Shakti

Shakti (Devanagari: शक्ति, IAST: Śakti; lit. "power, ability, strength, effort, energy, capability"[1]) is the primordial cosmic energy and represents the dynamic forces that are thought to move through the entire universe[2] in Hinduism, and especially the major tradition of Hinduism, Shaktism.

Shakti is the concept or personification of divine feminine creative power, sometimes referred to as "The Great Divine Mother" in Hinduism. As a mother, she is known as "Adi Shakti" or "Adi Parashakti". On the earthly plane, Shakti most actively manifests herself through female embodiment and creativity/fertility, though it is also present in males in its potential, unmanifest form.[3] Hindus believe that Shakti is both responsible for creation and the agent of all change. Shakti is cosmic existence as well as liberation, its most significant form being the Kundalini Shakti, a mysterious psychospiritual force.[4][5]

In Shaktism, Shakti is worshipped as the Supreme Being. Shakti embodies the active feminine energy of Shiva and is synonymously identified with Tripura Sundari or Parvati.

Shakti
The divine energy
Shakti
Adi Parashakti Lalita Tripura Sundari seated over Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Maheswara and Parashiva
Other namesAdi Parashakti, Parvati , Mahadevi, Kali, Durga, Devi
AffiliationDevi, Para Brahman
WeaponsAll
Personal information
ConsortShiva
SiblingsVishnu

Evolution

David Kinsley mentions the "shakti" of Lord Indra's as Sachi (Indrani), meaning power.[6] Indrani is part of a group of seven or eight mother goddesses called the Matrikas (Brahmani, Vaishnavi, Maheshvari, Indrani, Kumari, Varahi and Chamundi or Narasimhi), who are considered shaktis of major Hindu gods (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Indra, Skanda, Varaha/Yama and Narasimha respectively).

Manasa Devi
The goddess Manasa in a dense jungle landscape with a cobra and a swan

The Shakti goddess is also known as Amma (meaning 'mother') in south India, especially in the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh. There are many temples devoted to various incarnations of the Shakti goddess in most of the villages in South India. The rural people believe that Shakti is the protector of the village, the punisher of evil people, the cure of diseases, and the one who gives welfare to the village. They celebrate Shakti Jataras with great interest once a year. Some examples of Shakti incarnations are Mahalakshmi, Kamakshi, Parvati, Lalita, Bhuvaneshwari, Durga, Meenakshi, Mariamman, Yellamma, Poleramma, and Perantalamma.

One of the oldest representations of the goddess in India is in a triangular form. The Baghor stone, found in a Paleolithic context in the Son River valley and dating to 9,000–8,000 years BCE,[7] is considered an early example of a yantra.[8] Kenoyer, part of the team that excavated the stone, considered that it was highly probable that the stone is associated with Shakti.[9]

Shaktism

Guruji puja
Sri Guru Amritananda Natha Saraswati, performing the Navavarana Puja, an important ritual in Srividya Tantric Shaktism, at the Sahasrakshi Meru Temple at Devipuram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Shaktism regards Devi (lit., "the Goddess") as the Supreme Brahman itself with all other forms of divinity considered to be merely Her diverse manifestations. In the details of its philosophy and practice, Shaktism resembles Shaivism. However, Shaktas (Sanskrit: शक्त, Śakta, ), practitioners of Shaktism, focus most or all worship on Shakti, as the dynamic feminine aspect of the Supreme Divine. Shiva, the masculine aspect of divinity, is considered solely transcendent, and Shiva's worship is usually secondary.[10]

From Devi-Mahatmya:

By you this universe is borne, By you this world is created, Oh Devi, by you it is protected.[11]

From Shaktisangama Tantra:

Woman is the creator of the universe, the universe is her form; woman is the foundation of the world, she is the true form of the body.

In woman is the form of all things, of all that lives and moves in the world. There is no jewel rarer than woman, no condition superior to that of a woman.[12]

Adi Parashakti

Adi Parashakti, whose material manifestation is Parvati and Tripura Sundari, is a Hindu concept of the Ultimate Shakti or Mahashakti, the ultimate power inherent in all Creation. This is especially prevalent in the Shakta denomination within Hinduism, which worships the Goddess Devi in all her manifestations. Her human or Shakti Svarūpa (powerful form), Parvati, was married to Shiva, while her Gyān Svarūpa (knowledge form), Saraswati, weds Brahma and her Dhan Svarūpa (wealth form), Lakshmi, becomes the consort of Vishnu.

Smarta Advaita

In the Smarta Advaita sect of Hinduism, Shakti is considered to be one of five equal personal forms of God in the panchadeva system advocated by Adi Shankara.[13]

Shakti Peeths

According to some schools, there are four Adi Shakti Pitha and 51 Shakti centers of worship located in South Asia (four Adi Shakti Pitha are also part of 51 Shakti pithas but they are four major parts of Devi Sati's body. So, they are adi shakti pithas). They can be found in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, Tibet and Pakistan. These are called Shakti Peethas. The list of locations varies. A commonly accepted list of Shakti Peethas and their temple complexes includes:

Other pithas in Maharashtra are:

Bhajans and mantras

There are many ancient Shakti devotional songs and vibrational chants in the Hindu and Sikh traditions (found in Sarbloh Granth). The recitation of the Sanskrit mantras is commonly used to call upon the Divine Mother.

Kundalini-Shakti-Bhakti Mantra

Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Adi Shakti, Namo Namo!
Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Sarab Shakti, Namo Namo!
Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Prithum Bhagvati, Namo Namo!
Kundalini Mata Shakti, Mata Shakti, Namo Namo!

Translation:

Primal Shakti, I bow to Thee!
All-Encompassing Shakti, I bow to Thee!
That through which Divine Creates, I bow to Thee!
Creative Power of the Kundalini, Mother of all Mother Power, To Thee I Bow![14]

"Merge in the Maha Shakti. This is enough to take away your misfortune. This will carve out of you a woman. Woman needs her own Shakti, not anybody else will do it... When a woman chants the Kundalini Bhakti mantra, God clears the way. This is not a religion, it is a reality. Woman is not born to suffer, and woman needs her own power."

~ Yogi Bhajan (Harbhajan Singh)[15]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Monier-Williams, Monier. "Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary". University of Washington. śaktí f. power, ability, strength, might, effort, energy, capability
  2. ^ Sacred Sanskrit words, p.111
  3. ^ Tiwari, Path of Practice, p. 55
  4. ^ The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, p.162
  5. ^ The Shambhala Encyclopedia of Yoga, p.270
  6. ^ Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Tradition by David Kinsley page 17, minor vedic Goddesses
  7. ^ Insoll, Timothy; Insoll, Timothy (2002). Archaeology and World Religion. Routledge. p. 36. ISBN 9781134597987.
  8. ^ Harper, Katherine Anne; Brown, Robert L. (2012). Roots of Tantra, The. SUNY Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780791488904.
  9. ^ Kenoyer, J. M.; Clark, J. D.; Pal, J. N.; Sharma, G. R. (1983). "An upper palaeolithic shrine in India?". Antiquity. 57 (220): 93. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00055253.
  10. ^ Subramuniyaswami, p. 1211.
  11. ^ Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1989). A Survey of Hinduism. NY, NY: State University of New York. pp. 261 (fn 1 p 473).
  12. ^ Bose, Mandakranta (2000). Faces of the feminine in ancient, medieval, and modern India. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0195352777. OCLC 560196442.
  13. ^ http://www.himalayanacademy.com/resources/books/dws/dws_mandala-02.html
  14. ^ Yogi Bhajan as quoted in the Conscious Pregnancy Yoga Teacher's Manual by Tarn Tarn Kaur, Espanola, New Mexico p. 79
  15. ^ Yogi Bhajan as quoted in the Conscious Pregnancy Yoga Teacher's Manual by Tarn Tarn Kaur, Espanola, New Mexico

Further reading

External links

Adi Parashakti

Adi Parashakti (Sanskrit: आदि पराशक्ति, IAST: Ādi Parāśakti) is a goddess who is considered the Supreme Being in the Shaktism sect of Hinduism. She is also popularly referred to as "Parama Shakti", "AdiShakti", "Maha Shakti", "Mahadevi", "Mahaparvati", Satyam Shakti, or even simply as "Shakti". "Parama" means absolute, "Satya" means the Truth as per many Shakta texts. The Devi-Bhagavata Purana states that Adi Parashakti is the original creator, observer and destroyer of the whole universe. It is also believed that Goddess Parvati is the complete and direct incarnation of Adi Parashakti.

INS Shakti (A57)

INS Shakti (A57) is a Deepak-class fleet tanker in service with the Indian Navy. She was built by Fincantieri, an Italian shipbuilding company based in Trieste. She is the second and final ship of her class. Shakti, along with her predecessor Deepak, is one of the largest ships of the Indian Navy.Construction of the vessel began in November 2009 and it was launched in October 2010. She was handed over to India by September 2011 and was commissioned on 1 October 2011. The construction of the vessel was completed in a record time of 27 months, after the contract worth €159.32 million was signed in April 2008.INS Shakti can refuel four ships at a time, with a fuelling speed of 1,500 tonnes per hour while her predecessors had a speed of 300 per hour. She is also equipped with state-of-the art electronics, medical facilities and storage spaces. According to Admiral Nirmal Verma, Shakti would significantly add to the Indian Navy's ability to conduct and sustain operations distant from the coast.

John McLaughlin (musician)

John McLaughlin (born 4 January 1942), also known as Mahavishnu John McLaughlin, is an English guitarist, bandleader and composer. His music includes many genres of jazz, combined with elements of rock, Indian classical music, Western classical music, flamenco, and blues. He is one of the pioneering figures in fusion.

After contributing to several key British groups of the early 1960s, McLaughlin made Extrapolation, his first album as a bandleader, in 1969. He then moved to the U.S., where he played with Tony Williams's group Lifetime and then with Miles Davis on his electric jazz-fusion albums In a Silent Way, Bitches Brew, Jack Johnson, and On the Corner. His 1970s electric band, the Mahavishnu Orchestra, performed a technically virtuosic and complex style of music that fused electric jazz and rock with Indian influences.

McLaughlin's solo on "Miles Beyond" from his album Live at Ronnie Scott's won the 2018 Grammy Award for the Best Improvised Jazz Solo. He has been awarded multiple "Guitarist of the Year" and "Best Jazz Guitarist" awards from magazines such as DownBeat and Guitar Player based on reader polls. In 2003, he was ranked 49th in Rolling Stone magazine's list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time". In 2009, DownBeat included McLaughlin in its unranked list of "75 Great Guitarists", in the "Modern Jazz Maestros" category. In 2012, Guitar World magazine ranked him 63rd on its top 100 list. In 2010, Jeff Beck called McLaughlin "the best guitarist alive," and Pat Metheny has also described him as the world's greatest guitarist.

Kali

Kali (, Sanskrit: काली, (IAST: Kālī), also known as Kālikā (Sanskrit: कॉलिंका) or Shyāmā (Sanskrit: श्यामा), is a Hindu goddess. Kali is one of the ten Mahavidyas, a list which combines Sakta and Buddhist goddesses.Kali's earliest appearance is that of a destroyer of evil forces. She is the most powerful form of Shakti. She is the goddess of one of the four subcategories of the Kulamārga, a category of tantric Saivism. Over time, she has been worshipped by devotional movements and tantric sects variously as the Divine Mother, Mother of the Universe, Adi Shakti, or Adi Parashakti. Shakta Hindu and Tantric sects additionally worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman. She is also seen as the divine protector and the one who bestows moksha, or liberation. Kali is often portrayed standing or dancing on her consort, the Hindu god Shiva, who lies calm and prostrate beneath her. Kali is worshipped by Hindus throughout India.

Kundalini yoga

Kundalini yoga (kuṇḍalinī-yoga) is a school of yoga that is influenced by Shaktism and Tantra schools of Hinduism. It derives its name through a focus on awakening kundalini energy through regular practice of mantra, tantra, yantra, yoga or meditation. Kundalini yoga is often identified as the most dangerous form of yoga because of the involvement of subtle energies.

Lok Janshakti Party

The Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) is a state political party in the state of Bihar, India. It is led by Ram Vilas Paswan. The party was formed in 2000 when Paswan split from Janata Dal (United). The party has considerable following amongst Dalits in Bihar. Currently the party is a member of the National Democratic Alliance.

Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga

Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga is a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva and one of the twelve Jyotirlingams, shrines which are said to be the most sacred abodes of Lord Shiva. It is located in the ancient city of Ujjain in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The temple is situated on the side of the Rudra Sagar lake. The presiding deity, Lord Shiva in the lingam form is believed to be Swayambhu, deriving currents of power (Shakti) from within itself as against the other images and lingams that are ritually established and invested with mantra-shakti.

Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation

The Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation is the apex body for formulation and administration of rules and regulations relating to the development and regulation of the water resources in India. The Ministry was formed in January 1985 following the bifurcation of the then Ministry of Irrigation and Power, when the Department of Irrigation was re-constituted as the Ministry of Water Resources. In July 2014, the Ministry was renamed to “Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation”, making it the National Ganga River Basin Authority for conservation, development, management, and abatement of pollution in the river Ganges and its tributaries .

Pokhran-II

The Pokhran-II tests were a series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998. It was the second instance of nuclear testing conducted by India; the first test, code-named Smiling Buddha, was conducted in May 1974.Pokhran-II consisted of five detonations, the first of which was a fusion bomb while the remaining four were fission bombs. The tests were initiated on 11 May 1998, under the assigned code name Operation Shakti, with the detonation of one fusion and two fission bombs. On 13 May 1998, two additional fission devices were detonated, and the Indian government led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee shortly convened a press conference to declare India a full-fledged nuclear state. The tests resulted in a variety of sanctions against India by a number of major states, including Japan and the United States.Many names have been assigned to these tests; originally these were collectively called Operation Shakti–98, and the five nuclear bombs were designated Shakti-I through to Shakti-V. More recently, the operation as a whole has come to be known as Pokhran II, and the 1974 explosion as Pokhran-I.

Raj Ghat and associated memorials

Raj Ghat is a memorial dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi in Delhi, India. Originally it was the name of a historic ghat of Old Delhi (Shahjahanabad). Close to it, and east of Daryaganj was Raj Ghat Gate of the walled city, opening at Raj Ghat to the west bank of the Yamuna River. Later the memorial area was also called Raj ghat. It is a black marble platform that marks the spot of Mahatma Gandhi's cremation, Antyeshti (Antim Sanskar) on 30 January 1948, a day after his assassination. It is left open to the sky while an eternal flame burns at one end. Located on Delhi's Ring Road, officially known as Mahatma Gandhi Road, a stone footpath flanked by lawns leads to the walled enclosure that houses the memorial.

Shakti - Astitva Ke Ehsaas Ki

Shakti – Astitva Ke Ehsaas Ki (Strength – Feeling of Existence) is an Indian television series that airs on Colors TV. Produced by Rashmi Sharma Telefilms, it stars Rubina Dilaik and Vivian Dsena.

Shakti Arora

Shakti Arora is an Indian television actor known for playing Taposh Banerjee in Tere Liye, Ranveer Vaghela in Meri Aashiqui Tum Se Hi and Kunal Malhotra in Silsila Badalte Rishton Ka. He also played Jigar in Baa Bahoo Aur Baby and Dr. Onir Dutt in Pavitra Rishta. He has participated in reality shows like Nach Baliye (2015) and Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa (2016).

Shakti Kapoor

Shakti Kapoor (born as Sunil Sikanderlal Kapoor on 3 September 1952) is an Indian actor who appears in Bollywood films. Known for his villainous and comic roles in Hindi films, he has featured in more than 700 films throughout his career. In the 1980s and 1990s, Kapoor teamed up with actor Kader Khan as the comical or evil duo in over 100 films. He was a contestant in the Indian reality show Bigg Boss in 2011.

Shakti Mohan

Shakti Mohan is an Indian dancer. She is the winner of Zee TV's dance reality show Dance India Dance Season 2 and has been a captain in Dance Plus since 2015. She was also a contestant and finalist on Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa in 2014. Her first song as a choreographer in Bollywood is Nainowale Ne in the movie Padmaavat. She owns her own dance brand called Nritya Shakti.

Shakti Peetha

The Shakti Peetha (Sanskrit: शक्ति पीठ, Śakti Pīṭha, seat of Shakti) are significant shrines and pilgrimage destinations in Shaktism, the goddess-focused Hindu tradition. There are 51 or 108 Shakti peethas by various accounts, of which between 4 and 18 are named as Maha (major) in medieval Hindu texts.Most of these historic places of goddess worship are in India, but there are seven in Bangladesh, three in Pakistan, two in Nepal, and one each in Tibet and Sri Lanka.Various legends explain how the Shakti Peetha came into existence. The most popular is based on the story of the death of the goddess Sati. Out of grief and sorrow, Shiva carried Sati's body, reminiscing about their moments as a couple, and roamed around the universe with it. Vishnu had cut her body into 51 body parts, using his Sudarshana Chakra, which fell on Earth to become sacred sites where all the people can pay homage to the Goddess. To complete this massively long task, Lord Shiva took the form of Bhairava.

Tantra

Tantra (; Sanskrit: तन्त्र, literally "loom, weave, system") denotes the esoteric traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism that co-developed most likely about the middle of the 1st millennium AD. The term tantra, in the Indian traditions, also means any systematic broadly applicable "text, theory, system, method, instrument, technique or practice".Starting in the early centuries of common era, newly revealed Tantras centering on Vishnu, Shiva or Shakti emerged. In Buddhism, the Vajrayana tradition is known for its extensive tantra ideas and practices. Tantric Hindu and Buddhist traditions have influenced other Eastern religious traditions such as Jainism, the Tibetan Bön tradition, Daoism and the Japanese Shintō tradition.Certain modes of non-vedic worship such as Puja are considered tantric in their conception and rituals. Hindu temple building also generally conforms to the iconography of tantra. The Hindu texts that describe these topics are called Tantras, Āgamas or Samhitās. In Buddhism, its tantra-genre literature has influenced the artworks in Tibet, historic cave temples of India and imagery in Southeast Asia.

Taratarini Temple

Taratarini Temple on the Kumari hills at the bank of the River Rushikulya near Brahmapur city in Ganjam District, Odisha, India is worshiped as the Breast Shrine (Sthana Peetha) and manifestations of Adi Shakti. The Tara Tarini Shakti Peetha is one of the oldest pilgrimage centers of the Mother Goddess and is one of four major ancient Tantra Peetha and Shakti Peethas in India.The mythological texts recognize four major Shakti Peethas: Tara Tarini (Stana Khanda), near Brahmapur; Bimala (Pada Khanda) inside the Jagannath Temple, Puri; Kamakhya (Yoni Khanda), near Guwahati; and Dakshina Kalika (Mukha Khanda) in Kolkata. There are 52 other sacred Shakti Peethas, which originated from the limbs of Mata Sati's corpse in the Satya Yuga.

Vaishno Devi

Vaishno Devi , also known as Mata Rani, Trikuta and Vaishnavi, is a manifestation of the Hindu Goddess Mata Adi Shakti, also known as Mahalakshmi/Matrika Goddess. The words "maa" and "mata" are commonly used in India for "mother", and thus are often used in connection with Vaishno Devi.

Vaishno Devi Mandir is a Hindu temple dedicated to the Hindu Goddess, located in Katra at the Trikuta Mountains within the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Temple or Bhawan is 13.5 km from Katra and various modes of transportation are available from Katra to Bhawan, including ponies, electric vehicles and palki. Helicopter services are also available up to Sanjichhat, which is 9.5 km from Katra. A newly installed ropeway is also available which runs from the Bhawan to Bhairav Ghati, which is further 2.5 km from the Bhawan.

Zakir Hussain (musician)

Ustad Zakir Hussain (born 9 March 1951) is a tabla virtuoso, composer, percussionist, music producer, film actor and eldest son of legendary tabla player Ustad Allah Rakha.He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1988, and the Padma Bhushan in 2002, by the Government of India presented by President Abdul Kalam. He was also awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1990, given by the Sangeet Natak Academy, India's National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama. In 1999, he was awarded the United States National Endowment for the Arts' National Heritage Fellowship, the highest award given to traditional artists and musicians.

Gods
Goddesses
Other deities
Texts
Philosophy
Texts
Deities
Practices
Related

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.