Shamosuchus

Shamosuchus is an extinct genus of neosuchian crocodile that lived during the Late Cretaceous (Santonian-Campanian) period in what is now the Gobi desert of Mongolia, approximately 85 to 74 million years ago.

Shamosuchus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 85–74 Ma
Shamosuchus djadochtaensis
Holotype specimen
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Family: Paralligatoridae
Genus: Shamosuchus
Mook, 1924
Species
  • S. djadochtaensis Mook, 1924 (type)

Paleobiology

Shamosuchus
Skull and diagram

The eye and nasal openings were not raised above the skull as in modern crocodilians, so that the animal would have to raise its head completely out of the water to breathe. As this cranial morphology does not suit an ambush predator, it lends support to the idea of a diet of aquatic invertebrates. The teeth were adapted to crush bivalves, gastropods and other animals with a shell or exoskeleton. The genus was named in 1924 by Charles C. Mook.[1]

Paralligator was synonymized with Shamosuchus by several authors,[2][3][4] However, recent cladistic analysis of Paralligatoridae found Paralligator distinct from Shamosuchus.[5]

References

  1. ^ Mook, C. C. (1924). "A new crocodilian from Mongolia". American Museum Novitates. 117: 1–5.
  2. ^ Efimov, M. B. (1983). "Review of fossil crocodiles of Mongolia". Transactions of the Joint Soviet–Mongolia Paleontological Expedition. 24: 76–95.
  3. ^ Rozhdestvenskiy, A. K. (1974). "History of the dinosaur fauna of Asia and other continents and questions concerning paleogeography". Transactions of the Joint Soviet–Mongolia Paleontological Expedition. 1: 107–131.
  4. ^ Storrs, G. W.; Efimov, M. B. (2000). "Mesozoic crocodyliforms of north-central Eurasia". In Michael J. Benton, Mikhail A. Shishkin, David M. Unwin, Evgenii N. Kurochkin (eds.). The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 402–419.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Turner AH (2015) A Review of Shamosuchus and Paralligator (Crocodyliformes, Neosuchia) from the Cretaceous of Asia. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0118116. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118116

External links

Aegyptosuchidae

Aegyptosuchidae is an extinct family of eusuchian crocodyliforms from the Cretaceous period of Africa. They are characterized by their large size and flat heads. The family includes two genera, Aegyptosuchus and Aegisuchus.

Batrachomimus

Batrachomimus is an extinct genus of neosuchian crocodyliform known from the Late Jurassic of northeastern Brazil. It contains a single species, Batrachomimus pastosbonensis, which was first described and named by Felipe C. Montefeltro, Hans C. E. Larsson, Marco A. G. de França and Max C. Langer in 2013. It is known from a nearly complete skull, osteoderms and limb bones. Batrachomimus belongs to the family Paralligatoridae and predates all other members of the family and its immediate sister group, Eusuchia, by 30 million years.

Coelosuchus

Coelosuchus is an extinct genus of goniopholidid mesoeucrocodylian. Fossils have been found from the Graneros Shale of the Benton Group in Wyoming, and are of Cenomanian age. It was slightly over 1 meter in length.

Dolichochampsa

Dolichochampsa is an extinct genus of eusuchian crocodylomorph. It is the type genus and only member of the family Dolichochampsidae. Fossils have been found in the Yacoraite Formation of Argentina and the El Molino Formation of Bolivia of Maastrichtian age. It had a distinctive slender snout. Because the material associated with the specimens is so fragmentary, its relationships with other eusuchians remain unknown.

Eusuchia

The Eusuchia ("true crocodiles") are a clade of crocodylomorphs that first appears in the Early Cretaceous with Hylaeochampsa. Along with Dyrosauridae and Sebecosuchia, they were the only crocodyliformes who survived the K-T extinction. Since the other two clades died out 35 and 11 million years ago, all living crocodilian species are eusuchians, as are many extinct forms.

Mesosuchia

"Mesosuchia" is an obsolete name for a group of terrestrial, semi-aquatic, or fully aquatic crocodylomorph reptiles. The marine crocodile Metriorhynchus had paddle-like forelimbs, Dakosaurus andiniensis had a skull that was adapted to eat large sea reptiles, and Shamosuchus was adapted for eating molluscs and gastropods. Shamosuchus also looked like modern crocodiles and was very closely related to their direct ancestor.

The "Mesosuchia" were formerly placed at Suborder rank as within Crocodylia. The "first" crocodiles were placed within their own suborder, Protosuchia; whilst extant species where placed within Suborder Eusuchia (meaning 'true crocodiles'). Mesosuchia were the crocodylians "in between". As it is a paraphyletic group however, it is not considered valid anymore. It is replaced by its phylogenetic equivalent Mesoeucrocodylia, which contains the taxa herein, the Crocodylia, and some allied forms more recently discovered.

The "Mesosuchia" was composed as:

Family Hsisosuchidae

Family Gobiosuchidae

Infraorder Notosuchia

Family Notosuchidae

Family Sebecidae

Family Baurusuchidae

Infraorder Neosuchia

Family Trematochampsidae

Family Peirosauridae

Genus Lomasuchus

Genus Montealtosuchus

Family Elosuchidae

Family Atoposauridae

Family Dyrosauridae

Family Pholidosauridae

Genus Sarcosuchus

Infraorder Thalattosuchia - Sea "Crocodiles"

Family Teleosauridae

Family Metriorhynchidae

Genus Dakosaurus

Family Goniopholididae

Family Paralligatoridae

Genus Shamosuchus

Nannosuchus

Nannosuchus (meaning "dwarf crocodile") is an extinct genus of goniopholidid mesoeucrocodylian from the Berriasian of England.

Neosuchia

Neosuchia is a clade within Mesoeucrocodylia that includes all modern extant crocodilians and their closest fossil relatives. It is defined as the most inclusive clade containing all crocodylomorphs more closely related to Crocodylus niloticus (the Nile Crocodile) than to Notosuchus terrestris. Neosuchia is very diverse and may be polyphyletic, as the clade has undergone many revisions since it was first named in 1988. Neosuchians first appear in the Early Jurassic with the earliest known goniopholid Calsoyasuchus, which lived during the Sinemurian and Pliensbachian stages.

Paluxysuchus

Paluxysuchus is an extinct genus of neosuchian crocodyliform known from the Early Cretaceous Twin Mountains Formation (late Aptian stage) of north-central Texas. It contains a single species, Paluxysuchus newmani. Paluxysuchus is one of three crocodyliforms known from the Early Cretaceous of Texas, the others being Pachycheilosuchus and an unnamed species referred to as the "Glen Rose Form". Paluxysuchus has a long, flat skull that is probably transitional between the long and narrow skulls of many early neosuchians and the short and flat skulls of later neosuchians.

Paralligator

Paralligator is an extinct genus of neosuchian crocodile that lived during the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) period in what is now the Gobi desert of Mongolia, approximately 71-70 million years ago.

Paralligatoridae

Paralligatoridae is an extinct family of neosuchian crocodyliforms that existed during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. It includes the genera Paralligator, Brillanceausuchus, Kansajsuchus, Shamosuchus, Sabresuchus, Rugosuchus, Batrachomimus and Wannchampsus, as well as yet-unnamed "Glen Rose form".

Rugosuchus

Rugosuchus (meaning "uneven or wrinkled crocodile", in reference to texturing on its upper jaw bones) is an extinct genus of neosuchian crocodyliform from the late Early Cretaceous of China. It is known from most of a skull, a partial postcranial skeleton, and a second partial skeleton including part of the hips. It was described by Xiao-Chun Wu and colleagues in 2001, with R. nonganensis as the type species. At the time of its description, it was the most complete crocodyliform from northeastern China, and only the second known.

Santonian

The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 86.3 ± 0.7 mya (million years ago) and 83.6 ± 0.7 mya. The Santonian is preceded by the Coniacian and is followed by the Campanian.

Sokotosuchus

Sokotosuchus is an extinct genus of dyrosaurid crocodyliform which existed in Africa.

Symptosuchus

Symptosuchus is an extinct genus of goniopholidid mesoeucrocodylian. It is known from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina. Argentine paleontologist Florentino Ameghino named the genus in 1899, along with the type species S. contortidens. It was formally described by Carlos Rusconi in 1934.

Tilemsisuchus

Tilemsisuchus is an extinct genus of dyrosaurid crocodyliform which existed in what is now Mali during the Eocene period. It was first named by Eric Buffetaut in 1979 and contains the species Tilemsisuchus lavocati.

Tzaganosuchus

Tzaganosuchus is an extinct genus of fossil crocodile from the Gobi Desert of southern/southeastern Mongolia. The type and only known species for this genus, Tzaganosuchus infansis was discovered during a joint paleontological expedition conducted by the Soviet Union and Mongolia. That same expedition also described several other reptiles including several species of Shamosuchus and the archosauromorph genus Irenosaurus (originally named Tchoiria egloni). The prefix of the name "Tzaganosuchus" is a Mongol word derived from the locality where its fossils were first found: the Tsagan Khushu Quarry, which dates to the Paleogene epoch (Thanetian stratigraphic stage) and is part of the Naran-Bulak Formation. The suffix suchus is a Latin word for crocodile.

Wahasuchus

Wahasuchus is a genus of extinct mesoeucrocodylian of the Middle Campanian age found in the Quseir Formation, Egypt. The generic name derives from the Arabic word واحة (waha), which means "oasis", and souchos from the Greek in honor of crocodile-headed god of ancient Egypt. The specific egyptensis (Lat.) means from Egypt.Fossils of skull and jaw fragments, dorsal vertebrae, and fragmentary appendicular remains have been recovered.

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