Shantungosaurus

Shantungosaurus, meaning "Shandong Lizard", is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaurs found in the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group of the Shandong Peninsula in China.[1] The stratigraphic interval of Shantungosaurus ranges from the top of the Xingezhuang Formation to the middle of the Hongtuya Formation, middle to late Campanian in age.[2] Shantungosaurus is so far the largest hadrosauroid taxon in the world: the greatest length of its femur is about 1.7 m, and the greatest length of its humerus is about 0.97 m.

Shantungosaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, Middle to Late Campanian
Laika ac Dino Kingdom 2012 (7882291466)
Restored skeletons
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Ornithopoda
Family: Hadrosauridae
Subfamily: Saurolophinae
Tribe: Edmontosaurini
Genus: Shantungosaurus
Hu, 1973
Species:
S. giganteus
Binomial name
Shantungosaurus giganteus
Hu, 1973
Synonyms
  • Zhuchengosaurus maximus Zhao et al., 2007
  • Huaxiaosaurus aigahtens Zhao et al., 2011

Description

Giant Ornithopod Scale
Size comparison of several large hadrosauriformes, Shantungosaurus in red

Shantungosaurus giganteus is one of the largest known ornithischians. The type skull is 1.63 metres (5.3 ft) long,[1] and the composite skeleton mounted at the Geological Institute of China in Beijing measures 14.7 metres (48 ft) in length.[3] Another mounted skeleton, originally referred to "Zhuchengosaurus maximus", measures 16.6 metres (54 ft) in length.[4] The largest individuals may have weighed as much as 16 tonnes (18 short tons).[5] Like all hadrosaurs its beak was toothless, but its jaws were packed with around 1,500 tiny chewing teeth. A large hole near its nostrils may have been covered by a loose flap of skin, which could be inflated to make sounds.

Discovery and species

Shantungosaurus life
Restoration

First described in 1973,[6] Shantungosaurus is known from over five incomplete skeletons. Chinese scientist Xing Xu and his colleagues indicate that Shantungosaurus is very similar to and shares many unique characters with Edmontosaurus, forming an Asian node of an EdmontosaurusShantungosaurus clade, based on the new materials recovered in Shandong. Remains of several individuals, including skull bones, limb bones, and vertebrae, were found in Shandong, China. These specimens were classified in the new genus and species Zhuchengosaurus maximus in 2007.[4] However, further study showed that the supposedly distinct features of Zhuchengosaurus were simply a result of different growth stages.[7]

Giant Shandong Dinosaur fossil, at the Geological Museum of China
Sacrum once classified as Huaxiaosaurus

Recent maximum parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses of Hadrosauroidea from Xing and colleagues recovered a stable sister group relationship between Edmontosaurus and Shantungosaurus. Shantungosaurus is the single hadrosaurid from the Zhucheng area that is considered valid. Zhuchengosaurus and Huaxiaosaurus, both of which are known from the same region, have been interpreted by the analyses as junior synonyms of Shantungosaurus. All unequivocal morphological discrepancies among these three taxa could be attributed to intraspecific variation (ontogenetic and polymorphic variation) and post-depositional distortion.[2]

Classification

The following cladogram is the result of Prieto-Márquez & al. in 2016. It shows the position of Shantungosaurus as sister group of Edmontosaurus in the Edmontosaurini clade[8] :

Telmatosaurus

Jintasaurus

Lophorhothon

Claosaurus

Tethyshadros

Hadrosauridae

Hadrosaurus

Eotrachodon

Saurolophidae
Lambeosaurinae
Saurolophinae

Acristavus

Maiasaura

Brachylophosaurus

Naashoibitosaurus

Kritosaurus

Gryposaurus

« Big Bend UTEP 37.7 »

Willinakaqe

Secernosaurus

"Sabinosaur" PASAC-1

Prosaurolophus

Augustynolophus

Saurolophus

Kerberosaurus

Kundurosaurus

Shantungosaurus

Edmontosaurus

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Hu Chengzhi; Cheng Zhengwu; Pang Qiping; Fang Xiaosi (2001). Shantungosaurus giganteus (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. pp. 123–135 [English abstract]. ISBN 7-116-03472-2.
  2. ^ a b Xing, Hai; Zhao, Xijin; Wang, Kebai; Li, Dunjing; Chen, Shuqing; Mallon, Jordan C; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Xing (2014). "Comparative osteology and phylogenetic relationship of Edmontosaurus and Shantungosaurus (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of North America and East Asia". Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition. 88 (6): 1623–1652.
  3. ^ Glut, Donald F. (1997). "Shantungosaurus". Dinosaurs: The Encyclopedia. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. pp. 816–817. ISBN 0-89950-917-7.
  4. ^ a b Zhao, X.; Li, D.; Han, G.; Hao, H.; Liu, F.; Li, L.; Fang, X. (2007). "Zhuchengosaurus maximus from Shandong Province". Acta Geoscientia Sinica. 28 (2): 111–122. doi:10.1007/s10114-005-0808-x.
  5. ^ Horner, John R.; Weishampel, David B.; Forster, Catherine A (2004). "Hadrosauridae". In Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; Osmólska, Halszka (eds.). The Dinosauria (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 438–463. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  6. ^ C.-C. Hu. 1973. [A new hadrosaur from the Cretaceous of Chucheng, Shantung]. Acta Geologica Sinica 1973(2):179-206
  7. ^ Ji, Y., Wang, X., Liu, Y., and Ji, Q. (2011). "Systematics, behavior and living environment of Shantungosaurus giganteus (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae)." Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 85(1): 58-65. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2011.00378.x
  8. ^ Prieto-Marquez, Albert; Erickson, Gregory M.; Ebersole, Jun A. (13 January 2016). "A primitive hadrosaurid from southeastern North America and the origin and early evolution of 'duck-billed' dinosaurs". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 36 (2): e1054495. doi:10.1080/02724634.2015.1054495.

Sources

  • Dong Zhiming (1992). Dinosaurian Faunas of China. Beijing: China Ocean Press. ISBN 3-540-52084-8.
  • Mallam, John (2003). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. UK: Parragon Publishing. p. 157.
Aralosaurini

Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).

Barsboldia

Barsboldia (meaning "of Barsbold", a well-known Mongolian paleontologist) was a genus of large hadrosaurid dinosaur from the early Maastrichtian Nemegt Formation of Ömnogöv', Mongolia. It is known from a partial vertebral column, partial pelvis, and some ribs.

Bonapartesaurus

Bonapartesaurus is an extinct genus of herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur belonging to Hadrosauridae, which lived in the area of the modern Argentina during the Campanian and Maastrichtian stages of the Late Cretaceous.

Edmontosaurini

Edmontosaurini are a tribe of saurolophine hadrosaurs that lived in the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Cretaceous period. It currently contains Edmontosaurus (from the United States and Canada), Ugrunaaluk (from Alaska, U.S.), and Shantungosaurus (from Shandong, China), though Anatosaurus might be a distinct genus. Kerberosaurus and Kundurosaurus from Russia could also be members though are more likely saurolophins.

Elasmaria

Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Geological Museum of China

The Geological Museum of China (Chinese: 中国地质博物馆), built in 1916, is a geological museum, boasting 200 thousand specimens.

This museum is located in the Xisi area of Beijing and opened on October 1, 1959. It is the earliest geological scientific museum of China.

At present, the Geological Museum of China has more than 100,000 geological specimens. Many of them are precious items reputed as "National Treasures", such as "the Giant Shandong Dinosaur"(Shantungosaurus) fossil, the most complete dinosaur fossils extant in the world excavated from Liaoning; the fossils of primitive birds that were found in the west of Liaoning Province, which has the essential values to the research on birds of the area; the teeth fossils of Yunnan Yuanmou Man, which shifts the appearance of human beings in China to a much more earlier time; the stoneware, stone pearls, bone needles and bone decoration unearthed from the site of the Upper Cave man at Zhoukoudian in Beijing; a cinnabar crystal of 237 grams that is called as "King of Cinnabar"; and more than 60 new mineral products that were found in China, and so on.Basic displays of the museum are composed of five exhibition halls, namely, the exhibition halls of geological resource, global history, stratum paleontology, mineral rocks and diamond, with an exhibition area of 2,500 square meters.

The hall of geological resource introduces in different catalogues and classifications the abundant mineral products and other geological resources in China; the hall of global history introduces earth formation and construction, earth inner motive power geological action, earth outer power geological action and earth washing action; in the stratum paleontology hall, there are the special exhibitions of Zhendan biome, insect fossils, fish fossils, egg fossils, and the Upper Cave Man—ancient creatures and their characteristics of different geological eras.

Hu Chengzhi

Hu Chengzhi (Chinese: 胡承志; Wade–Giles: Hu Cheng-chih; 23 August 1917 – 12 April 2018) was a Chinese palaeontologist and palaeoanthropologist. He made the plaster casts of the Peking Man skull in the 1930s, and identified the Yuanmou Man (Homo erectus yuanmouensis) based on fossils collected by others. He discovered the first fossil of Keichousaurus in 1957, and this species, K. hui, is named after him. A new hadrosaur discovered in Shandong is designated Shantungosaurus giganteus by Hu in 1973.Hu left school at 13 owing to poverty, and worked at Peking Union Medical College as Davidson Black's assistant. After Black died in 1934, Hu became an apprentice technician for fixing fossils at Franz Weidenreich's laboratory. He made cast copies of Peking Man's skull, and he was the last Chinese eyewitness of the Peking Man fossils, before they were lost during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Hu resigned from the institute in 1947. In the early 1950s, he began to work at the Ministry of Geology.Hu died in Beijing on 12 April 2018, aged 100.

Jaxartosaurus

Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.

Kerberosaurus

Kerberosaurus (meaning "Kerberos lizard") was a genus of saurolophine duckbill dinosaur from the late Maastrichtian-age Upper Cretaceous Tsagayan Formation of Blagoveshchensk, Amur Region, Russia (dated to 66 million years ago). It is based on bonebed material including skull remains indicating that it was related to Saurolophus and Prosaurolophus.

Laiyangosaurus

Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.

Prosaurolophus

Prosaurolophus (; meaning "before Saurolophus", in comparison to the later dinosaur with a similar head crest) is a genus of hadrosaurid (or duck-billed) dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of North America. It is known from the remains of at least 25 individuals belonging to two species, including skulls and skeletons, but it remains obscure. Around 9 m (30 ft), its fossils have been found in the late Campanian-age Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta, and the roughly contemporaneous Two Medicine Formation in Montana, dating to around 75.5-74.0 million years ago. Its most recognizable feature is a small solid crest formed by the nasal bones, sticking up in front of the eyes.

The type species is P. maximus, described by American paleontologist Barnum Brown of the American Museum of Natural History in 1916. A second species, P. blackfeetensis, was described by Jack Horner of the Museum of the Rockies in 1992. The two species were differentiated mainly by crest size and skull proportions.

Sinoceratops

Sinoceratops is an extinct genus of ceratopsian dinosaur that lived approximately 72 to 66 million years ago during the latter part of the Cretaceous Period in what is now Shandong province in China. It was named in 2010 by Xu Xing et al. for three skulls from Zhucheng, China. The name of its type species Sinoceratops zhuchengensis means "Chinese horned face from Zhucheng", after the location of its discovery.

Sinoceratops was a medium-sized, averagely-built, ground-dwelling, quadrupedal herbivore. It could grow up to an estimated 6 m (19.7 ft) length and 2 metres (6.6 ft) height, and weigh up to 2 tonnes (2.0 long tons; 2.2 short tons). It was the first ceratopsid dinosaur discovered in China, and the only ceratopsid known from Asia. All other centrosaurines, and all chasmosaurines, are known from fossils discovered in North America, except for possibly Turanoceratops. Sinoceratops is also significant because it is one of the largest known centrosaurines, and is much larger than any other known basal members of this group.

Sinoceratops was discovered in the Xingezhuang Formation, which was deposited during the late Cretaceous. It lived alongside leptoceratopsids, saurolophines, and tyrannosaurines. The most common creature in the formation was Shantungosaurus, to which most of the material has been assigned. The animals living alongside Sinoceratops and Shantungosaurus were Zhuchengceratops, Zhuchengtitan, and Zhuchengtyrannus.

Tanius

Tanius (meaning "of Tan") is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It lived in the Late Cretaceous of China. The type species, named and described in 1929 by Carl Wiman, is Tanius sinensis. The generic name honours the Chinese paleontologist Tan Xichou ("H.C. Tan"). The specific epithet refers to China. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length of Tanius at seven metres and the weight at two tonnes.

Ugrunaaluk

Ugrunaaluk is a dubious genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid which was found in the Arctic of Alaska. It contains the species Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis. Its name is derived from the Inupiat words for 'ancient grazer'.

From the 1980s onwards, in Alaska more than six thousand bones of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been uncovered, at the Colville River. They were found north of Umiat in the Liscomb bonebed. At first they were identified as belonging to some member of the Lambeosaurinae. Later, they were referred to Edmontosaurus, more specifically Edmontosaurus regalis, a member of the Saurolophinae. A definite identification was hampered by the fact that most of the bones were of juveniles. In 2014, Hirotsugu Mori solved this problem by statistically determining size classes within the fossil material and comparing the Alaskan bones with known Edmontosaurus annectens specimens of the same size. He concluded that they represented two separate species.The discovery of the new genus was published online on 22 September 2015 by Hirotsugu Mori, Patrick Druckenmiller and Gregory Erickson. Ugrunaaluk was one of eighteen dinosaur taxa from 2015 to be described in open access or free-to-read journals. However, the identification of Ugrunaaluk as a separate genus was questioned by a 2017 study from Hai Xing and colleagues, who regarded it as a nomen dubium indistinguishable from other Edmontosaurus.

Wangshi Group

The Wangshi Group (Chinese: 王氏群; pinyin: Wángshì Qún) is a geological Group in Shandong, China whose strata date back to the Late Cretaceous. Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the group.

Xuwulong

Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.

Zhuchengceratops

Zhuchengceratops is a genus of extinct leptoceratopsid ceratopsian that lived during the Upper Cretaceous of modern-day China. It was first described in 2010, by Xu et al., who created the binomial Zhuchengceratops inexpectus. The name is derived from the location of Zhucheng, the Latinized-Greek ceratops, or "horned face", and the unexpected articulated nature of the holotype. The skeleton was found in the Wangshi Group, which is of Late Cretaceous age, and most fossils are only disarticulated bones of Shantungosaurus.

Zhuchengceratops shares may features with Leptoceratopsidae as well as other ceratopsian groups such as Ceratopsidae. The overall size of the taxon was similar to Leptoceratops, although slightly larger. Zhuchengceratops was analyzed to be in a group with Leptoceratops and Udanoceratops, although internal relationships of this triplet were unresolved.

Zhuchengtitan

Zhuchengtitan (meaning "Zhucheng titan") is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Shandong, China. It contains a single species, Z. zangjiazhuangensis, named by Mo Jinyou and colleagues in 2017 from a single humerus. Zhuchengtitan can be identified by the extreme width of the top end of its humerus, as well as the expansion of the deltopectoral crest on its humerus; both of these characteristics indicate that it was likely closely related to Opisthocoelicaudia. However, it differs from the latter by the flatter bottom articulating surface of its humerus. Zhuchengtitan lived in a floodplain environment alongside Shantungosaurus, Zhuchengtyrannus, and Sinoceratops.

Zhuchengtyrannus

Zhuchengtyrannus (meaning "Zhucheng tyrant") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous period of Shandong Province, China. It belongs to the tyrannosaurinae subfamily, and contains a single species, Zhuchengtyrannus magnus.

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