Shamrock

A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland. Saint Patrick, Ireland's patron saint, is said to have used it as a metaphor for the Christian Holy Trinity.[1] The name shamrock comes from Irish seamróg [ˈʃamˠɾˠoːɡ], which is the diminutive of the Irish word seamair óg and means simply "young clover".[2]

Shamrock usually refers to either the species Trifolium dubium (lesser clover, Irish: seamair bhuí)[3] or Trifolium repens (white clover, Irish: seamair bhán). However, other three-leaved plants—such as Medicago lupulina, Trifolium pratense, and Oxalis acetosella—are sometimes called shamrocks. The shamrock was traditionally used for its medicinal properties and was a popular motif in Victorian times.

Irish clover
A shamrock

Botanical species

There is still not a consensus over the precise botanical species of clover that is the "true" shamrock. John Gerard in his herbal of 1597 defined the shamrock as Trifolium pratense or Trifolium pratense flore albo, meaning red or white clover. He described the plant in English as "Three leaved grasse" or "Medow Trefoile", "which are called in Irish Shamrockes".[4] The Irish botanist Caleb Threlkeld, writing in 1726 in his work entitled Synopsis Stirpium Hibernicarum or A Treatise on Native Irish Plants followed Gerard in identifying the shamrock as Trifolium pratense, calling it White Field Clover.[5]

The botanist Carl von Linné in his 1737 work Flora Lapponica identifies the shamrock as Trifolium pratense, mentioning it by name as Chambroch, with the following curious remark: "Hiberni suo Chambroch, quod est Trifolium pratense purpureum, aluntur, celeres & promtissimi roburis" (The Irish call it shamrock, which is purple field clover, and which they eat to make them speedy and of nimble strength).[6][7] Linnaeus based his information that the Irish ate shamrock on the comments of English Elizabethan authors such as Edmund Spenser who remarked that the shamrock used to be eaten by the Irish, especially in times of hardship and famine. It has since been argued however, that the Elizabethans were confused by the similarity between the Irish (Gaelic) name for young clover seamróg, and the name for wood sorrel seamsóg.[8]

The situation regarding the identity of the shamrock was further confused by a London botanist James Ebenezer Bicheno, who proclaimed in a dissertation in 1830 that the real shamrock was Oxalis acetosella, a species of wood sorrel.[9] Bichino falsely claimed that clover was not a native Irish plant and had only been introduced into Ireland in the middle of the 17th century, and based his argument on the same comments by Elizabethan authors that shamrock had been eaten. Bicheno argued that this fitted the wood sorrel better than clover, as wood sorrel was often eaten as a green and used to flavour food. Bicheno's argument has not been generally accepted however, as the weight of evidence favours a species of clover.

A more scientific approach was taken by English botanists James Britten and Robert Holland, who stated in their Dictionary of English Plant Names published in 1878, that their investigations had revealed that Trifolium dubium was the species sold most frequently in Covent Garden as shamrock on St. Patrick's Day, and that it was worn in at least 13 counties in Ireland.[10]

Finally, detailed investigations to settle the matter were carried out in two separate botanical surveys in Ireland, one in 1893[11][12] and the other in 1988.[13] The 1893 survey was carried out by Nathaniel Colgan, an amateur naturalist working as a clerk in Dublin; while the 1988 survey was carried out by E. Charles Nelson, Director of the Irish National Botanic Gardens. Both surveys involved asking people from all across Ireland to send in examples of shamrock, which were then planted and allowed to flower, so that their botanical species could be identified. The results of both surveys were very similar, showing that the conception of the shamrock in Ireland had changed little in almost a hundred years. The results of the surveys are shown in the table below.

MedicagoLupulina02
Medicago lupulina flowers in Ireland from May to October[14] and so is not in flower on St. Patrick's Day
Shamrock survey
Botanical name Common name Percentage
1893 1988
Trifolium dubium Lesser clover 51% 46%
Trifolium repens White clover 34% 35%
Trifolium pratense Red clover 6% 4%
Medicago lupulina Black medick 6% 7%
Oxalis acetosella Wood sorrel _ 3%
Various Trifolium spp., Oxalis spp. 3% 5%

The results show that there is no one "true" species of shamrock, but that Trifolium dubium (lesser clover) is considered to be the shamrock by roughly half of Irish people, and Trifolium repens (white clover) by another third, with the remaining fifth split between Trifolium pratense (red clover), Medicago lupulina (black medick), Oxalis acetosella (wood sorrel), and various other species of Trifolium and Oxalis. None of the species in the survey are unique to Ireland, and all are common European species, so there is no botanical basis for the belief that the shamrock is a unique species of plant that only grows in Ireland.

Early references

The word shamrock derives from seamair óg or young clover, and references to semair or clover appear in early Irish literature, generally as a description of a flowering clovered plain. For example, in the series of medieval metrical poems about various Irish places called the Metrical Dindshenchus, a poem about Tailtiu or Teltown in Co. Meath describes it as a plain blossoming with flowering clover (mag scothach scothshemrach).[15] Similarly, another story tells of how St. Brigid decided to stay in Co. Kildare when she saw the delightful plain covered in clover blossom (scoth-shemrach).[16] However, the literature in Irish makes no distinction between clover and shamrock, and it is only in English that shamrock emerges as a distinct word.

Three irish kerns Albert Durer 1521
Three "wild" Irish kerns by Albrecht Dürer 1521

The first mention of shamrock in the English language occurs in 1571 in the work of the English Elizabethan scholar Edmund Campion. In his work Boke of the Histories of Irelande, Campion describes the habits of the "wild Irish" and states that the Irish ate shamrock: "Shamrotes, watercresses, rootes, and other herbes they feed upon".[17] The statement that the Irish ate shamrock was widely repeated in later works and seems to be a confusion with the Irish word seamsóg or wood sorrel (Oxalis).[8] There is no evidence from any Irish source that the Irish ate clover, but there is evidence that the Irish ate wood sorrel. For example, in the medieval Irish work Buile Shuibhne (The Frenzy of Sweeney), the king Sweeney, who has gone mad and is living in the woods as a hermit, lists wood sorrel among the plants he feeds upon.[18]

The English Elizabethan poet Edmund Spenser, writing soon after in 1596, described his observations of war-torn Munster after the Desmond Rebellion in his work A View of the Present State of Ireland. Here shamrock is described as a food eaten as a last resort by starving people desperate for any nourishment during a post-war famine:

Anatomies of death, they spake like ghosts, crying out of theire graves; they did eat of the carrions .... and if they found a plott of water cresses or shamrockes theyr they flocked as to a feast for the time, yett not able long to contynewe therewithall.[19]

The idea that the Irish ate shamrock is repeated in the writing of Fynes Moryson, one-time secretary to the Lord Deputy of Ireland. In his 1617 work An itinerary thorow Twelve Dominions, Moryson describes the "wild Irish", and in this case their supposed habit of eating shamrock is a result of their marginal hand-to-mouth existence as bandits. Moryson claims that the Irish "willingly eat the herbe Schamrock being of a sharpe taste which as they run and are chased to and fro they snatch like beasts out of the ditches." The reference to a sharp taste is suggestive of the bitter taste of wood sorrel.[20]

What is clear is that by the end of the sixteenth century the shamrock had become known to English writers as a plant particularly associated with the Irish, but only with a confused notion that the shamrock was a plant eaten by them. To a herbalist like Gerard it is clear that the shamrock is clover, but other English writers do not appear to know the botanical identity of the shamrock. This is not surprising, as they probably received their information at second or third hand. It is notable that there is no mention anywhere in these writings of St. Patrick or the legend of his using the shamrock to explain the Holy Trinity. However, there are two possible references to the custom of "drowning the shamrock" in "usquebagh" or whiskey. In 1607, the playwright Edward Sharpham in his play The Fleire included a reference to "Maister Oscabath the Irishman ... and Maister Shamrough his lackey".[21] Later, a 1630 work entitled Sir Gregory Nonsence by the poet John Taylor contains the lines: "Whilste all the Hibernian Kernes in multitudes, /Did feast with shamerags steeved in Usquebagh."[22]

Link to St. Patrick

Kilbennan St. Benin's Church Window St. Patrick Detail 2010 09 16
St. Patrick depicted with shamrock in detail of stained glass window in St. Benin's Church, Wicklow, Ireland

Traditionally, shamrock is said to have been used by Saint Patrick to illustrate the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity when Christianising Ireland in the 5th century. The first evidence of a link between St Patrick and the shamrock appears in 1675 on the St Patrick's Coppers or Halpennies. These appear to show a figure of St Patrick preaching to a crowd while holding a shamrock,[23] presumably to explain the doctrine of the Holy Trinity. In pagan Ireland, three was a significant number and the Irish had many triple deities, which could have aided St Patrick in his evangelisation efforts.[24][25] Patricia Monaghan states that "There is no evidence that the clover or wood sorrel (both of which are called shamrocks) were sacred to the Celts". However, Jack Santino speculates that "The shamrock was probably associated with the earth and assumed by the druids to be symbolic of the regenerative powers of nature ... Nevertheless, the shamrock, whatever its history as a folk symbol, today has its meaning in a Christian context. Pictures of Saint Patrick depict him driving the snakes out of Ireland with a cross in one hand and a sprig of shamrocks in the other."[26] Roger Homan writes, "We can perhaps see St Patrick drawing upon the visual concept of the triskele when he uses the shamrock to explain the Trinity".[27] Why the Celts to whom St Patrick was preaching would have needed an explanation of the concept of a triple deity is not clear (two separate triple goddesses are known to have been worshipped in pagan Ireland).

The first written mention of the link does not appear until 1681, in the account of Thomas Dineley, an English traveller to Ireland. Dineley writes:

The 17th day of March yeerly is St Patricks, an immoveable feast, when ye Irish of all stations and condicions were crosses in their hatts, some of pinns, some of green ribbon, and the vulgar superstitiously wear shamroges, 3 leav'd grass, which they likewise eat (they say) to cause a sweet breath.[28]

There is nothing in Dineley's account of the legend of St. Patrick using the shamrock to teach the mystery of the Holy Trinity, and this story does not appear in writing anywhere until a 1726 work by the botanist Caleb Threlkeld.[5] Threlkeld identifies the shamrock as White Field Clover (Trifolium pratense album ) and comments rather acerbically on the custom of wearing the shamrock on St. Patrick's Day:

This plant is worn by the people in their hats upon the 17. Day of March yearly, (which is called St. Patrick's Day.) It being a current tradition, that by this Three Leafed Grass, he emblematically set forth to them the Mystery of the Holy Trinity. However that be, when they wet their Seamar-oge, they often commit excess in liquor, which is not a right keeping of a day to the Lord; error generally leading to debauchery.

The Rev Threlkeld's remarks on liquor undoubtedly refer to the custom of toasting St. Patrick's memory with "St. Patrick's Pot", or "drowning the shamrock" as it is otherwise known. After mass on St. Patrick's Day the traditional custom of the menfolk was to lift the usual fasting restrictions of Lent and repair to the nearest tavern to mark the occasion with as many St. Patrick's Pots as they deemed necessary. The drowning of the shamrock was accompanied by a certain amount of ritual as one account explains:[29][30]

Irish Defence Forces UN Beret with Shamrock (13215113795) (2)
Shamrock on an Irish Defence Forces UN beret being worn on Saint Patrick's Day

"The drowning of the shamrock" by no means implies it was necessary to get drunk in doing so. At the end of the day the shamrock which has been worn in the coat or the hat is removed and put into the final glass of grog or tumbler of punch; and when the health has been drunk or the toast honoured, the shamrock should be picked out from the bottom of the glass and thrown over the left shoulder.

The shamrock is still chiefly associated with Saint Patrick's Day, which has become the Irish national holiday, and is observed with parades and celebrations worldwide. The custom of wearing shamrock on the day is still observed and depictions of shamrocks are habitually seen during the celebrations.

Symbol of Ireland

First Magherafelt Volunteers
Drawing of the medal awarded to the First Magherafelt Volunteers for skill with broadsword showing shamrocks.

As St. Patrick is Ireland's patron saint, shamrock has been used as a symbol of Ireland since the 18th century, in a similar way to how a rose is used for England, thistle for Scotland and daffodil for Wales. The shamrock first began to change from a symbol purely associated with St. Patrick to an Irish national symbol when it was taken up as an emblem by rival militias, during the turbulent politics of the late eighteenth century. On one side were the Volunteers (also known as the Irish Volunteers), who were local militias in late 18th century Ireland, raised to defend Ireland from the threat of French and Spanish invasion when regular British soldiers were withdrawn from Ireland to fight during the American Revolutionary War.[31] On the other side were revolutionary nationalist groups, such as the United Irishmen.

Among the Volunteers, examples of the use of the shamrock include its appearance on the guidon of the Royal Glin Hussars formed in July 1779 by the Knight of Glin, and its appearance on the flags of the Limerick Volunteers, the Castle Ray Fencibles and the Braid Volunteers.[32][33] The United Irishmen adopted green as their revolutionary colour and wore green uniforms or ribbons in their hats, and the green concerned was often associated with the shamrock. The song The Wearing of the Green commemorated their exploits and various versions exist which mention the shamrock. The Erin go bragh flag was used as their standard and was often depicted accompanied by shamrocks, and in 1799 a revolutionary journal entitled The Shamroc briefly appeared in which the aims of the rebellion were supported.[34]

Since the 1800 Acts of Union between Britain and Ireland the shamrock was incorporated into the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom, depicted growing from a single stem alongside the rose of England, and the thistle of Scotland to symbolise the unity of the three kingdoms. Since then, the shamrock has regularly appeared alongside the rose, thistle and (sometimes) leek for Wales in British coins such as the two shilling and crown, and in stamps. The rose, thistle and shamrock motif also appears regularly on British public buildings such as Buckingham Palace.

Throughout the nineteenth century the popularity of the shamrock as a symbol of Ireland grew, and it was depicted in many illustrations on items such as book covers and St. Patrick's Day postcards. It was also mentioned in many songs and ballads of the time. For example, a popular ballad called The Shamrock Shore lamented the state of Ireland in the nineteenth century.[35] Another typical example of such a ballad appears in the works of Thomas Moore whose Oh the Shamrock embodies the Victorian spirit of sentimentality. It was immensely popular and contributed to raising the profile of the shamrock as an image of Ireland:[36]

Oh The Shamrock
-
Through Erin's Isle,
To sport awhile,
As Love and Valor wander'd
With Wit, the sprite,
Whose quiver bright
A thousand arrows squander'd.
Where'er they pass,
A triple grass
Shoots up, with dew-drops streaming,
As softly green
As emeralds seen
Through purest crystal gleaming.
Oh the Shamrock, the green immortal Shamrock!
Chosen leaf
Of Bard and Chief,
Old Erin's native Shamrock!

Buckingham Palace December 2012 10
Rose thistle and shamrock motif on gate pillar at Buckingham Palace
Irish Harp (Boston Public Library)
Irish American Music sheet
PostcardStPatricksDaySouvinir1912
St Patrick's Day postcard 1912

Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the shamrock continued to appear in a variety of settings.[37] For example, the shamrock appeared on many buildings in Ireland as a decorative motif, such as on the facade of the Kildare Street Club building in Dublin, St. Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, and the Harp and Lion Bar in Listowel, Co. Kerry. It also appears on street furniture, such as old lamp standards like those in Mountjoy Square in Dublin, and on monuments like the Parnell Monument, and the O'Connell Monument, both in O'Connell Street, Dublin. Shamrocks also appeared on decorative items such as glass, china, jewellery, poplin and Irish lace. Belleek Pottery in Co. Fermanagh, for example regularly features shamrock motifs.

Mountjoy square lamppost1

Lamppost in Mountjoy Square, Dublin, early 20th Century

Listowel-ErinGoBrath

Design on Harp and Lion Bar Listowel, Co. Kerry

Herself - Himself - geograph.org.uk - 885732

Work by Belleek Pottery, which often features shamrock motifs

2d Map of Ireland- first Irish postage stamp

2d Map of Ireland: the first Irish postage stamp featured the shamrock

Aer Lingus Regional ATR 72 arrives Birmingham Airport, England 27June2019 arp

Shamrock on the tail fin of an ATR 72 of Aer Lingus Regional

The shamrock is used in the emblems of many state organisations, both in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Some of these are all-Ireland bodies, (such as Tourism Ireland)[38] as well as organisations specific to the Republic of Ireland (such as IDA Ireland)[39] and Northern Ireland (such as Police Service of Northern Ireland). The Irish Postal Service An Post, regularly features the shamrock on its series of stamps. The airline Aer Lingus uses the emblem in its logos, and its air traffic control call sign is "SHAMROCK".

Aerlingus.a320-200.ei-cvb.bristol.arp
An Aer Lingus Airbus A320 with a shamrock on its tail fin

The shamrock has been registered as a trademark by the Government of Ireland.[40] In the early 1980s, Ireland defended its right to use the shamrock as its national symbol in a German trademark case, which included high-level representation from taoiseach Charles Haughey. Having originally lost, Ireland won on appeal to the German Supreme Court in 1985.[41]

It has become a tradition for the Irish Taoiseach to present a bowl of shamrocks in a special Waterford Crystal bowl featuring a shamrock design to the President of the United States in the White House every St. Patrick's Day.[42]

Shamrock is also used in emblems of UK organisations with an association with Ireland, such as the Irish Guards. Soldiers of the Royal Irish Regiment of the British Army use the shamrock as their emblem, and wear a sprig of shamrock on Saint Patrick's Day. Shamrock are exported to wherever the regiment is stationed throughout the world. Queen Victoria decreed over a hundred years ago that soldiers from Ireland should wear a sprig of shamrock in recognition of fellow Irish soldiers who had fought bravely in the Boer War, a tradition continued by British army soldiers from both the north and the south of Ireland following partition in 1921. The coat of arms on the flag of the Royal Ulster Constabulary George Cross Foundation was cradled in a wreath of shamrock.[43]


The shamrock also appears in the emblems of a wide range of voluntary and non-state organisations in Ireland, such as the Irish Farmers Association,[44] the Boy Scouts of Ireland association, Scouting Ireland[45] Irish Girl Guides,[46] and the Irish Kidney Donors Association.,[47] In addition many sporting organisations representing Ireland use the shamrock in their logos and emblems. Examples include the Irish Football Association (Northern Ireland), Irish Rugby Football Union, Swim Ireland, Cricket Ireland, and the Olympic Council of Ireland. A sprig of shamrock represents the Lough Derg Yacht Club Tipperary, (est. 1836). The shamrock is the official emblem of Irish football club Shamrock Rovers.

Shamrock plant in bloom
This flowering Shamrock was purchased at a grocery store. It is a South American species of wood sorrel Oxalis regnellii.

Use overseas

Shamrock commonly appears as part of the emblem of many organisations in countries overseas with communities of Irish descent. Outside Ireland, various organisations, businesses and places also use the symbol to advertise a connection with the island.

  • The shamrock features in the emblem of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, the largest and oldest Irish Catholic organisation. Founded in New York City in 1836 by Irish immigrants, it claims a membership of 80,000 in the United States, Canada and Ireland.[48]
  • The Emerald Society, an organisation of American police officers or fire fighters of Irish heritage, includes a shamrock on its badge. Emerald Societies are found in most major US cities such as New York City, Milwaukee, WI, Jersey City, NJ, District of Columbia, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
  • The shamrock is featured in the "compartment" of the Royal Arms of Canada, as part of a wreath of shamrocks, roses, thistles, and lilies (representing the Irish, English, Scottish, and French settlers of Canada).
  • The flag of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada has a shamrock in the lower right quadrant. The shamrock represents the Irish population, one of the four major ethnic groups that made up the population of the city in the 19th century when the arms were designed, the other three being the French (represented by a fleur-de-lis in the upper-left), the English (represented by a rose in the upper-right), and the Scots (represented by a thistle in the lower-left).
  • The shamrock is featured on the passport stamp of Montserrat, many of whose citizens are of Irish descent.
  • The shamrock signified the Second Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the American Civil War, which contained the Irish Brigade. It can still be seen on the regimental coat of arms of "The Fighting Sixty-Ninth"
Erin Go Bragh Banner
Flag of St. Patrick's Battalion of the Mexican army reconstructed from description of Jon Riley. The flag has since become an emblem of Irish nationalism
Flag of Montreal

The Flag of Montreal. The shamrock is located in the lower right corner

AOH Logo 2001

AOH logo

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark

Emblem of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark, New Jersey

See also

References

  1. ^ Treeck, Carl Van; Croft, Aloysius (1936). Symbols in the Church. Bruce Publishing Co. Retrieved 13 March 2015. St. Patrick is said to have used the shamrock in explaining to the pagan Irish the idea of the Holy Trinity.
  2. ^ Nelson (1991), p. 14
  3. ^ "Lesser Hop Trefoil, Trifolium dubium - Flowers - NatureGate". www.luontoportti.com.
  4. ^ "The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes (1597)". caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de.
  5. ^ a b "NS07 Threlkeld Shamrock | a whole new world". dublincitypubliclibraries.com. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  6. ^ Linnæi, Caroli (1737). Flora Lapponica, exhibens plantas per Lapponiam crescentes, secundum systema sexuale, collectas in itinere impensis Soc. reg. scient. Upsaliensis, anno 1732 instituto. London: B White et Filiorum. pp. 229–230.
  7. ^ Nelson (1991), p. 34
  8. ^ a b Kelly, Fergus, Early Irish Farming, (2000), Dublin, p 311
  9. ^ "Journal of the Royal Institution of Great Britain". archive.org.
  10. ^ "A dictionary of English plant-names". archive.org.
  11. ^ Colgan, Nathaniel (1892). "The Shamrock: an attempt to fix its species". The Irish Naturalist. 1 (5): 95–97.
  12. ^ Colgan, Nathaniel (1893). "The Shamrock: a further attempt to fix its species". The Irish Naturalist. 2 (8): 207–211.
  13. ^ Nelson (1991), pp. 86–90, 139–144, 153
  14. ^ design, Coded web. "Wildflower Trefoil, Lesser Irish Wild Flora Wildflowers of Ireland". www.wildflowersofireland.net.
  15. ^ "The Metrical Dindshenchas". www.ucc.ie.
  16. ^ Stokes, Whitley, Lives of the Saints from the Book of Lismore, (1890), p177
  17. ^ Ware, Sir James (4 September 2017). "Ancient Irish Histories: The Works of Spencer, Campion, Hanmer, and Marleburrough". Reprinted at the Hibernia Press – via Google Books.
  18. ^ "Buile Suibhne". www.ucc.ie.
  19. ^ "A View of the Present State of Ireland". www.luminarium.org.
  20. ^ Moryson, Fynes, An Itinerary etc. Vol IV, p200 Archived 28 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Nelson (1991), p. 22
  22. ^ John Taylor (1622). Sir Gregory Nonsence His Newes from No Place. O[kes].
  23. ^ "Newbie's St. Patrick Coppers - Introduction". coins.nd.edu. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  24. ^ Monaghan, Patricia (1 January 2009). The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438110370. There is no evidence that the clover or wood sorrel (both of which are called shamrocks) were sacred to the Celts in any way. However, the Celts had a philosophical and cosmological vision of triplicity, with many of their divinities appearing in three. Thus when St. Patrick, attempting to convert the Druids on Beltane, held up a shamrock and discoursed on the Christian Trinity, the three-in-one god, he was doing more than finding a homely symbol for a complex religious concept. He was indicating knowledge of the significance of three in the Celtic realm, a knowledge that probably made his mission far easier and more successful than if he had been unaware of that number's meaning.
  25. ^ Hegarty, Neil (24 April 2012). Story of Ireland. Ebury Publishing. ISBN 9781448140398. In some ways, though, the Christian mission resonated: pre-Christian devotion was characterized by, for example, the worship of gods in groups of three, by sayings collected in threes (triads), and so on - from all of which the concept of the Holy Trinity was not so very far removed. Against this backdrop the myth of Patrick and his three-leafed shamrock fits quite neatly.
  26. ^ Santino, Jack (1995). All Around the Year: Holidays and Celebrations in American Life. University of Illinois Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780252065163.
  27. ^ Homan, Roger (2006). The Art of the Sublime: Principles of Christian Art and Architecture. Ashgate Publishing. p. 37.
  28. ^ Journal of the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, 1 (1856), p183
  29. ^ Journal of the Kildare Archaeological Society, 1908, p 443
  30. ^ Danaher, Kevin, The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs, (1972), Dublin, pp 64–5
  31. ^ Blackstock, Allan (2001). Issue 2 of Belfast Society publications (ed.). Double traitors?: the Belfast Volunteers and Yeomen, 1778–1828. Ulster Historical Foundation. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-9539604-1-5. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
  32. ^ Nelson (1991), p. 55
  33. ^ Kieran Kennedy (10 May 2007). "Limerick Volunteers 1776–1793" (PDF). Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  34. ^ "The Shamroc, [sic]". Printed by Joseph Mehain 22, Castle-street. 11 March 1799. OCLC 508356724. Retrieved 11 March 2018 – via Open WorldCat.
  35. ^ "Karan Casey - Shamrock Shore Lyrics". 11 April 2013. Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
  36. ^ Moore, Thomas (4 September 2017). "Melodies, national airs, miscellaneous poems and the Odes of Anacreon". Phillips, Sampson and Company – via Google Books.
  37. ^ Nelson (1991), pp. 90–120
  38. ^ "Corporate Logo". tourismirelandbrand.com. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  39. ^ "Invest in Ireland, IDA Ireland, Foreign Direct Investment into Ireland, Business in Ireland". idaireland.com. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  40. ^ Use of the harp and the shamrock were registered by the Irish government as international trademarks. See"Record of the meeting of the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Enterprise and Small Business, 26 March 2003". Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-13. . Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  41. ^ Gartland, Fiona (31 December 2011). "How Ireland lost the battle for the shamrock in Germany". The Irish Times. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  42. ^ "The White House Gets a Bit of Luck from Waterford and Irish Prime Minister | House of Waterford". waterfordvisitorcentre.com. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  43. ^ "About Us - College of Arms". www.college-of-arms.gov.uk.
  44. ^ "Irish Farmers' Association". ifa.ie. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  45. ^ "History of Scouting in Ireland Join the Adventure! | Scouting Ireland | www.scouts.ie". scouts.ie. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  46. ^ "Association Logo and Badge - Catholic Guides of Ireland". girlguidesireland.ie. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  47. ^ "IKA". ika.ie. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  48. ^ "Ancient Order of Hibernians — The Oldest and Largest Irish-Catholic Organization in the United States. Established 1836". aoh.com. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  49. ^ "Celtic badge - The Celtic Wiki". thecelticwiki.com. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
  50. ^ [1] Archived 16 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ "The Celtic Club - About". celticclub.com.au. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  52. ^ "Aryan Brotherhood". Anti-Defamation League.

Bibliography

  • Nelson, E. Charles (1991). Shamrock: Botany and History of an Irish Myth: a Biography of the Shamrock in History, Literature, Music and Art. Boethius Press. ISBN 0-86314-199-4.

External links

2010 League of Ireland Premier Division

The 2010 League of Ireland Premier Division was the 26th season of the League of Ireland Premier Division. The division was made up of 10 teams. Shamrock Rovers were champions while Bohemians finished as runners-up.

2011 League of Ireland Premier Division

The 2011 League of Ireland Premier Division was the 27th season of the League of Ireland Premier Division. The league was also known as the Airtricity League for sponsorship reasons. The division featured 10 teams. Shamrock Rovers were champions while Sligo Rovers finished as runners-up.

FAI Cup

The Football Association of Ireland Senior Challenge Cup (FAI Cup), known as the Extra.ie FAI Cup for sponsorship reasons, is a knock-out association football competition contested annually by teams from the Republic of Ireland (as well as Derry City from Northern Ireland). Organised by the FAI (Football Association of Ireland), the competition is currently sponsored by Extra.ie. It was known as the Free State Cup from 1923 to 1936. Shamrock Rovers hold the record of most wins with 24.

As of November 2018, the current holders are Dundalk

Frank Shamrock

Frank Shamrock (born Frank Alisio Juarez, III; December 8, 1972) is a retired American professional mixed martial artist. Shamrock was the first to hold the UFC Middleweight Championship (later renamed the UFC Light Heavyweight Championship) and retired a four-time defending undefeated champion. Shamrock was the No. 1 ranked pound for pound UFC fighter in the world during his reign as the UFC Middleweight Champion. Shamrock has won numerous titles in other martial arts organizations, including the interim King of Pancrase title, the WEC Light Heavyweight Championship and the Strikeforce Middleweight Championship and remains the only athlete in history to hold titles in every major sports league.

He was named "Fighter of the Decade" for the 1990s by the Wrestling Observer, "Best Full Contact Fighter" by Black Belt magazine (1998), and three time "Fighter of the Year" by Full Contact Fighter Magazine. He is a Seventh degree black belt in submission fighting, awarded by O-Sensei Philip S. Porter of the United States Martial Arts Association. He is the adopted brother of UFC Hall of Famer Ken Shamrock.

An author, entrepreneur, philanthropist and social activist, he also was a color commentator for Showtime Networks, Bellator MMA, Glory Kickboxing and Combate America's. Frank has been a brand spokesman for Strikeforce, VAS, UFC, and K-1 MMA and has advised on over 4.5 billion dollars in assets.

After retiring from MMA competition Shamrock retired in Southern California close to his place of birth and extended family.

Johnny Giles

Michael John Giles (born 6 November 1940) is an Irish former association football player and manager best remembered for his time as a midfielder with Leeds United in the 1960s and 1970s. After retiring from management in 1985, Giles served as the senior analyst on RTÉ Sport's coverage of association football from 1986 until 2016. The FAI voted Giles as the greatest Irish player of the last 50 years at the UEFA Jubilee Awards in 2004.

After winning an FA Cup winner's medal under Matt Busby at Manchester United, Giles moved to Leeds in 1963 where he played in midfield alongside captain Billy Bremner. The duo went on to form a central midfield partnership which was one of the best in English club football. Their pairing helped yield several major trophies in the most successful era in Leeds' history. Giles and Bremner would both score exactly 115 goals for the club.

In his later years in football, Giles pursued a managerial career which saw him installed as player-manager and manager of, among others, West Bromwich Albion, the Republic of Ireland, Vancouver Whitecaps and Shamrock Rovers. Despite having an outstanding knowledge of the game, Giles personally never liked being a manager. He became disillusioned with aspects of the job, such as suffering at the hands of non-committal boardrooms, and left management permanently in 1985. He later declared that he had no regrets about quitting managerial life.Subsequently, after repeated encouragement from childhood friend Eamon Dunphy, Giles would inadvertently enter the world of football punditry in 1986. He has since gone on to establish himself as a senior analyst on RTÉ Sport. In addition, he writes two columns per week for the Irish Evening Herald newspaper, and offers his opinions about the game on radio station, Newstalk 106.

Ken Shamrock

Kenneth Wayne Shamrock (born Kenneth Wayne Kilpatrick; February 11, 1964) is an American retired mixed martial artist, semi-retired professional wrestler, and bare-knuckle boxing promoter. A UFC Hall of Fame member, Shamrock is widely regarded as one of the biggest stars in the history of MMA, as well as an icon and pioneer of the sport. He has headlined over 15 main events and co-main events in the UFC and Pride FC and set numerous pay-per-view records. In the early part of his UFC career, Shamrock was named "The World's Most Dangerous Man" by ABC News in a special called "The World's Most Dangerous Things". The moniker has stuck as his nickname.

Shamrock became known early on in the UFC for his rivalry with Royce Gracie. After fighting to a draw with Gracie in the inaugural UFC 'Superfight', he became the first UFC Superfight Champion when he defeated Dan Severn at UFC 6; the title was eventually replaced by the UFC Heavyweight Championship when weight categories were introduced to the UFC. He was also the first foreign MMA Champion in Japan, winning the title of King of Pancrase. During his reign as the UFC Superfight Champion, he was widely considered the #1 mixed martial artist in the world. In 2008, Shamrock was ranked by Inside MMA as one of the top 10 greatest mixed martial arts fighters of all time. He is the founder of the Lion's Den mixed martial arts training camp, and is the older brother of Frank Shamrock.

In addition to his mixed martial arts career, Shamrock enjoyed considerable success in professional wrestling, particularly during his tenure with the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). There, he is a one-time Intercontinental Champion, a one-time World Tag Team Champion and the 1998 King of the Ring. Shamrock also wrestled for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, where he is a one-time NWA World Heavyweight Champion and a 2002 Gauntlet for the Gold winner. He headlined multiple pay-per-view events in both promotions, including 1997's D-Generation X: In Your House, where he challenged for the WWF Championship. WWE has credited Shamrock with popularizing the ankle lock submission hold.

League of Ireland

The League of Ireland (Irish: Sraith na hÉireann), together with the Football Association of Ireland, is one of the two main governing bodies responsible for organising association football in the Republic of Ireland. The term was originally used to refer to a single division league. However today the League of Ireland features five divisions – the Premier Division, the First Division, an U19 Division, an U17 Division, an U15 Division and starting March 2019 an U13 Division. The League of Ireland has always worked closely with the FAI and in 2006 the two bodies formally merged. All the divisions are currently sponsored by Airtricity and as a result the league is also known as the SSE Airtricity League. In 2007, it became one of the first leagues in Europe to introduce a salary cap.

The league's most successful club is Shamrock Rovers who have won 17 titles. Together with Dundalk, Bohemians and Shelbourne they are one of four clubs in the league to feature a golden star above their badge in recognition of winning ten titles. Bohemians are the only club in the league to have played every season in the top division.

League of Ireland Premier Division

The League of Ireland Premier Division (Irish: Príomhroinn Sraith na hÉireann), also known as the SSE Airtricity League Premier Division, is the top level division in both the League of Ireland and the Republic of Ireland football league system. The division was formed in 1985 following a reorganisation of the League of Ireland. St. Patrick's Athletic and Bohemians are the only current League of Ireland clubs never to have been relegated from the Premier Division. Since 2003 the Premier Division has operated as a summer league.

Leinster Senior Cup (association football)

The Leinster Senior Cup is an association football cup competition organized by the Leinster Football Association. It is currently contested by LFA affiliated League of Ireland clubs, Leinster Senior League Senior Division clubs and invited teams from the various LFA affiliated junior leagues. Before the introduction of the FAI Cup, it was considered the major cup competition for clubs in what is now the Republic of Ireland. It is also the oldest association football cup competition in the Republic of Ireland.

MCW Pro Wrestling

MCW Pro Wrestling (formerly known as Maryland Championship Wrestling) is a regional independent wrestling promotion based in Joppa, Maryland. It has regularly run events in the Mid-Atlantic region since the late 1990s.

Rural Municipality of Shamrock No. 134

Shamrock No. 134 is a rural municipality in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, located in South-Central Saskatchewan South of the Trans Canada Highway, and includes Kelstern. As of the 2006 Census, the village of Shamrock is a separately governed entity lying within the R.M.'s borders. Shamrock No. 134 is located in SARM Division No. 2.

Shades of green

Varieties of the color green may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation or intensity) or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a green or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Shamrock, Kern County, California

Shamrock is a former settlement in Kern County, California. It was located 12 miles (19 km) south of Delano.A post office operated at Shamrock from 1880 to 1881.

Shamrock Rovers F.C.

Shamrock Rovers Football Club (Irish: Cumann Peile Ruagairí na Seamróige) is an Irish association football club based in Tallaght, South Dublin. The club's senior team competes in the League of Ireland Premier Division and it is the most successful club in the Republic of Ireland. The club has won the League of Ireland title a record 17 times and the FAI Cup a record 24 times. Shamrock Rovers have supplied more players to the Republic of Ireland national football team (62) than any other club. In All-Ireland competitions, such as the Intercity Cup, they hold the record for winning the most titles, having won seven cups overall.Shamrock Rovers were founded in Ringsend, Dublin. The official date of the club's foundation is 1899. They won the League title at the first attempt in the 1922–23 season and established themselves as Republic of Ireland most successful club by 1949, winning 44 major trophies. During the 1950s, the club won three League titles and two FAI Cups and became the first Irish team to compete in European competition, playing in the European Cup in 1957.They followed this by winning a record six FAI Cups in succession in the 1960s, when they were also one of the European club teams that spent the summer of 1967 in the United States, founding the United Soccer Association. They won the first of four League titles in a row in 1983–84, after a long decline.

The club played at Glenmalure Park from 1926 to 1987, when the owners controversially sold the stadium to property developers. Shamrock Rovers spent the next 22 years playing home games at various venues around Dublin and on occasions, Ireland. They moved into Tallaght Stadium prior to the start of the 2009 season after years of delays and legal disputes, during which time the club's supporters saved them from extinction.

Shamrock Rovers wore green and white striped jerseys until 1926, when they adopted the green and white hooped strip that they have worn ever since. Their club badge has featured a football and a shamrock throughout their history. The club has a relatively large support base and shares an intense rivalry with Bohemian Football Club. On 26 August 2011 Rovers became the first Irish side to reach the group stages of either of the top two European competitions by beating Partizan Belgrade in the play-off round of the Europa League.

Shamrock V

Shamrock V was the first British yacht to be built to the new J-Class rule. She was commissioned by Sir Thomas Lipton for his fifth America's Cup challenge. Although refitted several times, Shamrock is the only J-class never to have fallen into dereliction.

The Ultimate Fighter 3

The Ultimate Fighter 3 was the third season of the mixed martial arts reality television series The Ultimate Fighter. It premiered on April 6, 2006, immediately after the conclusion of Ultimate Fight Night 4. The season featured sixteen fighters (eight light heavyweights and eight middleweights) with still-feuding former champion Tito Ortiz and Ken Shamrock as coaches. The finale aired on June 24, 2006 and tied the UFC's all-time record with a 2.0 overall rating.There were several rule changes from the previous Ultimate Fighter seasons. There were to be no team challenges. All fighters would have to win a preliminary match before advancing to the semi-finals—which in practice started the single-elimination tournament at the beginning of the series instead of near the end. The first preliminary match was set by the team who won a coin toss. All subsequent first-round match-ups were set by the team that won the previous match. Each fight was set for two rounds instead of the normal three. If there was a draw after two rounds, the match would go to a final, five-minute tiebreaker round. In such a case, the judges' final decision on the match would be based solely on the third round (unless the fight was stopped by the referee before the end of the round). Coaches were allowed to bring two other assistant coaches to assist with training, whereas in previous seasons, assistant trainers hired by the UFC worked for both camps!

This series of The Ultimate Fighter was also the first in which fighters who reside outside North America had participated (Michael Bisping, Clitheroe, England; Ross Pointon, Stoke-on-Trent, England).

As a part of their agreement to work as coaches for The Ultimate Fighter 3, Shamrock and Ortiz had a rematch of their UFC 40 fight at UFC 61

A 5 disc DVD set of the entire season, full finale, and auditions was released in stores entitled The Ultimate Fighter 3: The Ultimate Grudge.

UFC 9

UFC 9: Motor City Madness was a mixed martial arts event held by the Ultimate Fighting Championship on May 17, 1996, at the Cobo Arena in Detroit, Michigan. The event was seen live on pay per view in the United States, and later released on home video.

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