Valley were few, but included the Shawnee occupying the region around Winchester, and Tuscarora around what is now Martinsburg, West Virginia. In the late 1720s and 1730s, Quakers and Mennonites began to move in from Pennsylvania. They were tolerated by the natives, while "Long Knives" (English settlers from coastal Virginia colony) were less welcomed. During these same decades, the valley route continued to be used by war parties of Seneca (Iroquois) and Lenape en route from New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey to attack the distant Catawba in the Carolinas, with whom they were at war. The Catawba in turn pursued the war parties northward, often overtaking them by the time they reached the Potomac. Several fierce battles were fought among the warring nations in the Valley region, as attested by the earliest European-American settlers.[8]

Later colonists called this route the Great Wagon Road; it became the major thoroughfare for immigrants' moving by wagons from Pennsylvania and northern Virginia into the backcountry of the South. The Valley Turnpike Company improved the road by paving it with macadam prior to the Civil War and set up toll gates to collect fees to pay for the improvements. After the advent of motor vehicles, the road was refined and paved appropriately for their use. In the 20th century, the road was acquired by the Commonwealth of Virginia, which incorporated it into the state highway system as U.S. Route 11. For much of its length, the newer Interstate 81, constructed in the 1960s, parallels the old Valley Pike.

Along with the first German settlers, known as "Shenandoah Deitsch", many Scotch-Irish immigrants came south in the 1730s from Pennsylvania into the valley, via the Potomac River. The Scotch-Irish comprised the largest group of non-English immigrants from the British Isles before the Revolutionary War, and most migrated into the backcountry of the South.[9] This was in contrast to the chiefly English immigrants who had settled the Virginia Tidewater and Carolina Piedmont regions.

Governor Spotswood had arranged the Treaty of Albany with the Iroquois (Six Nations) in 1721, whereby they had agreed not to come east of the Blue Ridge in their raiding parties on tribes farther to the South. In 1736, the Iroquois began to object, claiming that they still legally owned the land to the west of the Blue Ridge; this led to a skirmish with Valley settlers in 1743. The Iroquois were on the verge of declaring war on the Virginia Colony as a result, when Governor Gooch paid them the sum of 100 pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley that was claimed by them. The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster, the Iroquois sold all their remaining claim to the Valley for 200 pounds in gold.[10]

The few Shawnees who still resided in the Valley abruptly headed westward in 1754, having been approached the year before by emissaries from their kindred beyond the Alleghenies.[11]

19th century

The Shenandoah Valley was known as the breadbasket of the Confederacy during the Civil War and was seen as a backdoor for Confederate raids on Maryland, Washington, and Pennsylvania. Because of its strategic importance it was the scene of three major campaigns. The first was the Valley Campaign of 1862, in which Confederate General Stonewall Jackson defended the valley against three numerically superior Union armies. The final two were the Valley Campaigns of 1864. First, in the summer of 1864, Confederate General Jubal Early cleared the valley of its Union occupiers and then proceeded to raid Maryland, Pennsylvania, and D.C. Then during the autumn, Union General Philip Sheridan was sent to drive Early from the valley and once-and-for-all destroy its use to the Confederates by putting it to the torch using scorched-earth tactics. The valley, especially in the lower northern section, was also the scene of bitter partisan fighting as the region's inhabitants were deeply divided over loyalties, and Confederate partisan John Mosby and his Rangers frequently operated in the area.

20th century

In the late 20th century, the valley's vineyards began to reach maturity. They constituted the new industry of the Shenandoah Valley American Viticultural Area.

21st century

In 2018, a series of strikes and protests were held in Dayton's Cargill plant.[12][13]

Transportation

Transportation in the Shenandoah Valley consists mainly of road and rail and contains several metropolitan area transit authorities. The main north-south road transportation is Interstate 81, which parallels the old Valley Turnpike (U.S. Route 11) and the ancient Great Path of the Native Americans through its course in the valley. In the lower (northern) valley, on the eastern side, U.S. Route 340 also runs north-south, starting from Waynesboro in the south, running through the Page Valley to Front Royal, and on to Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, where it exits the valley into Maryland. Major east-west roads cross the valley as well, providing access to the Piedmont and the Allegheny Mountains. Starting from the north, these routes include U.S. Route 50, U.S. Route 522, Interstate 66, U.S. Route 33, U.S. Route 250, Interstate 64, and U.S. Route 60.

CSX Transportation operates several rail lines through the valley, including the old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the old Manassas Gap Railroad and the old Virginia Central Railroad. There are also more modern lines that run the length of the valley parallel to the Valley Pike and U.S. 340. The rail lines are primarily used for freight transportation, though Maryland Area Rail Commuter (MARC) trains utilize the old B&O line from stations in Martinsburg, Duffields, and Harper's Ferry to Washington Union Station and vice versa.

Several localities in the valley operate public transportation systems, including Front Royal Area Transit (FRAT), which provides weekday transit for the town of Front Royal; Page County Transit, providing weekday transit for the town of Luray and weekday service between Luray and Front Royal; and Winchester Transit, which provides weekday transit for the city of Winchester. In addition, Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus Service offers weekday commuter bus service from the northern Shenandoah Valley, including Shenandoah County and Warren County, to Northern Virginia (Arlington County and Fairfax County) and Washington. Origination points in Shenandoah County include Woodstock. Origination points in Warren County include Front Royal and Linden.

In popular culture

The Shenandoah Valley serves as the setting for the 1965 film Shenandoah and its 1974 musical adaptation. Both stories follow the Anderson family during the Civil War. An associated song by James Stewart entitled, "The Legend of Shenandoah" was a very minor hit in 1965, reaching #133 on the Billboard Bubbling Under the Hot 100 chart. One of the most famous cultural references to the area does not mention the valley itself — West Virginia's state song, "Take Me Home, Country Roads" by John Denver, simply contains the words "Shenandoah River" in the first verse.

It is also featured in the fifth season of The 100.

See also

References

  1. ^ Sheehan-Dean, Aaron, Why Confederates Fought, Family and Nation in Civil War Virginia, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2007, pg. 26
  2. ^ Julia Davis, "The Shenandoah", Rivers of America, New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1945, pp. 20–21
  3. ^ Carrie Hunter Willis and Etta Belle Walker, 1937, Legends of the Skyline Drive and the Great Valley of Virginia, pp. 15–16.
  4. ^ Doddridge, p. 31.
  5. ^ "Cultural Heritage: American Revolution", 5 July 2010, Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin
  6. ^ "The Revolutionary War", 5 July 2010, Oneida Indian Nation
  7. ^ John W. Wayland, Ph.d., 1912, A History of Rockingham County, Virginia p. 33–37
  8. ^ Joseph Doddridge, 1850, A History of the Valley of Virginia p. 1–46
  9. ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, pp.605–608
  10. ^ Joseph Solomon Walton, 1900, Conrad Weiser and the Indian Policy of Colonial Pennsylvania p. 76-121.
  11. ^ Doddridge, p.44–45
  12. ^ Barnett, Marina (November 21, 2017). "Community Solidarity with Poultry Workers call for changes at Cargill". WHSV-TV. Gray Television. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
  13. ^ Wood, Victoria (April 5, 2018). "Nine protesters arrested outside Cargill in Dayton". WHSV-TV. Gray Television. Retrieved May 12, 2018.

External links

Coordinates: 38°29′N 78°51′W / 38.483°N 78.850°W

Bluestone

Bluestone is a cultural or commercial name for a number of dimension or building stone varieties, including:

basalt in Victoria, Australia, and in New Zealand;

dolerites in Tasmania, Australia; and in Britain (including Stonehenge)

a feldspathic sandstone in the U.S. and Canada;

limestone in the Shenandoah Valley in the U.S., from the Hainaut quarries in Soignies, Belgium and from quarries in County Carlow, County Galway and County Kilkenny in Ireland; and

slate in South Australia

Cedar Creek (North Fork Shenandoah River tributary)

Cedar Creek is a 40.5-mile-long (65.2 km) tributary stream of the North Fork Shenandoah River in northern Virginia in the United States. It forms the majority of the boundary between Frederick and Shenandoah counties. Cedar Creek's confluence with the North Fork Shenandoah is located at Strasburg.

It was the site of the 1864 Battle of Cedar Creek in the American Civil War.

Devil's Backbone State Forest

Devil's Backbone State Forest is a 558-acre (226 ha) state forest in Shenandoah County, Virginia. It lies on the slope of North Mountain in the drainage area of Cedar Creek near Star Tannery west of Strasburg. The forest was established by a grant by John and Bernice Hoffman, who owned the land since 1950.

The forest is managed by the Virginia Department of Forestry, with a focus on research relating to the re-establishment of American chestnut trees. Public access is not permitted.

Great North Mountain

Great North Mountain is a 50-mile (80 km) long mountain ridge within the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians in the U.S. states of Virginia and West Virginia. The ridge is located west of the Shenandoah Valley and Massanutten Mountain in Virginia, and east of the Allegheny Mountains and Cacapon River in West Virginia.

Havens Wildlife Management Area

Havens Wildlife Management Area is a 7,190-acre (29.1 km2) Wildlife Management Area in Roanoke County, Virginia. Located in the Appalachian Highlands and occupying a part of Fort Lewis Mountain, it is steep and generally inaccessible; elevations in the area range from 1,500 to 3,200 feet (460 to 980 m) above sea level. Save for a few intermittent streams and watering holes created for wildlife, there is little water present; in addition, the area's soils are generally shallow and poor. The area was previously used for timber production, and today hosts a mixture of oaks, hickories, and pine.Havens Wildlife Management Area is owned and maintained by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. The area is open to the public for hunting, trapping, hiking, horseback riding, and primitive camping. Access for persons 17 years of age or older requires a valid hunting or fishing permit, or a WMA access permit.

Johnsons Creek Natural Area Preserve

Johnsons Creek Natural Area Preserve is a 99-acre (40 ha) Natural Area Preserve located in Alleghany County, Virginia. It contains a variety of trees, including ancient red cedars, oaks, and pines, all of which stand on steep shale bluffs overlooking Johnsons Creek.The preserve protects a type of natural community known as a "shale barrens". Shale barrens are typified by thin soils on south-facing slopes, and feature hot, dry conditions. They are rare in the eastern United States; within Virginia, this type of landscape is restricted largely to the Ridge and Valley region. Several rare plants are found at Johnsons Creek Natural Area Preserve, including the shale-barren rockcress (Boechera serotina).Johnsons Creek Natural Area Preserve was initially purchased by The Nature Conservancy, and was dedicated as a Natural Area Preserve in 1990. The preserve is owned and maintained by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. It does not include improvements for public access, and visitors must make arrangements with a state-employed land steward prior to visiting.

Niday Place State Forest

Niday Place State Forest is a Virginia state forest located on John's Creek Mountain in Craig County. 254 acres (1.03 km2) in size, it is a wildlife sanctuary and is used as an outdoor laboratory; it contains mainly mountain hardwoods. It is managed by Appomattox-Buckingham and Cumberland State Forests. Land for the state forest was donated by Anne H. Cutler of Williamsburg, Virginia.

Parkway School District

Parkway School District is a public school district serving eight municipalities in western St. Louis County, Missouri, United States. The district operates four comprehensive high schools, one alternative high school, five middle schools, and eighteen elementary schools, and one early childhood center. The district is named for the Daniel Boone Parkway, also known as Interstate 64.

Poor Mountain Natural Area Preserve

Poor Mountain Natural Area Preserve is a 933-acre (378 ha) Natural Area Preserve located on Poor Mountain in Roanoke County, Virginia. The preserve protects the world's largest population of piratebush (Buckleya distichophylla), a globally rare parasitic shrub. The mountain derives its name from the fact that the soils on its slopes are poor, due to their base of metamorphosed sandstone bedrock. The preserve's pine-oak/heath woodlands include Table Mountain pine, eastern hemlock, several species of oak, and shrubs including huckleberry, mountain laurel, and fetterbush.Poor Mountain Natural Area Preserve is owned and maintained by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. The preserve is open to the public, with improvements including a small parking area and four miles (6.4 km) of trails.

Roanoke Mountain

Roanoke Mountain is a mountain in Virginia. It is located two miles south of the Roanoke River and one mile east of the Blue Ridge Parkway.

The summit of Roanoke Mountain may be reached by a one-way loop road which branches off the Blue Ridge Parkway. There are two overlooks on the summit ridge with excellent views to the west over Roanoke city and to the north. There is a geologically puzzling crater-like formation near the east end of the summit ridge.

Shenandoah River Raymond R. "Andy" Guest Jr. State Park

Shenandoah River Raymond R. "Andy" Guest Jr. State Park, known generally as Shenandoah River State Park, is a state park near the town of Bentonville, Virginia, United States. The park was established in 1994, and covers 1,619 acres (6.55 km2) along the South Fork Shenandoah River. It was named for Virginia Delegate Andy Guest, long a resident of the area.

Shenandoah Valley Academy

Shenandoah Valley Academy (SVA) is a private, co-educational, boarding, high school in New Market, Virginia, United States. It has both boarding and day school programs. It is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) and the Accrediting Association of Seventh-day Adventist Schools. It is a member of the Virginia Council for Private Education. Founded in 1908, SVA is a part of the Seventh-day Adventist education system, the world's second largest Christian school system.

Shenandoah Valley Battlefields National Historic District

The Shenanandoah Valley Battlefields National Historic District is a [National Battlefield Site] in Virginia. The district comprises eight counties in the Shenandoah Valley, including the scene of Jackson's Valley Campaign of 1862, Lee's Gettysburg Campaign of 1863 and Sheridan's Shenandoah Campaign of 1864.Battlefields within the District area include the First and Second battles of Kernstown, the First, Second and Third battles of Winchester and the Battle of New Market.Berkeley and Jefferson counties in West Virginia are seeking to be added to the district.

Short Mountain (Virginia)

Short Mountain lies along the northwestern margin of Massanutten Mountain in Shenandoah County, Virginia. It is seven miles in length, from Mount Jackson on the south end to Edinburg on the north, so it was also once known as "Seven-Mile Mountain". The Massanutten Trail traverses the mountain.

Valley Campaigns of 1864

The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October 1864. While some military historians divide this period into three separate campaigns, they interacted in several ways, so this article considers all three together.

WSIG

WSIG is a Classic Country formatted broadcast radio station licensed to Mount Jackson, Virginia, serving the Central and Northern Shenandoah Valley. WSIG is owned and operated by Saga Communications, through licensee Tidewater Communications, LLC.

WSVF-CD

WSVF-CD is a low-powered, Class A dual Fox/CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Harrisonburg, Virginia, United States and serving the Shenandoah Valley. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on virtual and UHF channel 43 from a transmitter on the peak of Massanutten Mountain. Owned by Gray Television, WSVF is sister to ABC affiliate WHSV-TV (channel 3); the two stations share studios on North Main Street/U.S. 11 in downtown Harrisonburg.

WSVG

WSVG is a country and Americana formatted broadcast radio station licensed to Mount Jackson, Virginia, serving Woodstock and Shenandoah County, Virginia. WSVG is owned and operated by Shenandoah Valley Group, Inc.In January 2004, WSVG applied to move to Grottoes, Virginia, in the larger Harrisonburg-Staunton-Waynesboro market. A sale to Shenandoah Valley Television, then the owner of WBOP (106.3 FM) and WSIG (96.9 FM) in that market, fell through later in the year; then-ownership Hometown Radio of Mount Jackson allowed the application to expire afterwards.On July 6, 2009, Shenandoah Valley Group, Inc. bought WSVG for $175,000.WSVG flipped to an Americana music format, consisting largely of country music with rock mixed in, during October 2016. Previously, it had run a local news/talk format with sports coverage. On January 26, 2018, WSVG was granted a construction permit for FM translator W250CR on 97.9 in Mount Jackson, pursuant to the Federal Communications Commission's AM revitalization program.

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