Shanghai

Shanghai (Chinese: 上海, Shanghainese pronunciation: [zɑ̃.hɛ] (listen), Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂâŋ.xài] (listen)) is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China, the largest city in China by population, and the second most populous city proper in the world, with a population of 24.18 million as of 2017.[14][15] It is a global financial centre[16] and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port.[17] Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea.[18]

As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War. The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world (predominantly the Occident), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s.[19] During the World War II, the city was the site of the major Battle of Shanghai. After the war, with the Communist Party takeover of the mainland in 1949, trade was limited to other socialist countries, and the city's global influence declined. In the 1990s, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. It has since re-emerged as a hub for international trade and finance; it is the home of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, one of the world's largest by market capitalization.[20]

Shanghai has been described as the "showpiece" of the booming economy of mainland China;[21][22] renowned for its Lujiazui skyline, and museums and historic buildings, such as those along The Bund, as well as the City God Temple and the Yu Garden.

Shanghai

上海市
Clockwise from top: Lujiazui skyline with the Huangpu River, Yu Garden, China Pavilion at Expo 2010, Nanjing Road, and The Bund.
Clockwise from top: Lujiazui skyline with the Huangpu River, Yu Garden, China Pavilion at Expo 2010, Nanjing Road, and The Bund.
Etymology: 上海浦 (Shànghăi Pǔ)
"The original name of the Huangpu River."
Location of Shanghai Municipality in China
Location of Shanghai Municipality in China
Coordinates (People's Square): 31°13′43″N 121°28′29″E / 31.22861°N 121.47472°ECoordinates: 31°13′43″N 121°28′29″E / 31.22861°N 121.47472°E
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Settledc. 4000 BC[1]
Establishment of
 - Qinglong Town

746[2]
 - Shanghai County1291[3]
 - Municipality7 July 1927
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-
level

16 districts
210 towns and subdistricts
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • Party SecretaryLi Qiang
 • MayorYing Yong
 • Congress ChairmanYin Yicui
 • Municipal CPPCC ChairmanDong Yunhu
Area
 • Municipality6,341 km2 (2,448 sq mi)
 • Water697 km2 (269 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[7]
4,000 km2 (1,550 sq mi)
Elevation4 m (13 ft)
Population
(2019)[9]
 • Municipality26,317,104
 • Rank1st in China
 • Density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[10]
24,115,000
 • Urban density6,000/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
 (2010)[11]
34 million
Demonym(s)Shanghainese
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
Postal code
200000–202100
Area code(s)21
ISO 3166 codeCN-SH
Nominal GDP[12]2018
 - Total¥3.27 trillion
($494 billion)(11th)
 - GrowthIncrease 6.6%
HDI (2017)0.863[13] (4th) – very high
Licence plate prefixes沪A, 沪B, 沪D-沪H, 沪J-沪N
沪C (outer suburbs)
City flowerYulan magnolia
LanguagesWu (Shanghainese), Mandarin
Websitewww.shanghai.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Shanghai
Shanghai (Chinese characters)
"Shanghai" in regular Chinese characters
Hanyu PinyinShànghǎi
WuZaan22 he44
Literal meaning"Upon-the-Sea"

Names

The two Chinese characters in the city's name are (shàng/zan, "upon") and (hǎi/hae,"sea"), together meaning "Upon-the-Sea". The earliest occurrence of this name dates from the 11th-century Song dynasty, at which time there was already a river confluence and a town with this name in the area. There are disputes as to exactly how the name should be understood, but Chinese historians have concluded that during the Tang dynasty Shanghai was literally on the sea.[23]

Shanghai is officially abbreviated (/Wu) in Chinese,[24] a contraction of 沪渎 (Hù Dú/Vu Doh, lit "Harpoon Ditch"),[25][26] a 4th- or 5th-century Jin name for the mouth of Suzhou Creek when it was the main conduit into the ocean.[25] This character appears on all motor vehicle license plates issued in the municipality today. Another alternative name for Shanghai is Shēn () or Shēnchéng (, "Shen City"), from Lord Chunshen, a 3rd-century BC nobleman and prime minister of the state of Chu, whose fief included modern Shanghai.[25] Sports teams and newspapers in Shanghai often use Shen in their names, such as Shanghai Shenhua F.C. and Shen Bao.

Huating () was another early name for Shanghai. In AD 751, during the mid-Tang dynasty, Huating County was established by the Governor of Wu Commandery Zhao Juzhen at modern-day Songjiang, the first county-level administration within modern-day Shanghai. Today, Huating appears as the name of a four-star hotel in the city.[23]

The city also has various nicknames in English, including "Pearl of the Orient" and "Paris of the East".[27][28]

History

Ancient history

During the Spring and Autumn period (approximately 771 to 476 BC), the Shanghai area belonged to the Kingdom of Wu, which was conquered by the Kingdom of Yue, which in turn was conquered by the Kingdom of Chu.[29] During the Warring States period (475 BC), Shanghai was part of the fief of Lord Chunshen of Chu, one of the Four Lords of the Warring States. He ordered the excavation of the Huangpu River. Its former or poetic name, the Chunshen River, gave Shanghai its nickname of "Shēn".[29] Fishermen living in the Shanghai area then cre a fish tool called the , which lent its name to the outlet of Suzhou Creek north of the Old City and became a common nickname and abbreviation for the city.

Imperial history

方塔2

Songjiang Square Pagoda, built in the 11th century

Old City of Shanghai will walls and seafront

The walled Old City of Shanghai in the 17th century

Dismantlement of Old City walls

The dismantlement of Old City walls, 1911

人民路旁的大境閣

The remains of the old city walls of Shanghai

During the Tang and Song dynasties, Qinglong Town (青龙镇) in modern Qingpu District was a major trading port. Established in 746 (fifth year of the Tang Tianbao era), it developed into what contemporary sources called a "giant town of the Southeast", with thirteen temples and seven pagodas. The famous Song scholar and artist Mi Fu served as its mayor. The port had a thriving trade with provinces along the Yangtze River and the Chinese coast, as well as foreign countries such as Japan and Silla.[2]

By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai,[30] which was upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike.[31] From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai officially became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District.[32]

Two important events helped promote Shanghai's development in the Ming dynasty. A city wall was built for the first time in 1554 to protect the town from raids by Japanese pirates. It measured 10 metres (33 feet) high and 5 kilometres (3 miles) in circumference.[33] During the Wanli reign (1573–1620), Shanghai received an important psychological boost from the erection of a City God Temple in 1602. This honour was usually reserved for prefectural capitals and not normally given to a mere county seat such as Shanghai. It probably reflected the town's economic importance, as opposed to its low political status.[33]

During the Qing dynasty, Shanghai became one of the most important sea ports in the Yangtze Delta region as a result of two important central government policy changes: In 1684, the Kangxi Emperor reversed the Ming dynasty prohibition on oceangoing vessels – a ban that had been in force since 1525; and in 1732 the Yongzheng Emperor moved the customs office for Jiangsu province (; see Customs House, Shanghai) from the prefectural capital of Songjiang to Shanghai, and gave Shanghai exclusive control over customs collections for Jiangsu's foreign trade. As a result of these two critical decisions, by 1735 Shanghai had become the major trade port for all of the lower Yangtze region, despite still being at the lowest administrative level in the political hierarchy.[34]

Rise and golden age

WaibaiduBridgeOld1

The Bund in 1920s

Shanghai tram, British section, 1920s, John Rossman's collection

Nanking Road (modern-day East Nanjing Road) in the 1930s

Shanghai filmed in 1937

Shanghai Park Hotel 2007

Shanghai Park Hotel was the tallest building in Asia for decades

The Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, built in 1923 and The Customs House built in 1927

The HSBC Building built in 1923 and the Customs House built in 1927

International attention to Shanghai grew in the 19th century due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze. During the First Opium War (1839–1842), British forces occupied the city. The war ended with the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, which allowed the British to dictate opening the treaty ports, Shanghai included, for international trade.[35] The Treaty of the Bogue signed in 1843, and the Sino-American Treaty of Wanghia signed in 1844 forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain, France (under the 1844 Treaty of Whampoa), and the United States all carved out concessions outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.

The Chinese-held old city of Shanghai fell to the rebels of the Small Swords Society in 1853 but was recovered by the Qing government in February 1855.[36] In 1854, the Shanghai Municipal Council was created to manage the foreign settlements. Between 1860–1862, the Taiping rebels twice attacked Shanghai and destroyed the city's eastern and southern suburbs, but failed to take the city.[37] In 1863, the British settlement to the south of Suzhou Creek (northern Huangpu District) and the American settlement to the north (southern Hongkou District) joined in order to form the Shanghai International Settlement. The French opted out of the Shanghai Municipal Council and maintained its own concession to the south and southwest.

Citizens of many countries and all continents came to Shanghai to live and work during the ensuing decades; those who stayed for long periods – some for generations – called themselves "Shanghailanders".[38] In the 1920s and 1930s, almost 20,000 White Russians and Russian Jews fled the newly established Soviet Union and took up residence in Shanghai. These Shanghai Russians constituted the second-largest foreign community. By 1932, Shanghai had become the world's fifth largest city and home to 70,000 foreigners.[39] In the 1930s, some 30,000 Jewish refugees from Europe arrived in the city.[40]

The First Sino-Japanese War concluded with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which elevated Japan to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which were soon copied by other foreign powers. Shanghai was then the most important financial center in the Far East. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname "the Great Athens of China".[41]

Under the Republic of China, Shanghai's political status was raised to that of a municipality on 14 July 1927. Although the territory of the foreign concessions was excluded from their control, this new Chinese municipality still covered an area of 828.8 square kilometres (320.0 sq mi), including the modern-day districts of Baoshan, Yangpu, Zhabei, Nanshi, and Pudong. Headed by a Chinese mayor and municipal council, the new city government's first task was to create a new city center in Jiangwan town of Yangpu district, outside the boundaries of the foreign concessions. The "Greater Shanghai Plan" included a public museum, library, sports stadium, and city hall, which were partially constructed when the plan was interrupted by the Japanese invasion.[42]

Wartime era

On 28 January 1932, Japanese forces invaded Shanghai and the Chinese resisted, fighting to a standstill; a ceasefire was brokered in May. The Battle of Shanghai in 1937 resulted in the occupation of the Chinese administered parts of Shanghai outside of the International Settlement and the French Concession. People who stayed in the occupied city of Shanghai saw no end to their suffering. They experienced death, hunger, destruction, and oppression on daily basis.[43] The foreign concessions were ultimately occupied by the Japanese on 8 December 1941 and remained occupied until Japan's surrender in 1945, during which time many war crimes were committed.[44]

On 27 May 1949, the People's Liberation Army took control of Shanghai. Under the new People's Republic of China (PRC), Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces over the next decade (the others being Beijing and Tianjin).[45] Shanghai underwent a series of changes in the boundaries of its subdivisions over the next decade. After 1949, most foreign firms moved their offices from Shanghai to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment due to the Communist victory.

Modern history

Tarde en Shanghai — at The Bund 外滩. (15730639211)
Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone

On 17 January 1958, Jiading, Baoshan, and Shanghai County in Jiangsu Province became part of Shanghai Municipality, which expanded to 86,300 hectares. The following December, the land area of Shanghai was further expanded to 591,000 hectares when more surrounding suburban areas in Jiangsu were added: Chongming, Jinshan, Qingpu, Fengxian, Chuansha and Nanhui.[46] In 1960 the urban districts were reduced to 10.[47]

During the 1950s and 1960s, Shanghai became the center for radical leftism since it was the industrial centre of China with most skilled industrial workers. The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three allies, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city.[48] Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the Cultural Revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain high economic productivity and relative social stability. During most of the history of the PRC, Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government, with Shanghai in 1983 contributing more in tax revenue to the central government than Shanghai had received in investment in the prior 33 years combined.[49] This came at the cost of severely crippling welfare of Shanghainese people and Shanghai's infrastructural and capital development. Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it economic liberalizations begun in 1978. Shanghai was finally permitted to initiate economic reforms in 1991, starting the massive development still seen today and the birth of Lujiazui in Pudong.

Geography

Yangtze River Delta
This map of Shanghai (center and east), Jiangsu (north), and Zhejiang (south) shows the developed areas and some developing areas around Shanghai, Nanjing (dark blue), and Hangzhou in green. The regions in light blue are some of the developed areas in the Yangtze River Delta. Provincial boundaries are in purple, sub-provincial boundaries in gray.
Sprawling Shanghai 2016-07-20
This natural-color satellite image shows the urban area of Shanghai in 2016, along with its major islands of (from northwest to southeast) Chongming, Changxing, Hengsha, and the Jiuduansha shoals off Pudong. Yangtze's natural sediment discharging can be seen.

Shanghai lies on China's east coast roughly equidistant from Beijing and Guangzhou. The Old City and modern downtown Shanghai are now located in the center of an expanding peninsula between the Yangtze River Delta to the north and Hangzhou Bay to the south, formed by the Yangtze's natural deposition and by modern land reclamation projects. The provincial-level Municipality of Shanghai administers both the eastern area of this peninsula and many of its surrounding islands. It is bordered on the north and west by Jiangsu, on the south by Zhejiang, and on the east by the East China Sea. Its northernmost point is on Chongming Island, now the second-largest island in mainland China after its expansion during the 20th century.[50] The municipality does not, however, include an exclave of Jiangsu on northern Chongming or the two islands forming Shanghai's Yangshan Port, which are part of Zhejiang's Shengsi County. This deep-water port was made necessary by the increasing size of container ships but also the silting of the Yangtze, which narrows to less than 20 meters (66 ft) as far out as 45 miles (70 km) from Hengsha.[51]

Downtown Shanghai is bisected by the Huangpu River, a man-made tributary of the Yangtze that was created by order of Lord Chunshen during the Warring States period. The historic center of the city was located on the west bank of the Huangpu (Puxi), near the mouth of Suzhou Creek, connecting it with Lake Tai and the Grand Canal. The central financial district Lujiazui has grown up on the east bank of the Huangpu (Pudong). The destruction of local wetlands occasioned by the creation of Pudong International Airport along the peninsula's eastern shore has been somewhat offset by the protection and expansion of the nearby shoals of Jiuduansha as a nature preserve.[52]

Shanghai's location on an alluvial plain means that the vast majority of its 6,340.5 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi) land area is flat, with an average elevation of 4 m (13 ft).[8] Its sandy soil has required its skyscrapers to be built with deep concrete piles to stop them from sinking into the soft ground of the central area. The few hills such as She Shan lie to the southwest and the highest point is the peak of Dajinshan Island in Hangzhou Bay (103 m or 338 ft).[8] The city has many rivers, canals, streams and lakes and is known for its rich water resources as part of the Lake Tai drainage area.[6]

Climate

Shanghai has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and experiences four distinct seasons. Winters are chilly and damp, with northwesterly winds from Siberia can cause nighttime temperatures to drop below freezing, although most years there are only one or two days of snowfall. Summers are hot and humid, with an average of 8.7 days exceeding 35 °C (95 °F) annually; occasional downpours or freak thunderstorms can be expected. The city is also susceptible to typhoons in summer and the beginning of autumn, none of which in recent years has caused considerable damage.[53] The most pleasant seasons are spring, although changeable and often rainy, and autumn, which is generally sunny and dry. The city averages 4.8 °C (40.6 °F) in January and 28.6 °C (83.5 °F) in July, for an annual mean of 17.1 °C (62.8 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 34% in March to 54% in August, the city receives 1,895 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −10.1 °C (14 °F) on 31 January 1977 (unofficial record of −12.1 °C (10 °F) was set on 19 January 1893) to 39.9 °C (104 °F) on 6 and 8 August 2013. A highest record of 40.9 °C (106 °F) was registered in Xujiahui, a downtown station on 21 July 2017.[54][55][56][57][58]

Cityscape

Pudong Shanghai November 2017 panorama
Pudong Shanghai November 2017 panorama
Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline from the Bund
Panoramic view of Pudong's skyline from the Bund
Panoramic view of the Bund
Panoramic view of the Bund

Politics

Shanghai Government Building
Shanghai municipal government building.

Like virtually all governing institutions in the mainland People's Republic of China, the politics of Shanghai is structured in a parallel party-government system,[60] in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary (currently Li Qiang), outranks the Mayor (currently Ying Yong). The party's standing committee acts as the top policy formulation body, and is typically composed of 11 members.

Political power in Shanghai is widely seen as a stepping stone to higher positions in the national government. Since Jiang Zemin became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in June 1989, all former Shanghai party secretaries but one were elevated to the Politburo Standing Committee, the de facto highest decision-making body in China,[60] including Jiang himself (Party General Secretary),[61] Zhu Rongji (Premier),[62] Wu Bangguo (Chairman of the National People's Congress),[63] Huang Ju (Vice Premier),[64] Xi Jinping (current General Secretary), Yu Zhengsheng, and Han Zheng. Zeng Qinghong, a former deputy party secretary of Shanghai, also rose to the Politburo Standing Committee and became the Vice President and an influential power broker.[65] The only exception is Chen Liangyu, who was fired in 2006 and later convicted of corruption.[66] Officials with ties to the Shanghai administration form a powerful faction in the national government, the so-called Shanghai Clique, which was often thought to compete against the rival Youth League Faction over personnel appointments and policy decisions.[67] Xi Jinping, successor to Hu Jintao as General Secretary and President, was a compromise candidate between the two groups with supporters in both camps.

Administrative divisions

Openstreetmap central Shanghai
Map of central Shanghai

Shanghai is administratively equal to a province and is divided into 16 county-level districts. Even though every district has its own urban core, the real city center is between Bund to the east, Nanjing Rd to the north, Old City Temple and Huaihai Road to the south. Prominent central business areas include Lujiazui on the east bank of the Huangpu River, and The Bund and Hongqiao areas in the west bank of the Huangpu River. The city hall and major administration units are located in Huangpu District, which also serve as a commercial area, including the famous Nanjing Road. Other major commercial areas include Xintiandi and the classy Huaihai Road (previously Avenue Joffre) in Huangpu District and Xujiahui (formerly Romanized as Zikawei or Siccawei, reflecting the Shanghainese pronunciation) in Xuhui District. Many universities in Shanghai are located in residential areas of Yangpu District and Putuo District.

Seven of the districts govern Puxi (lit. "The West Bank"), the older part of urban Shanghai on the west bank of the Huangpu River. These seven districts are collectively referred to as Shanghai Proper (上海市区) or the core city (市中心), which comprise Huangpu, Xuhui, Changning, Jing'an, Putuo, Hongkou, and Yangpu.

Pudong (lit. "The East Bank"), the newer part of urban and suburban Shanghai on the east bank of the Huangpu River, is governed by Pudong New Area (Chuansha County until 1992, merged with Nanhui District in 2009 and with oversight of the Jiuduansha shoals).

Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas further away from the urban core: Baoshan (Baoshan County until 1988), Minhang (original Minhang District & Shanghai County until 1992), Jiading (Jiading County until 1992), Jinshan (Jinshan County until 1997), Songjiang (Songjiang County until 1998), Qingpu (Qingpu County until 1999), and Fengxian (Fengxian County until 2001).

The islands of Changxing and Hengsha and most (but not all[69]) of Chongming Island form Chongming.

The former district of Nanhui was absorbed into Pudong District in 2009. In 2011 Luwan District merged with Huangpu District.

As of 2015, these county-level divisions are further divided into the following 210 township-level divisions: 109 towns, 2 townships, 99 subdistricts. Those are in turn divided into the following village-level divisions: 3,661 neighborhood committees and 1,704 village committees.[70] At the end of the year 2017, the total population is 24.18 million.[71]

Administrative divisions of Shanghai
Division code[72] Division Area in km2[73] Total population 2010[74] Urban area
population 2010[75]
Seat Postal code Subdivisions[76]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Residential communities Villages
310000 Shanghai 6340.50 23,019,196 20,555,098 Huangpu 200000 100 107 2 4024 1610
310101 Huangpu 20.46 678,670 Waitan Subdistrict 200000 10     189  
310104 Xuhui 54.76 1,085,130 Xujiahui Subdistrict 200000 12 1   306  
310105 Changning 38.30 690,571 Jiangsu Road Subdistrict 200000 9 1   184  
310106 Jing'an 37.37 1,077,284 Jiangning Road Subdistrict 200000 13 1   283 1
310107 Putuo 54.83 1,288,881 Zhenru Town Subdistrict 200000 8 2   245 7
310109 Hongkou 23.48 852,476 Jiaxing Road Subdistrict 200000 8     226  
310110 Yangpu 60.73 1,313,222 Pingliang Road Subdistrict 200000 11 1   307  
310112 Minhang 371.68 2,429,372 Xinzhuang town 201100 3 9   408 136
310113 Baoshan 270.99 1,904,886 1,844,435 Youyi Road Subdistrict 201900 3 9   350 108
310114 Jiading 458.80 1,471,231 1,223,354 Xincheng Road Subdistrict 201800 3 7   153 146
310115 Pudong 1210.41 5,044,430 4,487,147 Huamu Subdistrict 201200 & 201300 12 24   829 371
310116 Jinshan 586.05 732,438 452,360 Shanyang town 201500 1 9   88 124
310117 Songjiang 604.71 1,582,398 1,342,889 Fangsong Subdistrict 201600 4 11   185 86
310118 Qingpu 675.54 1,081,022 815,411 Xiayang Subdistrict 201700 3 8   97 184
310120 Fengxian 687.39 1,083,463 636,546 Nanqiao town 201400   8   107 177
310151 Chongming 1185.49 703,722 337,350 Chengqiao town 202100   16 2 67 270

Economy

Pudong Shanghai November 2017 HDR panorama
Tourism is a major industry; the skyline along the Bund, and Pudong, is illuminated every evening.
Pudong district roads traffic skyscrapers, Shanghai
Increasing influence over global capital market: Shanghai Stock Exchange
Shanghai Jin Mao tower
Shanghainanjingroadpic4
The Nanjing Pedestrian Street in the evening. The Radisson New World Hotel is in the background.
Yangshan-Port-Balanced
Shanghai Port is the world's busiest container port

Shanghai is the commercial and financial center of China, and ranks 5th in the 2018 edition of the Global Financial Centres Index (and third most competitive in Asia after Singapore and Hong Kong) published by the Z/Yen Group and Qatar Financial Centre Authority.[77] It also ranks the most expensive city to live in Mainland China, according to the study of Economist Intelligence Unit in 2017.[78] It was the largest and most prosperous city in East Asia during the 1930s, and rapid re-development began in the 1990s.[19] This is exemplified by the Pudong District, a former swampland reclaimed to serve as a pilot area for integrated economic reforms. By the end of 2009, there were 787 financial institutions, of which 170 were foreign-invested.[79] In 2009, the Shanghai Stock Exchange ranked third among worldwide stock exchanges in terms of trading volume and sixth in terms of the total capitalization of listed companies, and the trading volume of six key commodities including rubber, copper and zinc on the Shanghai Futures Exchange all ranked first in the world.[80] In September 2013, with the backing of Chinese Premier Li Keqiang the city launched the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone-the first free-trade zone in mainland China. The Zone introduced a number of pilot reforms designed to create a preferential environment for foreign investment. In April 2014, The Banker reported that Shanghai "has attracted the highest volumes of financial sector foreign direct investment in the Asia-Pacific region in the 12 months to the end of January 2014".[81] In August 2014, Shanghai was named FDi magazine's Chinese Province of the Future 2014/15 due to "particularly impressive performances in the Business Friendliness and Connectivity categories, as well as placing second in the Economic Potential and Human Capital and Lifestyle categories".[82]

In the last two decades Shanghai has been one of the fastest developing cities in the world. Since 1992 Shanghai has recorded double-digit growth almost every year except during the global recession of 2008 and 2009.[83] In 2011, Shanghai's total GDP grew to 1.92 trillion yuan (US$297 billion) with GDP per capita of 82,560 yuan (US $12,784).[12] The three largest service industries are financial services, retail, and real estate. The manufacturing and agricultural sectors accounted for 39.9 percent and 0.7 percent of the total output respectively.[79] Average annual disposable income of Shanghai residents, based on the first three quarters of 2009, was 21,871 RMB.[84]

Located at the heart of the Yangtze River Delta, Shanghai has the world's busiest container port, which handled 29.05 million TEUs in 2010.[85] Shanghai aims to be an international shipping center in the near future.[86]

Shanghai is one of the main industrial centers of China, playing a key role in China's heavy industries. A large number of industrial zones, including Shanghai Hongqiao Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jinqiao Export Economic Processing Zone, Minhang Economic and Technological Development Zone, and Shanghai Caohejing High-Tech Development Zone, are backbones of Shanghai's secondary industry. Heavy industries accounted for 78% of the gross industrial output in 2009. China's largest steelmaker Baosteel Group, China's largest shipbuilding base – Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding Group, and the Jiangnan Shipyard, one of China's oldest shipbuilders are all located in Shanghai.[87][88] Auto manufacture is another important industry. The Shanghai-based SAIC Motor is one of the three largest automotive corporations in China, and has strategic partnerships with Volkswagen and General Motors.[89]

The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just RMB950 (US$153).[90] Tourism in general has become a major industry. In 2016, 296 million domestic tourists and 8.54 million overseas tourists visited Shanghai for an approximate increase of 7% from the previous year.[91]

As of September 2013, Shanghai is also home to the largest free-trade zone in mainland China, the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone. The zone covers an area of 29 km2 (11 sq mi) and integrates four existing bonded zones — Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, Waigaoqiao Free Trade Logistics Park, Yangshan Free Trade Port Area and Pudong Airport Comprehensive Free Trade Zone. Several preferential policies have been implemented to attract foreign investment in various industries to the FTZ. Because the Zone is not technically considered PRC territory for tax purposes, commodities entering the zone are not subject to duty and customs clearance as would otherwise be the case.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1954[92]6,204,400—    
1964[92]10,816,500+5.72%
1982[92]11,859,700+0.51%
1990[92]13,341,900+1.48%
2000[92]16,407,700+2.09%
2010[92]23,019,200+3.44%
2012[93]23,804,300+1.69%
2013[93]24,151,500+1.46%
2014[15]24,256,800+0.44%
Population size may be affected by changes to administrative divisions.

The 2010 census put Shanghai's total population at 23,019,148, a growth of 37.53% from 16,737,734 in 2000.[94][95] 20.6 million of the total population, or 89.3%, are urban, and 2.5 million (10.7%) are rural.[96] Based on the population of its total administrative area, Shanghai is the second largest of the four municipalities of China, behind Chongqing, but is generally considered the largest Chinese city because Chongqing's urban population is much smaller.[97]

Shanghai also has 150,000 officially registered foreigners, including 31,500 Japanese, 21,000 Americans and 20,700 Koreans, but the real number of foreign citizens in the city is probably much higher.[98] Shanghai is also a domestic immigration city, which means a huge population of citizens come from other cities in China.[98]

The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010, a population of 34 million.[99][11]

In 2017 the Chinese Government implemented population controls for Shanghai. Latest statistics show that from this policy, Shanghai population declined by 10,000.[100]

At the end of 2017, there are around 24,183,300 people who are permanently staying in Shanghai.[101]

Religion

Religion in Shanghai (2012)[102]

  Non religious or traditional faiths (86.9%)
  Buddhism (10.4%)
  Protestantism (1.9%)
  Catholicism (0.7%)
  Others (0.1%)

Due to its cosmopolitan history, Shanghai has a blend of religious heritage as shown by the religious buildings and institutions still scattered around the city. According to a 2012 survey[102] only around 13% of the population of Shanghai belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 10.4%, followed by Protestants with 1.9%, Catholics with 0.7% and other faiths with 0.1%. Around 87% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities and ancestors, Confucian churches, Taoism and folk religious sects.

There are folk religious temples such as a Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God), at the heart of the old city, and a temple dedicated to the Three Kingdoms general Guan Yu. The White Cloud Temple of Shanghai is an important Taoist centre in the city. The Wenmiao (Temple of the God of Culture) is dedicated to Confucius.

Buddhism, in its Chinese varieties, has had a presence in Shanghai since ancient times. The Longhua Temple, the largest temple in Shanghai, and the Jing'an Temple, were first founded in the Three Kingdoms period. Another important temple is the Jade Buddha Temple, which is named after a large statue of Buddha carved out of jade in the temple. In recent decades, dozens of modern temples have been built throughout the city.

Islam came into Shanghai 700 years ago and a mosque was built in 1295 in Songjiang. In 1843, a teachers' college was also set up. The Shanghai Muslim Association is located in the Xiaotaoyuan Mosque in Huangpu.

Shanghai has one of the largest proportions of Catholics in China (2003).[103] Among Catholic churches, St Ignatius Cathedral in Xujiahui is one of the largest, while She Shan Basilica is an active pilgrimage site.

Other forms of Christianity in Shanghai include Eastern Orthodox minorities and, since 1996, registered Christian Protestant churches. During World War II thousands of Jews emigrated to Shanghai in an effort to flee Hitler's regime. The Jews lived side-by-side in a designated area called Shanghai Ghetto and formed a vibrant community centered on the Ohel Moishe Synagogue,[104] which is a preserved remnant of this portion of Shanghai's complex religious past.[105]

Education

Songjiang ecupl
University City District in Songjiang

Shanghai ranked first in the 2009 and 2012 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide study of academic performance of 15-year-old students conducted by the OECD. Shanghai students, including migrant children, scored highest in every aspect (math, reading and science) in the world. The study concludes that public-funded schools in Shanghai have the highest educational quality in the world.[106][107] Critics of PISA results counter that, in Shanghai and other Chinese cities, most children of migrant workers can only attend city schools up to the ninth grade, and must return to their parents' hometowns for high school due to hukou restrictions, thus skewing the composition of the city's high school students in favor of wealthier local families.[108]

Shanghai is the first city in the country to implement 9-year mandatory education. The 2010 census shows that out of Shanghai's total population, 22.0% had a college education, double the level from 2000, while 21.0% had high school, 36.5% middle school, and 1.35% primary school education. 2.74% of residents age 15 and older were illiterate.[109]

Shanghai has more than 930 kindergartens, 1,200 primary and 850 middle schools. Over 760,000 middle schools students and 871,000 primary school students are taught by 76,000 and 64,000 teaching staff respectively.[110]

Shanghai is a major center of higher education in China with over 30 universities and colleges. A number of China's most prestigious universities are based in Shanghai, including Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tongji University, East China Normal University (these universities are selected as "985 universities" by the Chinese Government in order to build world-class universities). In 2012 NYU Shanghai was established in Pudong by New York University in partnership with East China Normal University as the first Sino-US joint venture university. In 2013 the Shanghai Municipality and the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the ShanghaiTech University in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Pudong. This new research university is aiming to be a first-class institution on a national and international level.[111] The cadre school China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong is also located in Shanghai, as well as the China Europe International Business School.

Children with foreign passports are permitted to attend any public school in Shanghai. Prior to 2007 they were permitted to attend 150 select public schools. In 2006 about 2,000 non-Chinese nationals under 18 years of age attended Shanghai public schools.[112] Students with Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi (HSK) above 3 or 4 may attend public schools using Mandarin Chinese as the medium of instruction, while students below HSK 3–4 may attend international divisions of public schools or private international schools.[113]

Shanghai has the largest number of international schools of any city in China. In November 2015 Christopher Cottrell of the Global Times wrote that Shanghai "prides itself on its international schools".[114]

Transport

Public transport

Maglev Train - panoramio
The Maglev with a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph) exiting the Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Shanghai has an extensive public transport system, largely based on metros, buses and taxis. It is also home to the world's busiest port, the shanghai port. Payment for all these public transportation tools can be made by using the Shanghai Public Transportation Card.

Shanghai's rapid transit system, the Shanghai Metro, incorporates both subway and light metro lines and extends to every core urban district as well as neighboring suburban districts. As of 2017, there are 16 metro lines (excluding the Shanghai Maglev Train and Jinshan Railway), 395 stations and 673 km (418 mi) of lines in operation, making it the longest network in the world.[115] On 31 December 2016, it set a record of daily ridership of 11.7 million.[116] The fare depends on the length of travel distance starting from 3 RMB. In 2010, Shanghai reintroduced trams, this time as a modern rubber tyred Translohr system, in Zhangjiang area of East Shanghai as Zhangjiang Tram. A separate conventional tram system is being constructed in Songjiang District. Additional tram lines are under study in Hongqiao Subdistrict and Jiading District.

Shanghai also has the world's most extensive network of urban bus routes, with nearly one thousand bus lines, operated by numerous transportation companies.[117] The system includes the world's oldest continuously operating trolleybus system. Bus fare normally costs 2 RMB.

Taxis are plentiful in Shanghai. The base fare is currently ¥14(sedan)/¥16(MPV) (inclusive of a ¥1 fuel surcharge; ¥18 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am) which covers the first 3 km (2 mi). Additional km cost ¥2.4 each (¥3.2 between 11:00 pm and 5:00 am).[118]

Roads

Line 71 BRT Eastern Terminus (44838068574)
Shanghai Bus Route 71 in the Bund

Shanghai is a major hub of China's expressway network. Many national expressways (prefixed with G) pass through or terminate in Shanghai, including G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway (overlapping G42 Shanghai–Chengdu), G15 Shenyang–Haikou, G40 Shanghai–Xi'an, G50 Shanghai–Chongqing, G60 Shanghai–Kunming (overlapping G92 Shanghai–Ningbo), and G1501 Shanghai Ring Expressway. In addition, there are also numerous municipal expressways prefixed with S (S1, S2, S20, etc.). Shanghai has one bridge-tunnel crossing spanning the mouth of the Yangtze to the north of the city.

In the city center, there are several elevated expressways to lessen traffic pressure on surface streets, but the growth of car use has made demand far outstrip capacity, with heavy congestion being commonplace. There are bicycle lanes separate from car traffic on many surface streets, but bicycles and motorcycles are banned from many main roads including the elevated expressways. Recently, cycling has seen a resurgence in popularity thanks to the emergence of a large number of dockless app based bikeshares such as Mobike, Bluegogo and Ofo.[119]

Private car ownership in Shanghai has been rapidly increasing in recent years, but a new private car cannot be driven until the owner buys a license in the monthly private car license plate auction. Around 11,500 license plates are auctioned each month and the average price is about 84,000 RMB ($12,758). According to the municipal regulation in 2016, only those who are Shanghai registered residents or have paid social insurance or individual incomer tax for over 3 years in a row. The purpose of this policy is to limit the growth of automobile traffic and to alleviate congestion.[120]

Railway

Shanghai has four major railway stations: Shanghai railway station, Shanghai South railway station, Shanghai West railway station, and Shanghai Hongqiao railway station. All are connected to the metro network and serve as hubs in the railway network of China. Two main railways terminate in Shanghai: Jinghu railway from Beijing, and Huhang railway from Hangzhou. Hongqiao Station also serves as the main Shanghai terminus of three high-speed rail lines: Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway, Shanghai–Kunming high-speed railway and Shanghai–Nanjing intercity railway.

Air

Shanghai is one of the leading air transport gateways in Asia. The city has two commercial airports: Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport.[121] Pudong Airport is the main international airport, while Hongqiao Airport mainly operates domestic flights with limited short-haul international flights. In 2010 the two airports served 71.7 million passengers (Pudong 40.4 million, Hongqiao 31.3 million), and handled 3.7 million tons of cargo (Pudong 3.22 million tons, Hongqiao 480 thousand tons).[122]

Architecture

A statue respresenting fortune, prosperity and longevity (36305081851)
Xintiandi, now a high-end restaurant and shopping center

Shanghai has a rich collection of buildings and structures of various architectural styles. The Bund, located by the bank of the Huangpu River, is home to a row of early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neoclassical HSBC Building to the art deco Sassoon House. Many areas in the former foreign concessions are also well-preserved, the most notable being the French Concession.

Shanghai has one of the world's largest number of Art Deco buildings as a result of the construction boom during the 1920s and 1930s. One of the most famous architects working in Shanghai was László Hudec, a Hungarian-Slovak architect who lived in the city between 1918 and 1947. Some of his most notable Art Deco buildings include the Park Hotel and the Grand Theater. Other prominent architects who contributed to the Art Deco style are Parker & Palmer, who designed the Peace Hotel, Metropole Hotel, and the Broadway Mansions, and Austrian architect GH Gonda, who designed the Capital Theatre. The Bund's first revitalization started in 1986, with a new promenade by the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren, and was completed in the mid-1990s.

In recent years, a great deal of architecturally distinctive and even eccentric buildings have sprung up throughout Shanghai. Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Shanghai Museum, Shanghai Grand Theatre in the People's Square precinct, and the Shanghai Oriental Art Center. Despite rampant redevelopment, the old city still retains some traditional architecture and designs, such as the Yuyuan Garden, an elaborate traditional garden in the Jiangnan style.

One uniquely Shanghainese cultural element is the shikumen (石库门) residence, typically two- or three-story townhouses with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. Each residence is connected and arranged in straight alleys, known as a longtang (弄堂), pronounced longdang in Shanghainese. The entrance to each alley is usually surmounted by a stylistic stone arch. The whole resembles terrace houses or townhouses commonly seen in Anglo-American countries, but distinguished by the tall, heavy brick wall in front of each house. The name "shikumen" means "stone storage door", referring to the strong gateway to each house.

The shikumen is a cultural blend of elements found in Western architecture with traditional Lower Yangtze (Jiangnan) Chinese architecture and social behavior. All traditional Chinese dwellings had a courtyard, and the shikumen was no exception. Yet, in compromise with its urban nature, it was much smaller and provided an "interior haven" to the commotion in the streets, allowing for raindrops to fall and vegetation to grow freely within a residence. The courtyard also allowed sunlight and adequate ventilation into the rooms.

Less than Beijing, the city also has some examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture. These buildings were mostly erected during the period from the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 until the Sino-Soviet Split in the late 1960s. During this decade, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. Examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai include what is today the Shanghai Exhibition Centre.

The Pudong district of Shanghai is home to a number of skyscrapers, many of which rank among the tallest in the world. Among the most prominent examples are the Jin Mao Tower and the taller Shanghai World Financial Center, which at 492 metres (1,614 ft) tall is the third tallest skyscraper in mainland China and ranks tenth in the world. The Shanghai Tower, completed in 2015, is the tallest building in China, as well as the second tallest in the world.[123] With a height of 632 metres (2,073 ft), the building has 128 floors and a total floor area of 380,000 square metres (4,100,000 sq ft) above ground.[124] The distinctive Oriental Pearl Tower, at 468 metres (1,535 ft), is located nearby, as is One Lujiazui, standing at 269 metres (883 ft).[125]

Environment

Parks and resorts

The extensive public park system in Shanghai offers the citizens some reprieve from the urban jungle. By the year 2012, the city had 157 parks, with 138 of them free of charge.[126] Some of the parks, aside from offering a green public space to locals, became popular tourist attractions due to their unique location, history or architecture. The former racetrack turned central park, People's Square park, located in the heart of downtown Shanghai, is especially well known for its proximity to other major landmarks in the city. Fuxing Park, located in the former French Concession of Shanghai, features formal French-style gardens and is surrounded by high end bars and cafes. Zhongshan Park in northwestern central Shanghai is famous for its monument of Chopin, the tallest statue dedicated to the composer in the world. Built in 1914 as Jessfield Park, it once contained the campus of St. John's University, Shanghai's first international college; today, it is known for its extensive rose and peony gardens, a large children's play area, and as the location of an important transfer station on the city's metro system. Shanghai Botanical Garden is located 12 km (7 mi) southwest of the city center and was established in 1978. One of the newest parks is in the Xujiahui area – Xujiahui Park, built in 1999 on the former grounds of the Great Chinese Rubber Works Factory and the EMI Recording Studio (now La Villa Rouge restaurant). The park has a man-made lake with a sky bridge running across the park, and offers a pleasant respite for Xujiahui shoppers. Other well-known Shanghai parks include: People's Square Park, Gongqing Forest Park, Fuxing Park, Zhongshan Park, Lu Xun Park, Century Park, and Jing'an Park.

Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai Disneyland
Enchanted Storybook Castle of Shanghai Disneyland

The Shanghai Disney Resort Project was approved by the government on 4 November 2009,[127] and opened in 2016.[128] The $4.4 billion theme park and resort in Pudong features a castle that is the biggest among Disney's resorts.[129]

Environmental protection

Public awareness of the environment is growing, and the city is investing in a number of environmental protection projects. A 10-year, US$1 billion cleanup of Suzhou Creek, which runs through the city-center, was expected to be finished in 2008,[130] and the government also provides incentives for transportation companies to invest in LPG buses and taxis. Additionally, the government has moved almost all the factories within the city center to either the outskirts or other provinces in the recent decades.[131]

Air pollution and government reaction

Air pollution in Shanghai is not as severe as in many other Chinese cities, but still substantial by world standards.[132] During the December 2013 Eastern China smog, air pollution rates reached between 23 and 31 times the international standard.[133][134] On 6 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter in Shanghai rose above 600 micrograms per cubic meter and in the surrounding area, above 700 micrograms per cubic metre.[134] Levels of PM2.5 in Putuo District reached 726 micrograms per cubic meter.[135][136] As a result, the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission received orders to suspend students' outdoor activities. Authorities pulled nearly one-third of government vehicles from the roads, while a mass of construction work was halted. Most of inbound flights were cancelled, and more than 50 flights were diverted at Pudong International Airport.[137]

On 23 January 2014, Yang Xiong, the mayor of Shanghai municipality announced that three main measures would be taken to manage the air pollution in Shanghai, along with surrounding Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces.[138] The measures involved delivery of the 2013 air cleaning program, linkage mechanism with the three surrounding provinces and improvement of the ability of early warning of emergency situation.[138] On 12 February 2014, China's cabinet announced that a 10-billion-renminbi (US$1.7-billion) fund will be set up to help companies to meet new environmental standards.[139]

Culture

Shanghai is sometimes considered a center of innovation and progress in China. It was in Shanghai, for example, that the first motor car was driven and (technically) the first train tracks and modern sewers were laid. It was also the intellectual battleground between socialist writers who concentrated on critical realism, which was pioneered by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Nien Cheng and the famous French novel by André Malraux, Man's Fate, and the more "bourgeois", more romantic and aesthetically inclined writers, such as Shi Zhecun, Shao Xunmei, Ye Lingfeng and Eileen Chang.

In the past years Shanghai has been widely recognized as a new influence and inspiration for cyberpunk culture.[140] Futuristic buildings such as the Oriental Pearl Tower and the neon-illuminated Yan'an Elevated Road are a few examples that have helped to boost Shanghai's cyberpunk image.

Language

The vernacular language spoken in the city is Shanghainese, a dialect of the Taihu Wu subgroup of the Wu Chinese family. This makes it a different language from the official language nationwide, which is Mandarin, itself completely mutually unintelligible with Wu Chinese. Most Shanghai residents are the descendants of immigrants from the two adjacent provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang who moved to Shanghai in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The population of those regions speak different Wu Chinese dialects. From the 1990s, many migrants outside of the Wu-speaking region have come to Shanghai for work and education. They often cannot speak or learn the local language and therefore use Mandarin as a lingua franca.

Modern Shanghainese is based on different dialects of Taihu Wu: Suzhounese, Ningbonese and dialects of Shanghai's traditional areas (now lying within the Hongkou, Baoshan and Pudong districts). The prestige dialect of Wu Chinese is spoken within the city of Shanghai prior to its modern expansion. Known as "the local tongue" (), it is influenced to a lesser extent by the languages of other nearby regions from which large numbers of people have migrated to Shanghai since the 20th century, and includes a significant number of terms borrowed from European languages. The prevalence of Mandarin fluency is generally higher for those born after 1949 than those born before, while the prevalence of English fluency is higher for people who received their secondary and tertiary education before 1949 than those who did so after 1949 and before the 1990s. On the other hand, however, Shanghainese started to decline and fluency amongst young speakers weakened, as Mandarin and English are being favoured and taught over the native language. In recent years though, there have been movements within the city to protect and promote the local language from ever fading out.[141][142]

Museums

Shanghai Museum exterior 1
The Shanghai Museum, located on the People's Square

Cultural curation in Shanghai has seen significant growth since 2013, with several new museums having been opened in the city.[143] This is in part due to the city's most recently released city development plans, with aims in making the city "an excellent global city".[144] As such, Shanghai has several museums[145] of regional and national importance.[146] The Shanghai Museum has one of the best collections of Chinese historical artifacts in the world, including a large collection of ancient Chinese bronzes. The China Art Museum, located in the former China Pavilion of Expo 2010, is the largest art museum in Asia. Power Station of Art is built in a converted power station, similar to London's Tate Modern. The Shanghai Natural History Museum and the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum are major natural history and science museums. In addition, there is a variety of smaller, specialist museums housed in important archaeological and historical sites such as the Songze Museum, the Museum of the First National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, the site of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, the former Ohel Moshe Synagogue (Shanghai Jewish Refugees Museum), and the General Post Office Building (Shanghai Postal Museum). The Rockbund Art Museum is also in Shanghai. There are also many art galleries, concentrated in the M50 Art District and Tianzifang. Shanghai is also home to one of China's largest aquariums, the Shanghai Ocean Aquarium. MoCA, Museum of Contemporary Art of Shanghai, is a private museum centrally located in People's Park on West Nanjing Road, and is committed to promote contemporary art and design.

Cinema

Shanghai was the birthplace of Chinese cinema[147] and theater. China's first short film, The Difficult Couple (1913), and the country's first fictional feature film, An Orphan Rescues His Grandfather (孤兒救祖記; Gū'ér jiù zǔjì, 1923) were both produced in Shanghai. These two films were very influential, and established Shanghai as the center of Chinese film-making. Shanghai's film industry went on to blossom during the early 1930s, generating great stars such as Hu Die, Ruan Lingyu, Zhou Xuan, Jin Yan, and Zhao Dan. Another film star, Jiang Qing, went on to become Madame Mao Zedong. The exile of Shanghainese filmmakers and actors as a result of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Communist revolution contributed enormously to the development of the Hong Kong film industry. Many aspects of Shanghainese popular culture ("Shanghainese Pops") were transferred to Hong Kong by the numerous Shanghainese emigrants and refugees after the Communist Revolution. The movie In the Mood for Love, which was directed by Wong Kar-wai (a native Shanghainese himself), depicts a slice of the displaced Shanghainese community in Hong Kong[148] and the nostalgia for that era, featuring 1940s music by Zhou Xuan.

Arts

Renxiong wan04s
十万图之四 (No. 4 of a Hundred Thousand Scenes) by Ren Xiong, a pioneer of the Shanghai School of Chinese art, c. 1850.

The "Shanghai School" was an important Chinese school of traditional arts during the Qing Dynasty and the 20th century. Under the masters from this school, traditional Chinese art developed into the modern style of "Chinese painting". The Shanghai School challenged and broke the elitist tradition of Chinese art,[149] while also paying technical homage to the ancient masters and improving on existing traditional techniques. Members of this school were themselves educated literati who had come to question their very status and the purpose of art and had anticipated the impending modernization of Chinese society. In an era of rapid social change, works from the Shanghai School were widely innovative and diverse and often contained thoughtful yet subtle social commentary. The best known figures from this school include Qi Baishi, Ren Xiong, Ren Bonian, Zhao Zhiqian, Wu Changshuo, Sha Menghai, Pan Tianshou, Fu Baoshi, Xie Zhiliu, He Tianjian, and Wang Zhen. In literature, the term was used in the 1930s by some May Fourth Movement intellectuals – notably Zhou Zuoren and Shen Congwen – as a derogatory label for the literature produced in Shanghai at the time. They argued that Shanghai School literature was merely commercial and therefore did not advance social progress. This became known as the Jingpai versus Haipai (Beijing v. Shanghai School) debate.[150]

The "Songjiang School" (淞江派) was a small painting school during the Ming Dynasty. It is commonly considered as a further development of the Wu or Wumen School in the then-cultural center of the region, Suzhou. The Huating School (华亭派) was another important art school during the middle to late Ming Dynasty. Its main achievements were in traditional Chinese painting, calligraphy, and poetry. It was especially famous for its Renwen painting (人文画). Dong Qichang was one of the masters from this school.

Fashion

Qipao1
Two women wear Shanghai-styled qipao while playing golf in this 1930s Shanghai soap advertisement.

Other Shanghainese cultural artifacts include the cheongsam (Shanghainese: zansae), a modernization of the traditional Manchurian qipao. This contrasts sharply with the traditional qipao, which was designed to conceal the figure and be worn regardless of age. The cheongsam went along well with the western overcoat and the scarf, and portrayed a unique East Asian modernity, epitomizing the Shanghainese population in general. As Western fashions changed, the basic cheongsam design changed, too, introducing high-neck sleeveless dresses, bell-like sleeves, and the black lace frothing at the hem of a ball gown. By the 1940s, cheongsams came in transparent black, beaded bodices, matching capes and even velvet. Later, checked fabrics became also quite common. The 1949 Communist Revolution ended the cheongsam and other fashions in Shanghai. However, the Shanghainese styles have seen a recent revival as stylish party dresses. The fashion industry has been rapidly revitalizing in the past decade. Like Shanghai's architecture, local fashion designers strive to create a fusion of western and traditional designs, often with innovative if controversial results.

In recent times Shanghai has established its own fashion week called Shanghai Fashion Week. It is held twice every year in October and April. The April session is a part of Shanghai International Fashion Culture Festival which usually lasts for a month, while Shanghai Fashion Week lasts for seven days, and the main venue is in Fuxing Park, Shanghai, while the opening and closing ceremony is in Shanghai Fashion Center.[151] Supported by the People's Republic Ministry of Commerce, Shanghai Fashion Week is a major business and culture event of national significance hosted by the Shanghai Municipal Government. Shanghai Fashion Week is aiming to build up an international and professional platform, gathering all of the top design talents of Asia. The event features international designers but the primary purpose is to showcase Chinese designers.[152] The international presence has included many of the most promising young British fashion designers.[153]

Media

In regard to foreign publications in Shanghai, Hartmut Walravens of the IFLA Newspapers Section said that when the Japanese controlled Shanghai in the 1940s "it was very difficult to publish good papers – one either had to concentrate on emigration problems, or cooperate like the Chronicle".[154]

Newspapers include:

Newspapers formerly published in Shanghai include:

Broadcasters:

Sports

Shanghai F1 Circui 01
F1 Chinese Grand Prix in Shanghai
Tsonga Potro 2008 Tennis Masters
Shanghai Masters in Qizhong Stadium

Shanghai is home to several football teams, including two in the Chinese Super LeagueShanghai Greenland Shenhua and Shanghai SIPG. Another professional team, Shanghai Shenxin, is currently in China League One. China's top tier basketball team, the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association, developed Yao Ming before he entered the NBA. Shanghai also has an ice hockey team, China Dragon, and a baseball team, the Shanghai Golden Eagles, which plays in the China Baseball League.

YaoMingoffense
Yao Ming was born in Shanghai.

Shanghai is the hometown of many outstanding and well-known Chinese professional athletes, such as Yao Ming, the 110-meter hurdler Liu Xiang, the table-tennis player Wang Liqin and the former world women's single champion and current Olympic silver medalist badminton player Wang Yihan.

Beginning in 2004, Shanghai started hosting the Chinese Grand Prix, one round of the Formula One World Championship. The race was staged at the Shanghai International Circuit. In 2010, Shanghai also became the host city of Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM), which raced in a street circuit in Pudong. In 2012, Shanghai started to host 6 Hours of Shanghai as one round from the inaugural season of the FIA World Endurance Championship.

Shanghai also holds the Shanghai Masters tennis tournament which is part of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, and the BMW Masters and WGC-HSBC Champions golf tournaments.[155]

The Shanghai Cricket Club is a cricket club based in Shanghai. The club dates back to 1858 when the first recorded cricket match was played between a team of British Naval officers and a Shanghai 11. Following a 45-year dormancy after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the club was re-established in 1994 by expatriates living in the city and has since grown to over 300 members. The Shanghai cricket team was a cricket team that played various international matches between 1866 and 1948. With cricket in the rest of China almost non-existent, for that period they were the de facto Chinese national side.

On 21 September 2017, Shanghai will be one of two cities to host a National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey exhibition game that will feature the Los Angeles Kings vs. the Vancouver Canucks as an effort to garner fan interest in China before the start of the 2017–18 season.

International relations

The city is the home of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation.

Shanghai is twinned with:[156]

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Danielson, Eric N. (2010). Discover Shanghai. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish.
  • Danielson, Eric N. (2004). Shanghai and the Yangzi Delta. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 978-981-232-597-6.
  • Elvin, Mark (1977). "Market Towns and Waterways: The County of Shang-hai from 1480 to 1910". In Skinner, G. William. The City in Late Imperial China. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press. pp. 441–474. ISBN 978-0-8047-0892-0. OCLC 2883862.
  • Erh, Deke; Johnston, Tess (2007). Shanghai Art Deco. Hong Kong: Old China Hand Press.
  • Haarmann, Anke. Shanghai (Urban Public) Space (Berlin: Jovis, 2009). 192 pp. online review
  • Horesh, Niv (2009). Shanghai's Bund and Beyond. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Johnson, Linda Cooke (1995). Shanghai: From Market Town to Treaty Port. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Johnson, Linda Cooke (1993). Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China. Albany: State University of New York (SUNY). ISBN 978-0-7914-1424-8.
  • Scheen, Lena (2015). Shanghai Literary Imaginings: A City in Transformation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 978-90-8964-587-6.
  • Yan Jin. "Shanghai Studies: An evolving academic field" History Compass (October 2018) e12496 Historiography of recent scholarship. online

External links

Academic Ranking of World Universities

Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators.Since 2009, ARWU has been published and copyrighted annually by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, an independent organization focusing on higher education. In 2011, a board of international advisory consisting of scholars and policy researchers was established to provide suggestions. The publication currently includes global league tables for institutions and a whole and for a selection of individual subjects, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking.

ARWU is regarded as one of the three most influential and widely observed university rankings, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings. It is often praised for the objectivity, stability and transparency of its methodology, but draws some criticism for heavily focusing on scientific research and downplaying the quality of instruction; it also does not adequately adjust for the size of the institution, and thus larger institutions would tend to rank above smaller ones.

China Eastern Airlines

China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited (simplified Chinese: 中国东方航空公司; traditional Chinese: 中國東方航空公司, colloquially known as 东航/東航) is an airline headquartered in the China Eastern Airlines Building, on the grounds of Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport in Changning District, Shanghai. It is a major Chinese airline operating international, domestic and regional routes. Its main hubs are at Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport, with secondary hubs at Beijing Capital International Airport, Kunming Changshui International Airport and Xi'an Xianyang International Airport.

China Eastern Airlines is China's second-largest carrier by passenger numbers. China Eastern and its subsidiary Shanghai Airlines became the 14th member of SkyTeam on 21 June 2011. The parent company of China Eastern Airlines Corporation Limited is China Eastern Air Holding Company.

Chinese Super League

The Chinese Football Association Super League (simplified Chinese: 中国足球协会超级联赛; traditional Chinese: 中國足球協會超級聯賽; pinyin: Zhōngguó Zúqiú Xiéhuì Chāojí Liánsài), commonly known as Chinese Super League (simplified Chinese: 中超联赛; traditional Chinese: 中超聯賽; pinyin: Zhōngchāo Liánsài) or CSL, currently known as the China Ping An Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional football in China, operating under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association (CFA).

The Chinese Super League was created by the rebranding of the former top division Chinese Football Association Jia-A League in 2004 (see Chinese Jia-A League, not to be confused with Chinese Football Association Jia League, which is the current second tier league).

Originally contested by 12 teams in its inaugural year, the league has since expanded, with 16 teams competing in the current season. A total of 31 teams have competed in the CSL since its inception. The title has been won by seven teams: Shenzhen Jianlibao, Dalian Shide, Shandong Luneng, Changchun Yatai, Beijing Guoan,

Guangzhou Evergrande, and Shanghai SIPG. The current Super League champions are Shanghai SIPG.The Chinese Super League is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in China, with an average attendance of 24,107 for league matches in the 2018 season. This is the twelfth-highest of any domestic professional sports league in the world and the sixth-highest of any professional association football league in the world, behind Bundesliga, Premier League, La Liga, Serie A and Liga MX.

The League is now running under the authorization of the Chinese Football Association, The CSL Company, which is currently the commercial branch of the League, is a corporation in which the CFA and all of the member clubs act as shareholders. It is planned that the CFA will ultimately transfer their shares of The CSL Company to the clubs and professional union which consists of CSL clubs will be established as the League's management entity.

HSBC

HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company. It is the 7th largest bank in the world, and the largest in Europe, with total assets of US$2.558 trillion (as of December 2018). HSBC traces its origin to a hong in Hong Kong, and its present form was established in London by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation to act as a new group holding company in 1991. The origins of the bank lie mainly in Hong Kong and to a lesser extent in Shanghai, where branches were first opened in 1865. The HSBC name is derived from the initials of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The company was first formally incorporated in 1866. The company continues to see both the United Kingdom and Hong Kong as its "home markets".HSBC has around 3,900 offices in 67 countries and territories across Africa, Asia, Oceania, Europe, North America, and South America, and around 38 million customers. As of 2014, it was the world's sixth-largest public company, according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine.HSBC is organised within four business groups: Commercial Banking, Global Banking and Markets (investment banking), Retail Banking and Wealth Management, and Global Private Banking.HSBC has a dual primary listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Hang Seng Index and the FTSE 100 Index. As of 6 July 2012, it had a market capitalisation of £102.7 billion, the second-largest company listed on the London Stock Exchange, after Royal Dutch Shell. It has secondary listings on the New York Stock Exchange, Euronext Paris, and the Bermuda Stock Exchange.

In February 2015, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists released information about the business conduct of HSBC under the title Swiss Leaks. The ICIJ alleges that the bank profited from doing business with tax evaders and other clients. The BBC reported that HSBC had put pressure on media not to report about the controversy, with British newspaper The Guardian claiming HSBC advertising had been put "on pause" after The Guardian's coverage of the matter. Peter Oborne, chief political commentator at The Daily Telegraph, resigned from the paper; in an open letter, he claimed the newspaper suppressed negative stories and dropped investigations into HSBC because of the bank's advertising.In 2016, HSBC was sued by Mexican families involved in deaths by organized-crime gangs for processing funds ("money laundering") for the Sinaloa cartel.

List of busiest airports by passenger traffic

The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers. Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport has been the world's busiest airport every year since 2000; with all airports combined London has the world's busiest city airport system by passenger count. As of 2018, six countries have at least two airports in the top 50; the United States of America has 15, Greater China has 10, and the United Kingdom, Germany, India and Spain have two airports each.

List of tallest buildings

This list of tallest buildings includes skyscrapers with continuously occupiable floors and a height of at least 350 m. Non-building structures, such as towers, are not included in this list (see list of tallest buildings and structures).

Pudong

Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. The name refers to its historic position as "The East Bank" of the Huangpu River, which flows through central Shanghai, although it is now administered as the Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea.

The traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, and the Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of former foreign concessions in China. The rest of the new area includes the Port of Shanghai, the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, and the Shanghai Disney Resort.

SAIC Motor

SAIC Motor Corporation Limited (SAIC, formerly Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation) is a Chinese state-owned automotive design and manufacturing company headquartered in Shanghai, with multinational operations. A Fortune Global 100 company and one of the "Big Four" state-owned Chinese automakers (along with Chang'an Motors, FAW Group, and Dongfeng Motor), the company had the largest production volume of any Chinese automaker in 2014 making more than 4.5 million vehicles. Its manufacturing mix is not wholly consumer offerings, however, with as many as one million SAIC passenger vehicles being commercial vans.

SAIC traces its origins to the early years of the Chinese automobile industry in the 1940s, and SAIC was one of the few carmakers in Mao's China, making the Shanghai SH760. Currently, it participates in the oldest surviving sino-foreign car making joint venture, with Volkswagen, and in addition has had a joint venture and 40% shares of General Motors since 1998. SAIC products sell under a variety of brand names, including those of its joint venture partners. Two notable brands owned by SAIC itself are MG, a historic British car marque, and Roewe, one of the few domestic Chinese luxury car brands.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security alliance, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003. The original five nations, with the exclusion of Uzbekistan, were previously members of the Shanghai Five group, founded on 26 April 1996. Since then, the organisation has expanded its membership to eight countries when India and Pakistan joined SCO as full members on 9 June 2017 at a summit in Astana, Kazakhstan. The Heads of State Council (HSC) is the supreme decision-making body in the SCO, it meets once a year and adopts decisions and guidelines on all important matters of the organisation. Military exercises are also regularly conducted among members to promote cooperation and coordination against terrorism and other external threats, and to maintain regional peace and stability.The SCO is widely regarded as the "alliance of East", due to its growing centrality in Asia-Pacific, and has been the primary security pillar of the region. Being the world's forefront regional organisation in economic power and political influence, and one of the world's strongest military alliances, it is also the largest regional organisation in the world in terms of geographical coverage and population, covering three-fifths of the Eurasian continent and nearly half of the human population. At present, the SCO is one of the world's most powerful and influential organisations.With the growing power and enlargement of the organisation, its scope of unity and cooperation has expanded to many other areas, including education, science, technology, health care, environmental protection, tourism, media, sports, humanitarian and culture, while extending its principle to include global governance and fostering of international relationships. It has been a major partner of ASEAN, with both of the organisations establishing a cooperation model for the peace, stability, development and sustainability of the Asian continent, and in the field of security, economy, finance, tourism, culture and environmental protection. Because of its vast influence and power on the global stage, the organisation plays a prominent role in shaping international politics, governance and affairs, and maintains diplomatic missions throughout the world.

Shanghai Greenland Shenhua F.C.

Shanghai Greenland Shenhua Football Club (simplified Chinese: 上海绿地申花足球俱乐部; traditional Chinese: 上海綠地申花足球俱樂部; pinyin: Shànghǎi Lǜdì Shēnhuā Zúqiú Jùlèbù), is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The term shen hua literally translates as "the Flower of Shanghai" in English – shen is one of the alternative names of Shanghai and hua means flower in Chinese. The team is based in Kangqiao, Shanghai and their home stadium is the Hongkou Football Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 33,060. Their current majority shareholder is Chinese developer Greenland Group who officially took over the operation of the club when they bought the 28.5% share from previous majority shareholder Zhu Jun on 31 January 2014.The club's predecessor was called Shanghai F.C. and they predominantly played in the top tier, where they won several domestic league and cup titles. On 10 December 1993 the club was reorganised to become a completely professional football club so they could play in the 1994 Chinese Jia-A League season making them one of the founding members of the first fully professional top tier league in China. Since then, they have won the 1995 league title along with the 1998 and 2017 Chinese FA Cup.According to Forbes, Shenhua are the 6th most valuable football team in China, with a team value of $106 million, and an estimated revenue of $29 million in 2015.

Shanghai International Circuit

The Shanghai International Circuit (simplified Chinese: 上海国际赛车场; traditional Chinese: 上海國際賽車場; pinyin: Shànghǎi Guójì Sàichēchǎng) is a motorsport race track, situated in the Jiading District, Shanghai. The circuit is best known as the venue for the annual Formula 1 Chinese Grand Prix which has been hosted since 2004.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU; Chinese: 上海交通大学) is a major research university in Shanghai. Established in 1896 as Nanyang Public School by an imperial edict issued by the Guangxu Emperor, it has been referred to as "The MIT of the East" since the 1930s. It is one of the nine members of the elite C9 League, the Chinese equivalent of the Ivy League,

and is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.

Shanghai Metro

The Shanghai Metro (Chinese: 上海地铁) is a rapid transit rail network in Shanghai, operating urban and suburban transit services to 14 of its 16 municipal districts and to Huaqiao Town, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. The Shanghai Metro system is the world's largest rapid transit system by route length. Opening in 1993 with full-scale construction extending back to 1986, the Shanghai Metro is the third-oldest rapid transit system in mainland China, after the Beijing Subway and the Tianjin Metro. It has seen substantial growth, significantly during the years leading up to the Expo 2010, and is still expanding quickly, with its most recent expansions having opened in December 2018. It is the largest component of the Shanghai metropolitan rail transit network, together with the Shanghai maglev train, the Zhangjiang Tram, the Songjiang Tram and the China Railway-operated commuter rail services to Jinshan. The metro system is also integrated with other forms of public transport in Shanghai.

The Shanghai Metro system is the world's largest rapid transit system by route length totaling 676 kilometres (420 mi). It is the second largest by the number of stations with 413 stations on 16 lines. It ranks second in the world by annual ridership with 3.71 billion rides delivered in 2018. The daily ridership record was set at 13.29 million on March 8, 2019. Over 10 million people use the system on an average workday.On 16 October 2013, with the extension of Line 11 into Kunshan in Jiangsu province, Shanghai Metro became the first rapid transit system in China to provide cross-provincial service and the second intercity metro after the Guangfo Metro. Further plans to connect the Shanghai Metro with the metro system of Suzhou are under active review, with the first line connecting Shanghai Metro Line 11 and Suzhou Metro Line S1 under construction and projected to be completed by 2024. Ambitious expansion plans call for 25 lines with over 1,000 km (620 mi) of length by 2025. By then, every location in the central area of Shanghai will be within 600 m (2,000 ft) of a subway station.

Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Shanghai Pudong International Airport (IATA: PVG, ICAO: ZSPD) is one of two international airports of Shanghai and a major aviation hub of China. Pudong Airport mainly serves international flights, while the city's other major airport Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport mainly serves domestic and regional flights. Located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of the city center, Pudong Airport occupies a 40-square-kilometre (10,000-acre) site adjacent to the coastline in eastern Pudong. The airport is operated by Shanghai Airport Authority (Chinese: 上海机场集团公司, SSE: 600009).

The airport is the main hub for China Eastern Airlines and Shanghai Airlines, and a major international hub for Air China, as well as secondary hub of China Southern Airlines. It is also the hub for privately owned Juneyao Airlines and Spring Airlines, and an Asia-Pacific cargo hub for UPS and DHL. The DHL hub, opened in July 2012, is said to be the biggest express hub in Asia.Pudong Airport has two main passenger terminals, flanked on both sides by four operational parallel runways. A third passenger terminal has been planned since 2015, in addition to a satellite terminal and two additional runways, which will raise its annual capacity from 60 million passengers to 80 million, along with the ability to handle six million tons of freight.Pudong Airport is a fast-growing hub for both passenger and cargo traffic. With 3,703,431 metric tons handled in 2017, the airport is the world's third-busiest airport by cargo traffic. Pudong Airport also served a total of 70,001,237 passengers in 2017, making it the second-busiest airport in China, fifth-busiest in Asia, and the ninth-busiest in the world. It is also the busiest international gateway of mainland China, with 35.25 million international passengers. By the end of 2016, Pudong Airport hosted 104 airlines serving more than 210 destinations.Shanghai Pudong is the busiest international hub of China, and about half of its total passenger traffic is international. Pudong Airport is connected to Shanghai Hongqiao Airport by Shanghai Metro Line 2 and the Shanghai Maglev Train via Pudong International Airport Station. There are also airport buses connecting it with the rest of the city.

Shanghai SIPG F.C.

Shanghai SIPG F.C. (Chinese: 上海上港; pinyin: Shànghǎi Shànggǎng; Shanghainese pronunciation: [ʂâŋ xài ʂâŋ kàŋ];) or SIPG FC is a professional football club that participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Xuhui, Shanghai, and their home stadium is the Shanghai Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 56,842. Their owners are the Chinese group Shanghai International Port Group (SIPG).

The club was founded on 25 December 2005, as Shanghai Dongya FC (Dongya, Chinese: 东亚; pinyin: Dōngyà; literally: 'East Asia') by former Chinese international footballer coach Xu Genbao. The club used graduates from Genbao Football Base, a football academy also founded by Xu, to form their first team as they made their debut in the third tier of China's football league pyramid in the 2006 league season. They worked their way up to the top tier and the highest position they have ever finished is second in the 2015 Chinese Super League season.

According to Forbes, Shanghai SIPG F.C. are the third-most valuable football club in China, with a club value of $159 million, and an estimated revenue of $37 million in 2015. According to the annual report of the parent company, the football club had a revenue of CN¥565.7 million in 2015 financial year, as well as net loss of CN¥41.5 million, total assets of CN¥286.8 million, net assets of CN¥59.7 million.

Shanghai Tower

The Shanghai Tower (Chinese: 上海中心大厦; pinyin: Shànghǎi Zhōngxīn Dàshà; Shanghainese: Zånhe Tsonshin Dasa; literally: 'Shanghai Centre Building') is a 632-metre (2,073 ft), 128-story megatall skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai. It shares the record (along with the Ping An Finance Center) of having the world's highest observation deck within a building or structure at 562 m, and the 2nd world's fastest elevators at a top speed of 20.5 metres per second (74 km/h; 46 mph). It is the world's second-tallest building by height to architectural top. However, the title of the world's fastest elevator now belongs to the Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre, with a top speed of 21 metres per second (76 km/h; 47 mph) achieved in 2017.

Designed by international design firm Gensler and owned by the Shanghai city government, it is the tallest of the world's first triple-adjacent supertall buildings in Pudong, the other two being the Jin Mao Tower and the Shanghai World Financial Centre. Its tiered construction, designed for high energy efficiency, provides nine separate zones divided between office, retail and leisure use.Construction work on the tower began in November 2008 and topped out on 3 August 2013. The exterior was completed in summer 2015, and work was considered complete in September 2015. Although the building was originally scheduled to open to the public in November 2014, the actual public-use date slipped considerably. The observation deck was opened to visitors in July 2016; the period from July through September 2016 was termed a "test run" or "commissioning" period. Since April 26, 2017, the sightseeing deck on the 118th floor has been open to the public.

Shanghai maglev train

The Shanghai Maglev Train or Shanghai Transrapid (Chinese: 上海磁浮示范运营线) is a magnetic levitation train (maglev) line that operates in Shanghai. The line is the third commercially operated magnetic levitation line in history, after the British Birmingham Maglev and the German M-Bahn, and the first commercial high-speed maglev.

It is the fastest commercial high-speed electric train in the world.The train line connects Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Longyang Road Station (in the outskirts of central Pudong), where passengers can interchange to the Shanghai Metro to continue their trip to the city center. The line is not part of the Shanghai Metro network, which operates its own service to Pudong Airport from central Shanghai and Longyang Road Station. It cost $1.2 billion to build. The line's balance of payments has been in huge deficit since its opening.

From 2004 to 2006, Shanghai Maglev Transportation Development Co. Ltd, the company which runs the line, had more than one billion RMB in losses. The line's lack of profitablity derives from its construction for political reasons as a test project for the future of China's rail infrastructure, rather than as a viable market solution for the needs of travelers.

The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

HSBC (Chinese: 滙豐; Cantonese Yale: Wuihfūng), officially known as The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (Chinese: 香港上海滙豐銀行有限公司), is a wholly owned subsidiary of HSBC, the largest bank in Hong Kong, and operates branches and offices throughout the Asia Pacific region, and in other countries around the world. It is also one of the three commercial banks licensed by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority to issue banknotes for the Hong Kong dollar.

"The Hongkong and Shanghai Bank" was established in British Hong Kong in 1865 and was incorporated as "The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation" in 1866, and has been based in Hong Kong (although now as a subsidiary) ever since. It was renamed "The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited" in 1989. It is the founding member of the HSBC Group of Banks and Companies, since 1990, is the namesake and one of the leading subsidiaries of the London-based HSBC Holdings PLC. The company's business ranges from the traditional High Street roles of retail banking, commercial banking, corporate banking to investment banking, private banking and global banking.

Yao Ming

Yao Ming (Chinese: 姚明; born September 12, 1980) is a Chinese basketball executive and retired professional basketball player who played for the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA) and the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He was selected to start for the Western Conference in the NBA All-Star Game eight times, and was named to the All-NBA Team five times. At the time of his final season, he was the tallest active player in the NBA, at 2.29 m (7 ft 6 in). He is the only player from outside of the United States to lead the NBA in All-Star votes.Yao, who was born in Shanghai, started playing for the Shanghai Sharks as a teenager, and played on their senior team for five years in the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA), winning a championship in his final year. After negotiating with the CBA and the Sharks to secure his release, Yao was selected by the Houston Rockets as the first overall pick in the 2002 NBA draft. He reached the NBA Playoffs four times, and the Rockets won the first-round series in the 2009 postseason, their first playoff series victory since 1997. In July 2011, Yao announced his retirement from professional basketball because of a series of foot and ankle injuries which forced him to miss 250 games in his last six seasons. In eight seasons with the Rockets, Yao ranks sixth among franchise leaders in total points and total rebounds, and second in total blocks.Yao is one of China's best-known athletes, with sponsorships with several major companies. His rookie year in the NBA was the subject of a documentary film, The Year of the Yao, and he co-wrote, along with NBA analyst Ric Bucher, an autobiography titled Yao: A Life in Two Worlds.

In April 2016, Yao was elected into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, alongside Shaquille O'Neal and Allen Iverson.In February 2017, Yao was unanimously elected as chairman of Chinese Basketball Association.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinShànghǎi
Bopomofoㄕㄤˋ   ㄏㄞˇ
Gwoyeu RomatzyhShanqhae
Wade–GilesShang4-hai3
IPA[ʂâŋ.xài]
Wu
RomanizationZaan22 he44
Shanghainese
Romanization
Zånhae
Hakka
RomanizationSông-hói
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationSeuhnghói
IPA[sœ̀ːŋ.hɔ̌ːy]
JyutpingSoeng6hoi2
Southern Min
Hokkien POJSiōng-hái
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCSiông-hāi
Climate data for Shanghai (normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.1
(71.8)
27.0
(80.6)
29.6
(85.3)
34.3
(93.7)
36.4
(97.5)
37.5
(99.5)
39.2
(102.6)
39.9
(103.8)
38.2
(100.8)
34.0
(93.2)
28.7
(83.7)
23.4
(74.1)
39.9
(103.8)
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
10.1
(50.2)
13.8
(56.8)
19.5
(67.1)
24.8
(76.6)
27.8
(82.0)
32.2
(90.0)
31.5
(88.7)
27.9
(82.2)
22.9
(73.2)
17.3
(63.1)
11.1
(52.0)
20.6
(69.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
6.6
(43.9)
10.0
(50.0)
15.3
(59.5)
20.7
(69.3)
24.4
(75.9)
28.6
(83.5)
28.3
(82.9)
24.9
(76.8)
19.7
(67.5)
13.7
(56.7)
7.6
(45.7)
17.1
(62.7)
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
3.7
(38.7)
6.9
(44.4)
11.9
(53.4)
17.3
(63.1)
21.7
(71.1)
25.8
(78.4)
25.8
(78.4)
22.4
(72.3)
16.8
(62.2)
10.6
(51.1)
4.7
(40.5)
14.1
(57.5)
Record low °C (°F) −10.1
(13.8)
−7.9
(17.8)
−5.4
(22.3)
−0.5
(31.1)
6.9
(44.4)
12.3
(54.1)
16.3
(61.3)
18.8
(65.8)
10.8
(51.4)
1.7
(35.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
−8.5
(16.7)
−10.1
(13.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.4
(2.93)
59.1
(2.33)
93.8
(3.69)
74.2
(2.92)
84.5
(3.33)
181.8
(7.16)
145.7
(5.74)
213.7
(8.41)
87.1
(3.43)
55.6
(2.19)
52.3
(2.06)
43.9
(1.73)
1,166.1
(45.91)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.9 9.2 12.4 11.2 10.4 12.7 11.4 12.3 9.1 6.9 7.6 7.7 120.8
Average relative humidity (%) 74 73 73 72 72 79 77 78 75 72 72 71 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.3 119.9 128.5 148.5 169.8 130.9 190.8 185.7 167.5 161.4 131.1 127.4 1,775.8
Source: China Meteorological Administration [59]
Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations
English Chinese Pinyin Shanghainese Romanization
Shanghai Municipality 上海市 Shànghǎi Shì zeon he zy
Huangpu District 黄浦区 Huángpǔ Qū waon phu chiu
Xuhui District 徐汇区 Xúhuì Qū zi we chiu
Changning District 长宁区 Chángníng Qū zan nyin chiu
Jing'an District 静安区 Jìng'ān Qū zin oe chiu
Putuo District 普陀区 Pǔtuó Qū phu du chiu
Hongkou District 虹口区 Hóngkǒu Qū ghon kheu chiu
Yangpu District 杨浦区 Yángpǔ Qū yan phu chiu
Minhang District 闵行区 Mǐnháng Qū min ghaon chiu
Baoshan District 宝山区 Bǎoshān Qū pau sae chiu
Jiading District 嘉定区 Jiādìng Qū ka din chiu
Pudong New Area 浦东新区 Pǔdōng Xīnqū phu ton sin chiu
Jinshan District 金山区 Jīnshān Qū cin se chiu
Songjiang District 松江区 Sōngjiāng Qū son kaon chiu
Qingpu District 青浦区 Qīngpǔ Qū tsin phu chiu
Fengxian District 奉贤区 Fèngxián Qū von yi chiu
Chongming District 崇明区 Chóngmíng Qū dzon min chiu

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