Shaoguan

Shaoguan[1] (Chinese: 韶关) is a prefecture-level city in northern Guangdong Province, China, bordering Hunan to the northwest and Jiangxi to the northeast. It is home to the mummified remains of the sixth Zen Buddhist patriarch Huineng. Its built-up or metro area made up of Zhenjiang and Wujiang urban districts was home to 688,229 inhabitants at the 2010 census.[2]

History

Pearl River Yujitu
Shaoguan (as "Shaozhou") on the 1136 Yuji Tu.

Shaozhou was a prefecture under the Tang and Song.

In 1589, Matteo Ricci relocated his mission house – the first ever Jesuit mission in mainland China – to Shaoguan after a fallout with the authorities in Zhaoqing. He remained in Shaoguan for a few years, eventually benefiting from Shaoguan's location on the important north-south travel route to establish connections with traveling dignitaries that allowed him to move north, to Nanchang, Nanjing, and Beijing.[3]

During World War II the city, then called Kukong, was the capital of Guangdong Province.

In June 2009, Uyghurs and Han workers clashed at a toy factory in Shaoguan, which was followed by the Ürümqi riots in July.

Geography

Shaoguan is the northernmost prefecture-level city of Guangdong, bordering Chenzhou (Hunan) to the northwest and north, Ganzhou (Jiangxi) to the northeast, Heyuan to the east, Guangzhou and Huizhou to the south, and Qingyuan to the west. It spans latitude 23° 05'−25° 31' N and longitude 112° 50'−114° 45' E. It is situated at the southern end of the Nan Mountains (Nan Ling), which primarily run east-west here, and is marked by numerous erosion-created valleys; within its borders lies the 1,902 m (6,240 ft) Mount Shikeng (石坑崆), the highest point in the province. The city is located on the Jingguang Railway (Beijing−Guangzhou) about 221 kilometres (137 mi) north of the provincial capital of Guangzhou. Shaoguan is also readily accessible by road as it is adjacent to the G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway as well as numerous other National Highways.

At Shaoguan, the Wu River from the northwest and the Zhen River from the northeast join up to create the North River (Bei Jiang) which flows south to Guangzhou. The downtown part of Shaoguan is located on a peninsula between the Wu and Zhen Rivers. The rivers are maintained at a constant level by a dam about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) downstream from the city. The city has about 20 kilometres (12 mi) of tree-lined riverside esplanades along the banks of the rivers. There are seven bridges crossing the three rivers.

Climate

Shaoguan has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with short, mild, damp winters, rainy springs, long, hot, and humid summers, and relatively sunny autumns. Due to the city's location far inland, winters are significantly cooler than in the rest of the province, with freezing rain possible in the nearby mountain passes in some years. Winter begins dry and relatively sunny but becomes progressively cloudier and damper. Spring is the cloudiest and wettest season, with the sun shining less than 30% of the time. The annual rainfall is around 1,580 mm (62 in), much of it delivered from April thru June. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 10.3 °C (50.5 °F) in January to 29.0 °C (84.2 °F) in July; the annual mean is 20.5 °C (68.9 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 16% in March to 54% in July, the city receives 1,617 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Administrative divisions

Shaoguan has direct jurisdiction over 3 districts, 2 county-level cities and 5 counties:

Map Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)
Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
Zhenjiang District 浈江区 Zhēnjiāng Qū 393,521 572.11 688
Wujiang District 武江区 Wǔjiāng Qū 294,708 677.78 435
Qujiang District 曲江区 Qǔjiāng Qū 303,371 1,620.77 187
Shixing County 始兴县 Shǐxīng Xiàn 205,452 2,131.91 96
Renhua County 仁化县 Rénhuà Xiàn 200,354 2,223.22 99
Wengyuan County 翁源县 Wēngyuán Xiàn 331,120 2,174.87 152
Xinfeng County 新丰县 Xīnfēng Xiàn 206,091 1,967.39 105
Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County 乳源瑶族自治县 Rǔyuán Yáozú Zìzhìxiàn 177,471 2,299.01 77
Lechang City 乐昌市 Lèchāng Shì 397,779 2,419,28 164
Nanxiong City 南雄市 Nánxióng Shì 316,179 2,326,18 136

Tourism

The Fengcai Tower (Chinese: 风采楼; pinyin: fēngcǎi lóu) in the centre of Shaoguan was built in the Ming Dynasty. To the south of the tower, at the other end of a pedestrian shopping street, the Dajian Monastery was founded in 660.

Near Shaoguan is the town of Maba, home of relics and museum of the Maba Man, Chinese Neanderthals. Near Maba is Nanhua Temple, which was founded by Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of Zen Buddhism. Shaoguan Iron and Steel is also located near Maba.

Danxia Mountain is located in Renhua County, Shaoguan.

Northwest of Shaoguan, at the town of Pingshi, a stretch of river known as the Nine Torrents and Eighteen Shoals is a popular place for white-water rafting.

Education

Shaoguan University (a xueyuan) is in the city.

Gallery

Shaoguan plane Feb 2016

Aerial view of Shaoguan city

Shaoguanzhongxindao

Central Shaoguan

Gdgv01

Guangdong Grand Canyon in Shaoguan

See also

References

  1. ^ Alternative transliterations include Shiuchow (postal), Shiukwan (postal), Shaokwan, Shao-chow, Xaocheu (Willem Blaeu's maps) and Chau Chew (Johan Nieuhof's illustration)
  2. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-guangdong-admin.php
  3. ^ De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas

External links

G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway

The Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway (Chinese: 北京-香港-澳门高速公路), commonly referred to as the Jinggang'ao Expressway (Chinese: 京港澳高速公路) is a 2,272.65-kilometre-long expressway (1,412.16 mi) that connects the Chinese cities of Beijing and Shenzhen, in Guangdong province, at the border with Hong Kong. The expressway terminates at the Huanggang Port Control Point in Shenzhen, opposite the Lok Ma Chau border control point in Hong Kong. The connection to Zhuhai at the Macau border is made using the spur line G4W Guangzhou–Macau Expressway, which branches off from the main line in Guangzhou. When the expressway was completed in October 2004, it was China's first completed north-south expressway route.

Lechang

Lechang (simplified Chinese: 乐昌; traditional Chinese: 樂昌; pinyin: Lèchāng; historically Lokchong) is a city in the northern Guangdong province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hunan province to the north. It is administratively a county-level city of Shaoguan City.

Brief history of Lechang:

In the year 508, south cantilever beam of Qujiang County, the county set 598 years (Sui Kai Huang eighteen years) renamed Lechang County, Guangdong Province, to submit "on the Lechang County, county to city to consult on August 30, 1993 "1994 official county to city. It is a historic city.

2014, Lechang municipal bodies of nine people including members of Lechang party secretary Li, Mo Janus Lechang COMMITTEE Discipline Committee is being investigated for accepting red envelopes. [1]

Mount Danxia

Mount Danxia (Chinese: 丹霞山; pinyin: Dānxiá Shān) is a noted scenic mountainous area near Shaoguan city in the northern part of Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

It is described on the local signage as a "world famous UNESCO geopark of China".

Nanhua Temple

Nanhua Temple (simplified Chinese: 南华寺; traditional Chinese: 南華寺; pinyin: Nánhuá Sì; Jyutping: Naam4wa4zi6) is a Buddhist monastery of the Chan Buddhism, one of Five Great Schools of Buddhism where Huineng, the Sixth Patriarch of Chan Buddhism, once lived and taught. It is located 25-square-kilometre (9.7 sq mi) southeast of Shaoguan, China in the town of Caoxi (漕溪), within Qujiang District. The location is in the northern part of Guangdong Province, within a few kilometers from Bei River, formerly an important trade route from Central China to Guangzhou.

Nanxiong

Nanxiong (Chinese: 南雄; pinyin: Nánxióng) historically Namyung is a county-level city of northern Guangdong province, People's Republic of China, bordering Jiangxi to the north, east and southeast. It is under the administration of Shaoguan City.

Qujiang District, Shaoguan

Qujiang (postal: Kukong; Chinese: 曲江; pinyin: Qǔjiāng) is a district of Shaoguan, Guangdong province, China.

Rally China

The Rally China (中国拉力赛) is the largest rally racing event held in China. The first event was run as the China Rally in 1997 in the province of Guangdong, as a replacement to the Hong Kong - Beijing Rally, and was an event on the World Rally Championship (WRC) calendar in 1999. However it was replaced by the Cyprus Rally the following year. From 2000 to 2015, it has been part of the Asia Pacific Rally Championship (APRC), moving initially to Shaoguan, Fujian province. "Force majeure because of government", according to the organisers, led to the cancellation of the event in 2003. The event moved for a single year to Huizhou, Guangdong in 2004 before reverting to Shaoguan. From 2009 until 2015, the event was hosted in Longyou, Zhejiang province. The event returned to the WRC calendar in 2016 after moving to Huairou, Beijing, but was cancelled due to weather damage. China will continue to host a round of the Asia-Pacific Rally Championship in Zhangye, Gansu in 2016 too, while Longyou will continue to host a round of the Chinese Rally Championship.

Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County

Ruyuan (postal: Yuyuan; Chinese: 乳源; pinyin: Rǔyuán; Jyutping: jyu5 jyun4 jyun6), officially Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County, is a county of northern Guangdong province, China, with a small border with Hunan to the northwest. It is under the administration of Shaoguan City.

Shaoguan Guitou Airport

Shaoguan Guitou Airport (IATA: HSC), or Shaoguan Air Base, is a dual-use military and civil airport in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. It is located in the town of Guitou in Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County, 18 km southeast of Lechang Township, 25 km northwest of the city center. The air base was built in 1970 and briefly served commercial flights from 1986 to 1989. Shaoguan was planning to expand the airport in early 2008.Due to the Wuguang High-Speed Railway put into service since late 2009, Shaoguan Railway Station has become a major and the most convenient transportation hub connecting Pearl River Delta cities. Also, Lechang Township has promised a 100 million CNY investment for Lechang East Railway Station. There is no scheduled nor chartered flight as for now. Construction for the airport expansion project began in October 2017.

Shaoguan Iron and Steel

Baosteel Group Guangdong Shaoguan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. known as Shaoguan Iron and Steel or SGIS or Shaogang (Chinese: 韶钢) or Shaosteel (formerly Shaoguan Iron and Steel Group) is a Chinese steel maker.

The company is a joint venture of central government-owned iron and steel conglomerate China Baowu Steel Group (51%; formerly known as Baosteel Group) and the government of Guangdong (49%). The company was registered in Guangzhou, Guangdong, but the general office is located in Maba, Qujiang District, Shaoguan, Guangdong. SGIS Group is the parent company of SGIS Songshan Co., Ltd. (SZSE: 000717) for 53.37% stake, which most of the group assets and revenue came from.

Shaoguan incident

The Shaoguan incident was a civil disturbance which took place overnight on 25/26 June 2009 in Guangdong province, China. A violent dispute erupted between migrant Uyghurs and Han Chinese workers at a toy factory in Shaoguan as a result of allegations of the sexual assault of a Han Chinese female. Groups of Han Chinese set upon Uyghur co-workers, leading to at least two Uyghurs being violently killed by angry Han Chinese men (although other reports indicate a higher death toll), and some 118 people injured, most of them Uyghurs.The event was widely cited as the trigger event for July 2009 Ürümqi riots, which ostensibly started as a peaceful street protest demanding official action over the two Uyghurs who died in Shaoguan. Following trials in October 2009, one person was executed and several others sentenced to terms between life imprisonment and five to seven years.

Shaoguan railway station

The Shaoguan railway station (simplified Chinese: 韶关站; traditional Chinese: 韶關站; pinyin: Sháoguān Zhàn) is a railway station located in Shaoguan, Guangdong, China. The original Jingguang Railway station used this name before, but it has renamed as Shaoguan East railway station.

Shaozhou Tuhua

Shaozhou Tuhua (traditional: 韶州土話; simplified: 韶州土话 Sháozhōu Tǔhuà "Shaoguan tuhua"), or simply Tuhua, is an unclassified Chinese variety spoken in the border region of the provinces Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi. It is mutually unintelligible with Xiang, Cantonese, or Mandarin.

Xiangnan Tuhua is the language of nüshu, the "women's script" of Jiangyong County in Yongzhou, Hunan.

Shixing County

Shixing County (postal: Chihing; simplified Chinese: 始兴县; traditional Chinese: 始興縣; pinyin: Shǐxìng Xiàn) is a county of Shaoguan, Guangdong province, China, bordering Jiangxi province to the east. The native variety of Chinese in the area is Hakka.

Wengyuan County

Wengyuan (postal: Yungyun; Chinese: 翁源; pinyin: Wēngyuán) is a county in the north of Guangdong Province, China, bordering Jiangxi to the northeast. It is under the administration of Shaoguan City.

Wujiang District, Shaoguan

Wujiang (Chinese: 武江; pinyin: Wǔjiāng) is a district of Shaoguan, Guangdong province, China.

Xinfeng County, Guangdong

Xinfeng County (postal: Sunfung or Sinfeng; simplified Chinese: 新丰县; traditional Chinese: 新豐縣; pinyin: Xīnfēng Xiàn) is a county in the northeast of Guangdong Province, China. It is the southernmost county-level division of the prefecture-level city of Shaoguan.

Yunmen Temple (Guangdong)

Yunmen Temple (simplified Chinese: 云门寺; traditional Chinese: 雲門寺; pinyin: Yúnmén Sì) is a Buddhist temple located in Rucheng Town of Ruyuan Yao Autonomous County, Guangdong, China. Yunmen Temple is the cradle of Yunmen school, which is one of the five schools of Chan Buddhism. It was first built in the Tang dynasty (618–907), and went through many changes and repairs through the following dynasties. Most of the present structures in the temple were repaired or built between 1943 and 1951.

Zhenjiang District

Zhenjiang District (simplified Chinese: 浈江区; traditional Chinese: 湞江區; pinyin: Zhēnjiāng Qū) is a district of the city of Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinSháoguān
Gwoyeu RomatzyhShaurguan
Wade–GilesShao2-kuan1
IPA[ʂǎu.kwán]
Wu
Romanizationzau1kuae1
Hakka
RomanizationShâu-kûan
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSìuhgwāan
IPA[sȉːu.kʷáːn]
JyutpingSiu4gwaan1
Climate data for Shaoguan (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
30.5
(86.9)
32.6
(90.7)
33.7
(92.7)
35.9
(96.6)
38.5
(101.3)
40.4
(104.7)
40.3
(104.5)
38.3
(100.9)
36.6
(97.9)
34.0
(93.2)
28.5
(83.3)
40.4
(104.7)
Average high °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
16.4
(61.5)
19.2
(66.6)
24.6
(76.3)
28.9
(84.0)
31.6
(88.9)
34.0
(93.2)
33.9
(93.0)
31.5
(88.7)
28.0
(82.4)
22.7
(72.9)
17.8
(64.0)
25.3
(77.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
12.3
(54.1)
15.3
(59.5)
20.7
(69.3)
24.6
(76.3)
27.3
(81.1)
29.0
(84.2)
28.7
(83.7)
26.4
(79.5)
22.5
(72.5)
17.0
(62.6)
11.9
(53.4)
20.5
(68.9)
Average low °C (°F) 7.2
(45.0)
9.4
(48.9)
12.5
(54.5)
17.8
(64.0)
21.5
(70.7)
24.4
(75.9)
25.6
(78.1)
25.2
(77.4)
22.9
(73.2)
18.5
(65.3)
13.0
(55.4)
7.9
(46.2)
17.2
(62.9)
Record low °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
0.1
(32.2)
0.9
(33.6)
6.2
(43.2)
12.7
(54.9)
16.6
(61.9)
21.3
(70.3)
20.8
(69.4)
15.1
(59.2)
6.3
(43.3)
2.5
(36.5)
−4.3
(24.3)
−4.3
(24.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.3
(2.73)
106.0
(4.17)
177.9
(7.00)
221.1
(8.70)
248.9
(9.80)
249.6
(9.83)
159.4
(6.28)
129.1
(5.08)
100.8
(3.97)
43.8
(1.72)
51.9
(2.04)
41.7
(1.64)
1,599.5
(62.96)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.4 14.8 19.1 18.8 19.3 17.1 13.6 14.7 10.1 7.8 6.9 6.8 160.4
Average relative humidity (%) 75 79 82 82 80 80 75 77 76 71 72 72 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 89.7 67.5 57.6 75.5 113.9 150.5 226.6 206.7 177.6 164.0 147.0 140.8 1,617.4
Percent possible sunshine 27 21 16 20 28 37 54 51 48 46 45 43 36
Source #1: China Meteorological Data Service Center
Source #2: China Meteorological Administration(precipitation days, sunshine hours 1971-2000)
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