Shah Jahan

Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3] (5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666),[7] better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan, (Persian: شاه جهان; "King of the World"),[8] was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.[9]

Shah Jahan was widely considered to be the most competent of Emperor Jahangir's four sons and after Jahangir's death in late 1627, when a war of succession ensued, Shah Jahan emerged victorious. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. The period of his reign is widely considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his wife Mumtaz Mahal.

In September 1657, Shah Jahan fell seriously ill, which set off a war of succession among his four sons, in which his third son Aurangzeb, emerged victorious.[10] Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, but Aurangzeb put his father under house arrest in Agra Fort from July 1658 until his death in January 1666.[11] On 31 July 1658, Aurangzeb crowned himself emperor under the title "Alamgir".[12]

The Mughal Empire reached the pinnacle of its glory during Shah Jahan's reign and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors.[13]

Shahab-ud-din Muhammad
Shah Jahan
شهاب الدین محمد
شاہ جهان
Padishah of the Mughal Empire
Shah Jahan
'Jujhar Singh Bundela Kneels in Submission to Shah Jahan', painted by Bichitr, c. 1630, Chester Beatty Library (cropped)
Shah Jahan
5th Mughal Emperor
Reign19 January 1628 –31 July 1658[1]
Coronation14 February 1628,[2] Agra
PredecessorShahryar Mirza (de facto)
Jahangir
SuccessorAurangzeb
BornShahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3]
5 January 1592
Lahore, Mughal Empire
Died22 January 1666 (aged 74)
Agra Fort, Agra, Mughal Empire
Burial
Taj Mahal, Agra
ConsortMumtaz Mahal
Wives
Issue
among others...
Full name
Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3]
Regnal name
Shah Jahan[6]
HouseTimurid
FatherJahangir
MotherJagat Gosaini
ReligionIslam

Early life

Birth

Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592 in Lahore, in modern-day Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession).[14] His mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Jagat Gosaini (her official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilqis Makani). The name "Khurram" (joyous) was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship.[14]

Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, Akbar's first wife and chief consort, that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness.[15] So, when Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed him over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care, and Akbar could fulfill his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor.[15] Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care.[16] The two shared a close relationship with each other as Jahangir noted in his memoirs that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram, "a thousand times more than if he had been her own [son]."[17]

Khurram remained with her until he had turned almost 14. After Akbar's death in 1605, the young prince was allowed to return to his father's household, and thus, be closer to his biological mother.[15]

Education

As a child, Khurram received a broad education befitting his status as a Mughal prince, which included martial training and exposure to a wide variety of cultural arts, such as poetry and music, most of which was inculcated, according to court chroniclers, by Akbar and Ruqaiya. In 1605, as Akbar lay on his deathbed, Khurram, who at this point was 13,[18] remained by his bedside and refused to move even after his mother tried to retrieve him. Given the politically uncertain times immediately preceding Akbar's death, Khurram was in a fair amount of physical danger of harm by political opponents of his father,[19] and his conduct at this time can be understood as a precursor to the bravery that he would later be known for.

Khusrau rebellion

In 1605, his father succeeded to the throne, after crushing a rebellion by Prince Khusrau – Khurram remained distant from the court politics and intrigues in the immediate aftermath of that event, which was apparently a conscious decision on Jahangir's part.[20] As the third son, Khurram did not challenge the two major power blocs of the time, his father's and his step-brother's; thus he enjoyed the benefits of Imperial protection and luxury while being allowed to continue with his education and training.[21] This relatively quiet and stable period of his life allowed Khurram to build his own support base in the Mughal court, which would be useful later on in his life.

Nur Jahan

Due to the long period of tensions between his father and step-brother, Khurram began to drift closer to his father and over time started to be considered the de facto heir-apparent by court chroniclers. This status was given official sanction when Jahangir granted the sarkar of Hissar-Feroza, which had traditionally been the fief of the heir-apparent, to Khurram in 1608.[22] Nur Jahan was an intelligent and beautiful lady with an excellent educational background. She was an active participant in the decisions made by Jahangir. Slowly and gradually, she became the actual power behind the throne, as Jahangir became more indulgent in wine and opium. Coins began to be struck containing her name along with Jahangir's name. Her near and dear relatives acquired important positions in the Mughal court, termed as the Nur Jahan junta by historians. After the death of Jahangir in 1627, Nur Jahan was put under house arrest and led a quiet life.

Marriages

Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal
Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal

In 1607, Khurram became engaged to Arjumand Banu Begum (1593–1631), who is also known as Mumtaz Mahal (Persian for "the chosen one of the Palace"). They met in their youth. They were about 14 and 15 when they were engaged, and five years later they got married. The young girl belonged to an illustrious Persian noble family that had been serving Mughal Emperors since the reign of Akbar. The family's patriarch was Mirza Ghiyas Beg, who was also known by his title I'timād-ud-Daulah or "Pillar of the State". He had been Jahangir's finance minister and his son, Asaf Khan – Arjumand Banu's father – played an important role in the Mughal court, eventually serving as Chief Minister. Her aunt was the Empress Nur Jahan and is thought to have played matchmaker in arranging the marriage.

The prince would have to wait five years before he was married in 1612 (1021 AH), on a date selected by the court astrologers as most conducive to ensuring a happy marriage. This was an unusually long engagement for the time. However, Shah Jahan first married Princess Kandahari Begum, the daughter of a great-grandson of Shah Ismail I of Persia with whom he had a daughter, his first child.[23]

Emperor Shah Jahan, 1628
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shukoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV

Politically speaking, the betrothal allowed Khurram to be considered as having officially entered manhood, and he was granted several jagir, including Hissar-Feroze and ennobled to a military rank of 8,000, which allowed him to take on official functions of state, an important step in establishing his own claim to the throne.

In 1612, aged 20, Khurram married Arjumand Banu Begum, who became known by the title Mumtaz Mahal, on the auspicious date chosen by court astrologers. The marriage was a happy one and Khurram remained devoted to her. She bore him fourteen children, out of whom seven survived into adulthood. In addition, Khurram had two children from his first two wives.[23]

Though there was genuine love between the two, Arjumand Banu Begum was a politically astute woman and served as a crucial advisor and confidante to her husband.[24] Later on, as empress, Mumtaz Mahal wielded immense power, such as being consulted by her husband in state matters and being responsible for the imperial seal, which allowed her to review official documents in their final draft.

TajMahalbyAmalMongia
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal

Mumtaz Mahal died at age 37 (7 July 1631) while giving birth to Gauhara Begum in Burhanpur. She died of a postpartum haemorrhage, which caused considerable blood-loss after a painful labour of thirty hours.[25] Contemporary historians note that Princess Jahanara, aged 17, was so distressed by her mother's pain that she started distributing gems to the poor, hoping for divine intervention, and Shah Jahan was noted as being "paralysed by grief" and weeping fits.[26] Her body was temporarily buried in a walled pleasure garden known as Zainabad, originally constructed by Shah Jahan's uncle Prince Daniyal along the Tapti River. Her death had a profound impact on Shah Jahan's personality and inspired the construction of the Taj Mahal, where she was later reburied.

In the intervening years Khurram had taken eight other wives, among which Kandahari Begum (m. 12 December 1609) and Izz un-Nisa Begum (m. 3 September 1617), the daughters of Muzaffar Husain Mirza Safawi and Shahnawaz Khan, son of Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, respectively. But according to court chroniclers, his relationship with his other wives was more out of political consideration, and they enjoyed only the status of being royal wives.[18]

Military commander

Prince Khurram showed extraordinary military talent. The first occasion for Khurram to test his military prowess was during the Mughal campaign against the Rajput state of Mewar, which had been a hostile force to the Mughals since Akbar's reign. In 1614, commanding an army numbering around 200,000, Khurram began the offensive against the Rajput kingdom. After a year of a harsh war of attrition, Maharana Amar Singh I surrendered conditionally to the Mughal forces and became a vassal state of the Mughal Empire.[27]

In 1617, Khurram was directed to deal with the Lodi in the Deccan to secure the Empire's southern borders and to restore imperial control over the region. His successes in these conflicts led to Jahangir granting him the title of Shah Jahan (Persian: "King of the World") and raised his military rank and allowed him a special throne in his Durbar, an unprecedented honour for a prince, thus further solidifying his status as crown prince.Edward S. Holden writes, "He was flattered by some, envied by others, loved by none."[28]

Rebel prince

Payag, Shah Jahan on Horseback, Folio from the Shah Jahan Album ca. 1630, Metmuseum
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).

Inheritance of power and wealth in the Mughal empire was not determined through primogeniture, but by princely sons competing to achieve military successes and consolidating their power at court. This often led to rebellions and wars of succession. As a result, a complex political climate surrounded the Mughal court in Khurram's formative years. In 1611 his father married Nur Jahan, the widowed daughter of a Persian noble. She rapidly became an important member of Jahangir's court and, together with her brother Asaf Khan, wielded considerable influence. Arjumand was Asaf Khan's daughter and her marriage to Khurram consolidated Nur Jahan and Asaf Khan's positions at court.

Court intrigues, however, including Nur Jahan's decision to have her daughter from her first marriage wed Prince Khurram's youngest brother Shahzada Shahryar and her support for his claim to the throne led to much internal division. Prince Khurram resented the influence Nur Jahan held over his father and was angered at having to play second fiddle to her favourite Shahryar, his half-brother and her son-in-law. When the Persians besieged Kandahar, Nur Jahan was at the helm of the affairs. She ordered Prince Khurram to march for Kandahar, but he refused. As a result of Prince Khurram's refusal to obey Nur Jahan's orders, Kandahar was lost to the Persians after a forty-five-day siege. Prince Khurram feared that in his absence Nur Jahan would attempt to poison his father against him and convince Jahangir to name Shahryar the heir in his place. This fear brought Prince Khurram to rebel against his father rather than fight against the Persians. In 1622 Prince Khurram raised an army with the support of Mahabat Khan and marched against his father and Nur Jahan.. He was defeated at Bilochpur in March 1623. Later he took refuge in Udaipur Mewar with Maharaja Karan Singh II . He was first lodged in Delwada Ki Haveli and subsequently shifted to Jagmandir Palace on his request. Prince Khurram exchanged his turban with maharana and that turban is still preserved in Pratap Museum, Udaipur.(R V Somani 1976). It is believed that mosaic work of Jagmandir inspired him to use mosaic work in Taj Mahal of Agra. His rebellion did not succeed and Khurram was forced to submit unconditionally. Although the prince was forgiven for his errors in 1626, tensions between Nur Jahan and her stepson continued to grow beneath the surface.

Upon the death of Jahangir in 1627, the wazir Asaf Khan, who had long been a quiet partisan of Prince Khurram, acted with unexpected forcefulness and determination to forestall his sister the empress Nur Jahan's plans to place Prince Shahryar on the throne. He put Nur Jahan in close confinement.He obtained control of Prince Khurram's three sons who were under her care. Asaf Khan also managed palace intrigues to ensure Prince Khurram's succession the throne.[29] Prince Khurram succeeded to the Mughal throne as Abu ud-Muzaffar Shihab ud-Din Mohammad Sahib ud-Quiran ud-Thani Shah Jahan Padshah Ghazi (Urdu: شهاب الدین محمد خرم), or Shah Jahan.[30]

His regnal name is divided into various parts. Shihab ud-Din mean "Star of the Faith", Sahib al-Quiran ud-Thani means "Second Lord of the Happy Conjunction of Jupiter and Venus". Shah Jahan means "King of the World", alluding to his pride in his Timurid roots and his ambitions. More epithets showed his secular and religious duties. He was also Khalifat Panahi ("Refuge of the Caliphate"), but Zill-i Allahi, or the "Shadow of God on Earth".

His first act as ruler was to execute his chief rivals and imprison his step mother Nur Jahan. Upon Shah Jahan's orders several executions took place on 23 January 1628. Those put to death included his own brother Shahryar; his nephews Dawar and Garshasp, sons of Shah Jahan's previously executed brother Prince Khusrau; and his cousins Tahmuras and Hoshang, sons of the late Prince Daniyal Mirza.[31][32] This allowed Shah Jahan to rule his empire without contention.

Reign (1628–1658)

Administration of the Mughal Empire

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan at his Durbar
Red Fort - The marble jharokha
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi

Evidence from the reign of Shah Jahan states that in 1648 the army consisted of 911,400 infantry, musketeers, and artillery men, and 185,000 Sowars commanded by princes and nobles.

During his reign the Marwari horse was introduced, becoming Shah Jahan's favourite, and various Mughal cannons were mass-produced in the Jaigarh Fort. Under his rule, the empire became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, as did the demands for more revenue from their citizens. But due to his measures in the financial and commercial fields, it was a period of general stability—the administration was centralised and court affairs systematised.

The Mughal Empire continued to expand moderately during his reign as his sons commanded large armies on different fronts. India at the time was a rich centre of the arts, crafts and architecture, and some of the best of the architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters and writers of the world resided in Shah Jahan's empire. According to economist Angus Maddison, Mughal-era India's share of global gross domestic product (GDP) grew from 22.7% in 1600 to 24.4% in 1700, surpassing China to become the world's largest.[33][34]

Rajput rebellions

Shah Jahan annexed the Rajput kingdoms of Baglana, Mewar and Bundelkhand. He then chose his 16-year-old son Aurangzeb to serve in his place and subdue the rebellion by the Bundela Rajputs led by Jhujhar Singh.

Famine of 1630

A famine broke out in 1630–32 in Deccan, Gujarat and Khandesh as a result of three main crop failures.[35] Two million died of starvation, grocers sold dogs' flesh and mixed powdered bones with flour. Parents ate their own children. Some villages were completely destroyed, their streets filled with human corpses. In response to the devastation, Shah Jahan set up langar (free kitchens) for the victims of the famine.[36]

Relations with the Deccan Sultanates

In 1632, Shah Jahan captured the fortress at Daulatabad, Maharashtra and imprisoned Husain Shah of the Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar. Golconda submitted in 1635 and then Bijapur in 1636. Shah Jahan appointed Aurangzeb as Viceroy of the Deccan, consisting of Khandesh, Berar, Telangana, and Daulatabad. During his viceroyalty, Aurangzeb conquered Baglana, then Golconda in 1656, and then Bijapur in 1657.[37]

Sikh rebellion led by Guru Hargobind

A rebellion of the Sikhs led by Guru Hargobind took place and in return Shah Jahan ordered the destruction of the Sikh temple in Lahore.

Relations with the Safavid dynasty

Shah-Jahan hunting lions at Burhanpur (July 1630)
Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, hunting lions at Burhanpur.

Shah Jahan and his sons captured the city of Kandahar in 1638 from the Safavids, prompting the retaliation of the Persians led by their ruler Abbas II of Persia, who recaptured it in 1649.

The Mughal armies were unable to recapture it despite repeated sieges during the Mughal–Safavid War.[38] Shah Jahan also expanded the Mughal Empire to the west beyond the Khyber Pass to Ghazna and Kandahar.

Relations with the Ottoman Empire

While he was encamped in Baghdad, the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV met Shah Jahan's ambassadors, Mir Zarif and Mir Baraka, who presented 1000 pieces of finely embroidered cloth and even armour. Murad IV presented them with the finest weapons, saddles and Kaftans and ordered his forces to accompany the Mughals to the port of Basra, where they set sail to Thatta and finally Surat.[39]

War with Portuguese

Shah Jahan gave orders in 1631 to Qasim Khan, the Mughal viceroy of Bengal, to drive out the Portuguese from their trading post at Port Hoogly. The post was heavily armed with cannons, battleships, fortified walls, and other instruments of war.[40] The Portuguese were accused of trafficking by high Mughal officials and due to commercial competition the Mughal-controlled port of Saptagram began to slump. Shah Jahan was particularly outraged by the activities of Jesuits in that region, notably when they were accused of abducting peasants. On 25 September 1632 the Mughal Army raised imperial banners and gained control over the Bandel region and the garrison was punished.[41]

Religious and language tolerance

Shah Jahan preached equality among Hindus and Muslims. He introduced various new policies to unite all the religions. As a result, his reign worked for 30 successful years. He used to celebrate all the festivities of Indian origin and tried to converse with every problem.

Hindavi, the origin of Hindi language, was introduced for the first time in his court. Realising that everyone could not speak Persian, he introduced a new court language, that maintained a perfect balanced mixture of Sanskrit and Persian.

Ministers

Shah Jahan's treasurer was Shaikh Farid, who founded the city of Faridabad.

Later life

Govardhan. Shah Jahan and Dara Shikoh ca. 1638. Victoria and Albert Museum
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shukoh.

When Shah Jahan became ill in 1658, Dara Shukoh (Mumtaz Mahal's eldest son) assumed the role of regent in his father's stead, which swiftly incurred the animosity of his brothers. Upon learning of his assumption of the regency, his younger brothers, Shuja, Viceroy of Bengal, and Murad Baksh, Viceroy of Gujarat, declared their independence, and marched upon Agra in order to claim their riches. Aurangzeb, the third son, and ablest of the brothers, gathered a well trained army and became its chief commander. He faced Dara's army near Agra and defeated him during the Battle of Samugarh. Although Shah Jahan fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra Fort.

Jahanara Begum Sahib, Mumtaz Mahal's first daughter, voluntarily shared his 8-year confinement and nursed him in his dotage. In January 1666, Shah Jahan fell ill. Confined to bed, he became progressively weaker until, on 22 January, he commended the ladies of the imperial court, particularly his consort of later years Akbarabadi Mahal, to the care of Jahanara. After reciting the Kal'ma (Laa ilaaha ill allah) and verses from the Quran, Shah Jahan died, aged 74.

Shah Jahan's chaplain Sayyid Muhammad Qanauji and Kazi Qurban of Agra came to the fort, moved his body to a nearby hall, washed it, enshrouded it and put it in a coffin of sandalwood.[24]

Princess Jahanara had planned a state funeral which was to include a procession with Shah Jahan's body carried by eminent nobles followed by the notable citizens of Agra and officials scattering coins for the poor and needy. Aurangzeb refused to accommodate such ostentation. The body was taken to the Taj Mahal and was interred there next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.[42]

Contributions to architecture

Shah Jahan left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during his reign. He was one of the greatest patrons of Mughal architecture.[43] His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, which he built out of love for his wife, the empress Mumtaz Mahal.

Its structure was drawn with great care and architects from all over the world were called for this purpose. The building took twenty years to complete and was constructed from white marble underlaid with brick. Upon his death, his son Aurangzeb had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. Among his other constructions are the Red Fort also called the Delhi Fort or Lal Qila in Urdu, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid, the Wazir Khan Mosque, the Moti Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens, sections of the Lahore Fort, the Mahabat Khan Mosque in Peshawar, the Mini Qutub Minar[44] in Hastsal, the Jahangir mausoleum—his father's tomb, the construction of which was overseen by his stepmother Nur Jahan and the Shahjahan Mosque. He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made to celebrate his rule. Shah Jahan also placed profound verses of the Quran on his masterpieces of architecture.

The Shah Jahan Mosque in Thatta, Sindh province of Pakistan (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) was built during the reign of Shah Jahan in 1647. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 93 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end when the speech exceeds 100 decibels. It has been on the tentative UNESCO World Heritage list since 1993.[45]

Naulakha Pavilion in Lahore Fort

The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.

Weeks Edwin The Return Of The Imperial Court From The Great Mosque At Delhi

Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.

Wazir khan mosque entry

Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.[46]

Taj Mahal finial-1

Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).

Coins

Shah Jahan continued striking coins in three metals i.e. gold (mohur), silver (rupee) and copper (dam). His pre-accession coins bear the name Khurram.

Shah Jahan, Gold Mohur, Akbarabad, 10.88g, AH 1052, RY 15, Quatrefoil type

Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)

Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna mint

Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.

Shah Jahan Dam Daryakot

Copper Dam from Daryakot mint

Shah Jahan Rupee

Silver Rupee from Multan

Full title

Styles of
Shah Jahan
Reference styleShahanshah
Spoken styleHis Imperial Majesty
Alternative styleAlam Pana

Shah Jahan's full imperial title was:

Shahanshah Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Malik-ul-Sultanat, Ala Hazrat Abu'l-Muzaffar Shahab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I, Sahib-i-Qiran-i-Sani, Padshah Ghazi Zillu'llah, Firdaus-Ashiyani, Shahanshah—E—Sultanant Ul Hindiya Wal Mughaliya

Indian - Single Leaf of a Portrait of Shah Jahan - Walters W700 - Detail

Single Leaf of a Portrait of Shah Jahan.

Shah jahan moguln

Shah Jahan

See also

References

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  2. ^ Necipoğlu, Gülru, ed. (1994). Muqarnas : an annual on Islamic art and architecture. Volume 11. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. p. 143. ISBN 978-90-04-10070-1.
  3. ^ a b c Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E., eds. (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford University Press. p. 649. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
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  39. ^ Farooqi, N. R. (1989). Mughal-Ottoman Relations: A Study of Political & Diplomatic Relations Between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. OCLC 20894584.
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  44. ^ "A Qutub Minar that not many knew even existed". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  45. ^ Shah Jahan Mosque UNESCO World Heritage Centre Retrieved 10 February 2011
  46. ^ Dani, A. H. (2003). "The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions)". In Adle, Chahryar; Habib, Irfan (eds.). History of Civilizations of Central Asia (PDF). Volume V: Development in contrast: from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. p. 524. ISBN 978-92-3-103876-1.
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  48. ^ Mubārak, Abū al-Faz̤l ibn (1927). Ain i Akbari. Qausain. p. 551.
  49. ^ a b c d e Sarker, Kobita (2007). Shah Jahan and his paradise on earth : the story of Shah Jahan's creations in Agra and Shahjahanabad in the golden days of the Mughals. Kolkata: K.P. Bagchi & Co. p. 40. ISBN 978-8170743002.
  50. ^ Begley, W. E.; Desai, Z.A., eds. (1989). Taj Mahal: The Illumined Tomb: An Anthology of Seventeenth-Century Mughal and European Documentary Sources. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-295-96944-2.
  51. ^ Jahangir (1909–1914). The Tūzuk-i-Jahangīrī Or Memoirs Of Jahāngīr. Translated by Alexander Rogers; Henry Beveridge. London: Royal Asiatic Society. p. 1. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2017.CS1 maint: Date format (link)
  52. ^ Jahangir et al. & 1909-14, p. 1)
  53. ^ transl.; ed.,; Thackston, annot. by Wheeler M. (1999). The Jahangirnama : memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. New York [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780195127188.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  54. ^ Soma Mukherjee, Royal Mughal Ladies and Their Contributions (2001), p.128
  55. ^ Soma Mukherjee, Royal Mughal Ladies and Their Contributions (2001), p. 120
  56. ^ Mukherjee (2001, p. 120)
  57. ^ Syad Muhammad Latif, Agra: Historical and descriptive with an account of Akbar and his court and of the modern city of Agra (2003), p.156
  58. ^ C. M. Agrawal, Akbar and his Hindu officers: a critical study (1986), p.27
  59. ^ Jadunath Sarkar, A History of Jaipur (1994), p. 43
  60. ^ 'Inayat Khan, Wayne Edison Begley, The Shah Jahan nama of 'Inayat Khan: an abridged history of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, compiled by his royal librarian : the nineteenth-century manuscript translation of A.R. Fuller (1994), p. 4
  61. ^ Rajvi Amar Singh, Mediaeval History of Rajasthan: Western Rajasthan (1992), p.38
  62. ^ Richard Saran and Norman P. Ziegler, The Mertiyo Rathors of Merto, Rajasthan (2001), p.194

Notes

External links

Shah Jahan
Born: 5 January 1592 Died: 22 January 1666
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Jahangir
Mughal Emperor
1627–1658
Succeeded by
Aurangzeb
Choron ki Baoli

The Shahjahan ki baoli, more commonly known as the Choron ki baoli, is a baoli in Maham, Haryana, India. The structure, which was built during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan, collects and holds rainwater for use by the nearby town of Maham. While no longer in mainstay use, the baoli has been persevered as a tourist attraction.

Dara Shukoh

Dara Shukoh, also known as Dara Shikoh (Urdu: دارا شِکوہ ‎),

(20 March 1615 – 30 August 1659) was the eldest son and heir-apparent of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. Dara was designated with the title Padshahzada-i-Buzurg Martaba ("Prince of High Rank") and was favoured as a successor by his father and his older sister, Princess Jahanara Begum. In the war of succession which ensued after Shah Jahan's illness in 1657, Dara was defeated by his younger brother Prince Muhiuddin (later, the Emperor Aurangzeb). He was executed in 1659 on Aurangzeb's orders in a bitter struggle for the imperial throne.Dara was a liberal-minded unorthodox Muslim as opposed to the orthodox Aurangzeb. A great patron of the arts, he was also more inclined towards philosophy and mysticism rather than military pursuits. The course of the history of the Indian subcontinent, had Dara Shukoh prevailed over Aurangzeb, has been a matter of some conjecture among historians.

HMS Charity (R29)

HMS Charity was a C-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by John I. Thornycroft and Company of Woolston, Southampton on 9 July 1943. She was launched on 30 November 1944 and commissioned on 19 November 1945. She was sold to the US Navy in 1958, for transfer to the Pakistan Navy as a part of the Military Aid Program.

Renamed Shah Jahan, the ship was badly damaged in a strike by Indian Navy missile boats during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, and scrapped as a result.

Karaq-e Shah Jahan

Karaq-e Shah Jahan (Persian: كرق شاه جان‎, also Romanized as Karaq Shāh Jān; also known as Karakh Shāh Jān) is a village in Qorqori Rural District, Qorqori District, Hirmand County, Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 111, in 30 families.

Lahore Fort

The Lahore Fort (Punjabi and Urdu: شاہی قلعہ‎: Shahi Qila, or "Royal Fort"), is a citadel in the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The fortress is located at the northern end of walled city Lahore, and spreads over an area greater than 20 hectares. It contains 21 notable monuments, some of which date to the era of Emperor Akbar. The Lahore Fort is notable for having been almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century, when the Mughal Empire was at the height of its splendour and opulence.Though the site of the Lahore Fort has been inhabited for millennia, the first record of a fortified structure at the site was in regard to an 11th-century mud-brick fort. The foundations of the modern Lahore Fort date to 1566 during the reign of Emperor Akbar, who bestowed the fort with a syncretic architectural style that featured both Islamic and Hindu motifs. Additions from the Shah Jahan period are characterized by luxurious marble with inlaid Persian floral designs, while the fort's grand and iconic Alamgiri Gate was constructed by the last of the great Mughal Emperors, Aurangzeb, and faces the renowned Badshahi Mosque.

And after the fall of the Mughal Empire, the Lahore Fort was used as the residence of Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire. The fort then passed to British colonialists after they annexed Punjab following their victory over the Sikhs at the Battle of Gujrat in February 1849. In 1981, the fort was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its "outstanding repertoire" of Mughal monuments dating from the era when the empire was at its artistic and aesthetic zenith.

Moti Masjid (Agra Fort)

The Moti Masjid (translation: Pearl Mosque) in Agra was built by Shah Jahan. During the rule of Shah Jahan the Mughal emperor, numerous architectural wonders were built, the most famous of them being the Taj Mahal. Moti Masjid earned the epithet Pearl Mosque for it shone like a pearl. It is held that this mosque was constructed by Shah Jahan for his members of royal court.

Mughal architecture

Mughal Architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It developed the styles of earlier Muslim dynasties in India as an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian architecture. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways, and delicate ornamentation. Examples of the style can be found in modern-day India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

The Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings, though few have survived. His grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. Among his accomplishments were Agra Fort, the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri, and the Buland Darwaza. Akbar's son Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir.

Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed the Taj Mahal, the Jama Masjid, the Red Fort, and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. The end of his reign corresponded with the decline of Mughal architecture and the Empire itself.

Mughal emperors

The Mughal Emperors, Great Moghul, from the early 16th century to the mid 19th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals were a branch of the Timurid dynasty of Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia. Their power rapidly dwindled during the 18th century and the last emperor was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj. Mughal emperors were of direct descent from Timur (generally known in western nations as Tamerlane), and also affiliated with Genghis Khan, because of Tamerlane’s marriage with a Genghisid princess.

The Mughals also had significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances, as emperors were born to Rajput and Persian princesses. Only the first two Mughal emperors, Babur and Humayun, were fully Central Asian (Turkic people), whereas Akbar was half-Persian (his mother was of Persian origin), Jahangir was half-Rajput and quarter-Persian, and Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput.During Aurangzeb's Islamic sharia based government, the empire, as the world's largest economy, worth over 25% of world GDP, controlled all of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Chittagong in the east to Kabul and Baluchistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri River basin in the south. Its population at the time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million (a quarter of the world's population), over a territory of more than 4 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles). It was the largest empire that existed and was centralized around India.

Mumtaz Mahal

Mumtaz Mahal (Persian: ممتاز محل [mumˈt̪aːz mɛˈɦɛl]; born Arjumand Banu; 27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631) was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 as the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. The UNESCO World Heritage Site Taj Mahal in Agra, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World, was commissioned by her husband to act as her final resting place.Mumtaz Mahal was born Arjumand Banu Begum in Agra to a family of Persian nobility. She was the daughter of Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan, a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the Mughal Empire, and the niece of Empress Nur Jahan, the chief wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor. She was married at the age of 19 on 30 April 1612 to Prince Khurram, later known by his regnal name Shah Jahan, who conferred upon her the title "Mumtaz Mahal" (Persian: the exalted one of the palace). Although betrothed to Shah Jahan since 1607, she ultimately became his second wife in 1612. Mumtaz and her husband had fourteen children, including Jahanara Begum (Shah Jahan's favourite daughter), and the Crown prince Dara Shikoh, the heir-apparent, anointed by his father, who temporarily succeeded him, until deposed by Mumtaz Mahal's sixth child, Aurangzeb, who ultimately succeeded his father as the sixth Mughal emperor in 1658.Mumtaz Mahal died in 1631 in Burhanpur, Deccan (present-day Madhya Pradesh), during the birth of her fourteenth child, a daughter named Gauhar Ara Begum. Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built as a tomb for her, which is considered to be a monument of undying love.

Shah Jahan Ahmad

Shah Jahan Ahmad (Persian: شاه جهان احمد‎, also Romanized as Shāh Jahān Aḩmad) is a village in Rostam-e Yek Rural District, in the Central District of Rostam County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 137, in 30 families.

Shah Jahan Begum

Shahjahan Begum (29 July 1838 – 16 June 1901) was the Begum of Bhopal (the ruler of the princely state of Bhopal in central India) for two periods: 1844–60 (her mother acting as regent), and secondly during 1868–1901.

Shah Jahan II

Shah Jahan II (Persian: شاه جهان دوم‎) c. 1698 – 19 September 1719, birth name Rafi ud-Daulah (Persian: رفیع الدوله‎) was the 11th Mughal emperor for a brief period in 1719. After being chosen by the Sayyid brothers, he succeeded his short-lived brother Rafi ud-Darajat in that year. Like his brother, he died of tuberculosis and was buried in the dargah of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.

Shah Jahan III

Shah Jahan III (1711 – 1772), (شاه جہان ۳) also known as Muhi-ul-millat was Mughal Emperor briefly. He was the son of Muhi-us-sunnat, the eldest son of Muhammad Kam Bakhsh who was the youngest son of Aurangzeb. He was placed on the Mughal throne in December 1759 as a result of the intricacies in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk. He was later deposed by Maratha Sardars.

Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta

The Shah Jahan Mosque (Urdu: شاہ جہاں مسجد‎), also known as the Jamia Masjid of Thatta (Urdu: جامع مسجد ٹھٹہ‎), is a 17th-century building that serves as the central mosque for the city of Thatta, in the Pakistani province of Sindh. The mosque is considered to have the most elaborate display of tile work in South Asia, and is also notable for its geometric brick work - a decorative element that is unusual for Mughal-period mosques. It was built during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, who bestowed it to the city as a token of gratitude, and is heavily influenced by Central Asian architecture - a reflection of Shah Jahan's campaigns near Samarkand shortly before the mosque was designed.

Shah Jahan Mosque, Woking

The Shah Jahan Mosque (also known as Woking Mosque) in Oriental Road, Woking, England, is the first purpose-built mosque in the United Kingdom. Built in 1889, it is located 30 miles (50 km) southwest of London. It is a Grade I listed building.

Head imam of shah jahan Mosque is

Hafiz M Saeed Hashmi.

He has master degrees in Islamic, Arabic studies and political science, and classical Islamic science.

The Mosque promotes understanding, peace and harmony through interfaith activities.

Shah Jahan Rural District

Shah Jahan Rural District (Persian: دهستان شاه جهان‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Faruj County, North Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 8,488, in 2,325 families. The rural district has 11 villages.

Sheesh Mahal (Lahore Fort)

The Sheesh Mahal (Urdu: شیش محل‎; “The Palace of Mirrors”) is located within the Shah Burj block in northern-western corner of Lahore Fort. It was constructed under the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in 1631-32. The ornate white marble pavilion is inlaid with pietra dura and complex mirror-work of the finest quality. The hall was reserved for personal use by the imperial family and close aides. It is among the 21 monuments that were built by successive Mughal emperors inside Lahore Fort, and forms the "jewel in the Fort’s crown." As part of the larger Lahore Fort Complex, it has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981.

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal (; Hindi: ताज महल [taːdʒ ˈmɛːɦ(ə)l], meaning "Crown of the Palaces") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan (reigned from 1628 to 1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It also houses the tomb of Shah Jahan, the builder. The tomb is the centerpiece of a 17-hectare (42-acre) complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall.

Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (U.S. $827 million). The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri.

The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". It is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year and in 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative.

USS Harold J. Ellison (DD-864)

USS Harold J. Ellison (DD-864) was a Gearing-class destroyer in service with the United States Navy from 1945 to 1983. She was then transferred to Pakistan and renamed Shah Jahan (D-164). The ship was finally sunk as a target in 1994.

Ancestors of Shah Jahan
8. Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun, Mughal Emperor[55]
4. Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, Mughal Emperor[51]
9. Hamida Banu Begum[56]
2. Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir, Mughal Emperor[14]
10. Bhar Mal, Raja of Amber[57]
5. Mariam-uz-Zamani[52]
11. Rani Champavati Solanki[58][59]
1. Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I, Mughal Emperor
12. Maldeo, Rao of Marwar[60]
6. Udai Singh, Raja of Marwar[53]
13. Swarup Devi of Khairawa[61]
3. Jagat Gosain[14]
14. Askaram Bhimvrajot, Raja of Gwalior[62]
7. Manrang Devi[54]
Emperors
Battles andconflicts
Architecture
Adversaries
Provinces
See also
Successor states

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