Shandong Peninsula

The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.[1]

Shandong Peninsula
Location-of-Shandong-Peninsula
Location of the Shandong Peninsula
Simplified Chinese山东半岛
Traditional Chinese山東半島
Jiaodong Peninsula
Simplified Chinese胶东半岛
Traditional Chinese膠東半島

Geography

The waters bordering the peninsula are Laizhou Bay to the northwest, which opens into the Bohai Sea to the north, which in turn passes through the Bohai Strait to the northeast into the Yellow Sea to the east and south.

The peninsula's territory comprises three prefecture-level cities of Shandong province: Qingdao in the southwest, Yantai in the north and centre, and Weihai at the eastern tip.

History

The Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory was a leased territory of the German Empire from 1898 to 1914 located around Jiaozhou Bay, where the village of Qingdao (Tsingtao) developed into a major seaport. As a consequence of the First World War, Germany lost Qingdao and its sphere of influence in Shandong. The Treaty of Versailles transferred the leased territory to the Empire of Japan instead of restoring Chinese sovereignty over the area. Popular dissatisfaction with this outcome, referred to as the Shandong Problem, led to the May Fourth Movement. Shandong reverted to Chinese control in 1922 after mediation by the United States during the Washington Naval Conference. Weihai followed in 1930. However, Japan retained economic influence in the area.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Shandong". ChinaCulture.org. Ministry of Culture. Archived from the original on 13 February 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.

Coordinates: 37°N 121°E / 37°N 121°E

1344 Yellow River flood

The 1344 Yellow River flood was a major natural disaster during the Yuan dynasty of Imperial China. The impact was devastating both for the peasants of the area as well as the leaders of the empire. The Yuan dynasty was waning, and the emperor forced enormous teams to build new embankments for the river. The terrible conditions helped fuel rebellions that led to the founding of the Ming dynasty.As a result of the flood, the Yellow River shifted course south of the Shandong peninsula, where it remained for the next five hundred years until floods in the 1850s returned it to its more northerly course.

Chuang Guandong

Chuang Guandong (simplified Chinese: 闯关东; traditional Chinese: 闖關東; pinyin: Chuǎng Guāndōng; IPA: [ʈʂʰwàŋ kwán.tʊ́ŋ]; literally "Crashing into Guandong" with Guandong being an older name for Manchuria) is descriptive of the rush of Han Chinese into Manchuria, mainly from the Shandong Peninsula and Zhili, during the hundred-year period beginning in the last half of the 19th century. Previously, this region was outside China proper, but was sometimes under direct control and/or indirect influence, of the ruling Chinese dynasty. During the first two centuries of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, this part of China, the traditional homeland of the ruling Manchus, was, with few exceptions, closed to settlement by Han Chinese civilians, with only certain Manchu Bannermen, Mongol Bannermen, and Chinese Bannermen allowed in. The region, now known as Northeast China, now has an overwhelmingly Han population.

Duan Qi

Duan Qi was a kingdom located in Shandong peninsula of northern China during the Sixteen Kingdoms period. It was founded by Duan Kan, a member from the Duan tribe of Xianbei people. In 350, Ran Min overthrew the Later Zhao kingdom and caused chaos in the North China Plain. Duan Kan took this chance to lead his people to the city of Guanggu in Shandong and established Duan Qi kingdom. Duan Kan did not claim to be an emperor because he regarded the emperor of Jin dynasty as the son of heaven. In 351, Duan Qi became a vassal state of Jin dynasty after the emperor of Jin appointed Duan Kan to be the Zhenbei General and Duke of Qi. However, Duan Qi was still considered to be an independent state since Jin had no direct control on it.In 355, Murong Jun, a person from another tribal clan of Xianbei, claimed to be the emperor of Former Yan. Duan Kan was annoyed because he did not think anyone from a Xianbei tribe should claim to be an emperor. He wrote a letter to denounce Murong Jun, which exasperated Former Yan. In 356, a war broke out between Former Yan and Duan Qi, and Duan Qi was defeated in the war. Duan Kan asked for help from Jin, but it was too late. He was captured by Murong Jun and was executed in the following year.

Haiyang

Haiyang (simplified Chinese: 海阳; traditional Chinese: 海陽; pinyin: Hǎiyáng), a coastal city in Shandong province in eastern China, located on the Yellow Sea (southern) coast of the Shandong Peninsula. It is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yantai.

Haiyang's claim to fame comes from its extensive sea beaches, national forest parks, wetland reserves, as well as its beautiful beach and yachting opportunities. On December 2, 2006 the Olympic Council of Asia in Doha announced the selection of Haiyang as the host city for the 2012 Asian Beach Games. Haiyang is the site of the new Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant. Haiyang is the hometown of writer Sun Junqing (孙俊卿), who's 1962 work written about the hope for a better year of farming in 1963 after the Great Chinese Famine is part of the Putonghua Proficiency Test.

Jiaoliao Mandarin

Jiaoliao or Jiao–Liao Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 胶辽官话; traditional Chinese: 膠遼官話; pinyin: Jiāo–Liáo Guānhuà) is a primary dialect of Mandarin Chinese, spoken on the Shandong Peninsula, from Yantai to Qingdao, Ganyu District in northeastern Jiangsu and Liaodong Peninsula, from Dalian to Dandong, and along the Yalu River and the Ussuri River, in northeast China. Yantai, Dalian, and Weihai dialects are the standard Jiao–Liao Mandarin.Jiao–Liao Mandarin is also called Lái (Chinese: 萊), for the state of Lai and its people who lived on the Jiao–Liao Peninsulas.

Laiyang

Laiyang city (simplified Chinese: 莱阳; traditional Chinese: 萊陽; pinyin: Láiyáng) is a county-level city within Yantai bordering Qingdao, located in the middle of the Shandong Peninsula, in Shandong province, China. The majority (70%) of its population are farmers and it is famous for producing the Laiyang pear. As of 2010, it had a population of 923,000.

Laizhou Bay

Laizhou Bay (simplified Chinese: 莱州湾; traditional Chinese: 萊州灣; pinyin: Láizhōu Wān) is the southern arm of the Bohai Sea (also known as the Bohai Gulf, or just Bo Hai), which is a large relatively shallow extension of Korea Bay (Northern Yellow Sea) behind the Liaodong Peninsula to the north, and the Shandong Peninsula to the south. Both peninsulas are roughly triangular in shape and point towards the Bohai Strait, the mouth opening out to the Yellow Sea via the southern region of Korea Bay.

Linqu County

Linqu County (simplified Chinese: 临朐县; traditional Chinese: 臨朐縣; pinyin: Línqú Xiàn) is a county located in the southwest of Weifang and the middle of Shandong Peninsula, Shandong Province, China. It covers an area of 1,834 km2 (708 sq mi) and governs 937 villages which were grouped into eight townships and two subdistricts . Linqu has a population of 0.85 million.

With a long history of over 2000 years since its establishment in the West Han Dynasty, Linqu is well known for its beautiful sceneries and rich cultures, such as traditional operas, brush paintings and calligraphy, rare rock arts, Mount Yi National Forest Park, Shanwang National Geography Park, Old Dragon Spring and Shimenfang Park. Its over 210 archeology sites include Dawenkou culture and Longshan culture relics.

Maoqiang

Maoqiang Opera (Chinese: 茂腔; pinyin: Màoqiāng) is a local folk opera style from the Jiaozhou area of Shandong Peninsula (Jiaodong Peninsula) in eastern China. It has been listed as a national intangible cultural heritage since 2006.

The Maoqiang Opera has a history of about 200 years and has incorporated local folk songs and dances from the region. Musical instruments used include drum, cymbal, gong, jinghu, suona, flute, and sheng. The main roles are shared with Peking opera: sheng (生, main male roles), dan (旦, female roles), and chou (丑, male clown). There more than 140 Maoqiang plays including "Dongjing", "Xijing", "Nanjing", "Beijing", and "Luoshanji" and the opera is particularly popular in the cities of Qingdao, Yantai, Rizhao, Weifang, and Gaomi.The novel "Sandalwood Death" by Chinese writer Mo Yan is written in the style of the Maoqiang opera.

Penglai, Shandong

Penglai, formerly known as Dengzhou or Tengchow, is a county-level city belonging to the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong Province, in the People's Republic of China. It lies on the northwest corner of the Shandong Peninsula on the southern coast of the Gulf of Bohai. The city is famous for its mirages out at sea, which are frequent during May and June.

Pingdu

Pingdu (Chinese: 平度; pinyin: Píngdù) is the largest county-level city of Qingdao sub-provincial city, Shandong Province, China.

It is located in the east of the Shandong Peninsula (Jiaodong Peninsula), the heart of peninsula. It borders on Yantai and Weifang, and it has an area of 3,166 km2 (1,222 sq mi) and a population of 1,360,000 people.

Port of Longkou

The Port of Longkou is an artificial deep-water international seaport on the coast of Longkou, Yantai Prefecture, Shandong, People's Republic of China. It is located on the northern shore of Shandong Peninsula, opening to the Laizhou Bay of the Bohai Sea.

The port has been growing rapidly in the last decade, and it reached 70.6 million tons of total cargo throughput in 2013.

Port of Rizhao

The Port of Rizhao is a natural deep-water seaport on the coast of the city of Rizhao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China, located on the southern shore of Shandong Peninsula, opening to the Yellow Sea. It has 46 deep-water berths in two main port areas (Lanzhao Port Area and Shijiu Port Area). In 2012 it reached a throughput of 284 million metric tons, making it the tenth-busiest port in China.

Qingdao–Rongcheng intercity railway

Qingdao–Rongcheng intercity railway is a high-speed railway located in China's, Shandong Province. It travels along the Shandong Peninsula connecting to Qingdao and Rongcheng. Line length is 298.842 km (186 mi) (containing a total length of sidings, spurs and depots etc. of 335 km (208 mi)). The design speed is based on 250 km/h (155 mph) service. However, it has been reserved for the line to be upgraded, if warranted, to 300 km/h (186 mph). Construction consisted of a three-month preparation period, a building period of 27 months and with a joint testing and commissioning period of six months. On December 28, 2014, the Qingdao–Rongcheng intercity railway opened from Jimo to Rongcheng. The whole line is opened on November 16, 2016.。

Qixia, Shandong

Qixia (simplified Chinese: 栖霞; traditional Chinese: 棲霞; pinyin: Qīxiá) is a landlocked county-level city of the Shandong Peninsula, and is under the administration of Yantai City, Shandong province.

The population was 664,510 in 1999. It borders Penglai to the north, Fushan District to the northeast, Muping District to the east, Haiyang and Laiyang to the south, Zhaoyuan to the west, and Longkou to the northwest.

Red Spears' uprising in Shandong (1928–1929)

The Red Spear Society staged a major uprising in 1928–1929 against the rule of Liu Zhennian, the Nationalist government-aligned warlord ruler of eastern Shandong province in Republican China. Motivated by their resistance against high taxes, rampant banditry and the brutality of Liu's private army, the Red Spear peasant insurgents captured large areas on the Shandong Peninsula and were able to set up a proto-state in Dengzhou county. Despite this, the whole insurgency was eventually crushed by Liu in late 1929.

Rushan, Shandong

Rushan is a county-level city in the prefecture-level city of Weihai, Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Located on the Shandong Peninsula, Rushan borders Yantai to the north and looks out to the Yellow Sea to the south.

It derives its name from a breast-shaped hill on the seashore.

Shandong Problem

The Shandong Problem (simplified Chinese: 山东问题; traditional Chinese: 山東問題; pinyin: Shāndōng wèntí, Japanese: 山東問題, Santō mondai) was a dispute over Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, which dealt with the concession of the Shandong Peninsula. It was resolved in China's favour in 1922.

During the First World War (1914–18), China supported the Allies on condition that the Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory on the Shandong peninsula, which had belonged to the German Empire prior to its occupation by Japan in 1914, would be returned to China. In 1915, however, China reluctantly agreed to thirteen of Japan's original Twenty-One Demands which, among other things, acknowledged Japanese control of former German holdings. Britain and France promised Japan it could keep these holdings. In late 1918, China reaffirmed the transfer and accepted payments from Japan. Article 156 of the Treaty of Versailles transferred the territory of Kiautschou as well as the rights, titles and privileges acquired by virtue of the Sino-German treaty of 1898 to the Empire of Japan rather than returning them to the Chinese administration.Despite its formal agreement to Japan's terms in 1915 and 1918, China denounced the transfer of German holdings at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, with the strong support of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States. The Chinese ambassador to France, Wellington Koo, stated that China could no more relinquish Shandong, which was the birthplace of Confucius, the greatest Chinese philosopher, than could Christians concede Jerusalem. He demanded the promised return of Shandong, but to no avail. Japan prevailed. Chinese popular outrage over Article 156 led to demonstrations on 4 May 1919 and a cultural movement known as the May Fourth Movement. As a result, Wellington Koo refused to sign the treaty.

China's refusal to sign the Treaty of Versailles necessitated a separate peace treaty with Germany in 1921. The Shandong dispute was mediated by the United States in 1922 during the Washington Naval Conference. In a victory for China, the Japanese leasehold on Shandong was returned to China in the Nine-Power Treaty. Japan, however, maintained its economic dominance of the railway and the province as a whole.

Shantungosaurus

Shantungosaurus, meaning "Shandong Lizard", is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaurs found in the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group of the Shandong Peninsula in China. The stratigraphic interval of Shantungosaurus ranges from the top of the Xingezhuang Formation to the middle of the Hongtuya Formation, middle to late Campanian in age. Shantungosaurus is so far the largest hadrosauroid taxon in the world: the greatest length of its femur is about 1.7 m, and the greatest length of its humerus is about 0.97 m.

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