Shaanxi (pinyin: Shǎnxī; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʂàn.ɕí] (listen); formerly romanized as Shensi), is a province of the People's Republic of China. Officially part of the Northwest China region, it lies in central China, bordering the provinces of Shanxi (NE, E), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). It covers an area of over 205,000 km2 (79,151 sq mi) with about 37 million people. Xi'an – which includes the sites of the former Chinese capitals Fenghao and Chang'an – is the provincial capital. Xianyang, which served as the Qin dynasty capital, is located nearby. The other prefecture-level cities into which the province is divided are Ankang, Baoji, Hanzhong, Shangluo, Tongchuan, Weinan, Yan'an and Yulin.
Shaanxi comprises the Wei Valley and much of the surrounding fertile Loess Plateau, stretching from the Qin Mountains and Shannan in the south to the Ordos Desert in the north. Along with areas of adjacent Shanxi and Henan provinces, it formed the cradle of Chinese civilization, with its Guanzhong region sheltering the capitals of the Zhou, Han, Jin, Sui, and Tang dynasties in addition to the Qin. It does not include the full territory of the Yellow River's Ordos Loop, with the Great Wall of China separating it from the grasslands and deserts of Inner Mongolia.
|• Chinese||陕西省 (Shǎnxī Shěng)|
Map showing the location of Shaanxi Province
(and largest city)
|Divisions||10 prefectures, 107 counties, 1745 townships|
|• Secretary||Hu Heping|
|• Governor||Liu Guozhong|
|• Total||205,800 km2 (79,500 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,767.2 m (12,359.6 ft)|
|• Density||180/km2 (470/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||21st|
|• Ethnic composition||Han – 99.5%|
Hui – 0.4%
|• Languages and dialects||Zhongyuan Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, Jin|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-SN|
|GDP (2017 )||CNY 2.19 trillion|
USD 324.34 billion (15th)
|• per capita||CNY 57,266 |
USD 8,482 (12th)
|HDI (2010)||0.695 (medium) (14th)|
|Website||www.shaanxi.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese)|
|Literal meaning||"West of the Shǎn (Pass)"|
The name "Shaanxi" is an irregular romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of the Chinese name 陕西, meaning "[Land] West of the Shan Pass". This pass in Henan, now part of Sanmenxia's Shanzhou District, was considered to be the place where the Yellow River left the Loess Plateau and entered the North China Plain.
Because the Mandarin pronunciation of Shaanxi and its eastern neighbor Shanxi differs only in tone, their spelling in pinyin romanization differs only by tone marks (Shǎnxī and Shānxī, respectively). The People's Republic of China therefore adopted the special official spelling "Shaanxi". The first syllable is derived from Gwoyeu Romatzyh romanization, which reflects the tones of the words' vowels in their spelling. The second syllable—which would be shi in Gwoyeu Romatzyh—is instead given its usual pinyin spelling xi. When tone marks are noted, it is spelled Shǎnxī rather than Shǎanxī or Shaǎnxī.
Before the adoption of pinyin, Shaanxi was romanized as Shensi in the Chinese postal romanization scheme.
Shaanxi is considered one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. Thirteen feudal dynasties established their capitals in the province during a span of more than 1,100 years, from the Zhou dynasty to the Tang dynasty.
The province's principal city and current capital, Xi'an, is one of the four great ancient capitals of China and is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, which leads to Europe, the Arabian Peninsula and Africa.
Under the Han dynasty, the Northern Silk Road was expanded to advance exploration and military purposes to the west. This Northern Silk Road is the northernmost of the Silk Roads and is about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) in length. It connected the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an to the west over the Wushao Ling Pass to Wuwei and emerging in Kashgar before linking to ancient Parthia.
One of the most devastating earthquakes in history occurred near Hua Shan, in south-eastern part of Shaanxi Province on January 23, 1556, killing an estimated 830,000 people (see 1556 Shaanxi earthquake).
The Lantian Man site, with hominin fossils of one million years ago, was found in Lantian County in northwestern Shaanxi province, near the city of Xi'an. Scientists classify Lantian Man as a subspecies of Homo erectus. The fossils are displayed at the Shaanxi History Museum, Xi'an, China.
The geography of the area is described as being part of the Ordos Desert in the north along the border with Inner Mongolia, the Loess Plateau in the central part of the province, the Qin Mountains (Qinling) running east to west in the south central part, and subtropical climate south of the Qinling. In between the Loess Plateau and the Qinling lies the Wei River Valley, or Guanzhong, a cradle of early Chinese civilization.
Going clockwise, Shaanxi borders Shanxi (E, NE), Henan (E), Hubei (SE), Chongqing (S), Sichuan (SW), Gansu (W), Ningxia (NW), and Inner Mongolia (N). In terms of number of bordering provincial-level divisions, Shaanxi ties Inner Mongolia.
Due to its large span in latitude, Shaanxi has a variety of climates. Under the Köppen climate classification, the northern parts, including the Loess Plateau, have either a cold arid (Köppen BWk) or cold semi-arid (Köppen BSk), with cold and very dry winters, dry springs and autumns, and hot summers. The area known as Guanzhong is mostly semi-arid, though there are a few areas with a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool to cold winters, and hot, humid summers that often see early-season heatwaves. The southern portion is much more humid and lies in the humid subtropical zone, with more temperate winters and long, hot, humid summers. Annual mean temperature is roughly between 8 to 16 °C (46 to 61 °F), with January temperatures ranging from −11 to 3.5 °C (12.2 to 38.3 °F) and July temperatures ranging from 21 to 28 °C (70 to 82 °F).
|Administrative divisions of Shaanxi|
|№||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|610000||Shaanxi Province||205800.00||37,327,378||Xi'an city||30||72||5|
|1||610100||Xi'an city||10096.81||8,467,837||Weiyang District||11||2|
|6||610200||Tongchuan city||3884.81||834,437||Yaozhou District||3||1|
|3||610300||Baoji city||18116.93||3,716,731||Jintai District||3||9|
|8||610400||Xianyang city||10323.99||4,894,834||Qindu District||3||9||2|
|7||610500||Weinan city||13030.56||5,286,077||Linwei District||2||7||2|
|9||610600||Yan'an city||37030.54||2,187,009||Baota District||2||11|
|4||610700||Hanzhong city||27096.43||3,416,196||Hantai District||2||9|
|10||610800||Yulin city||42920.18||3,351,437||Yuyang District||2||9||1|
|2||610900||Ankang city||23536.31||2,629,906||Hanbin District||1||9|
|5||611000||Shangluo city||19587.31||2,341,742||Shangzhou District||1||6|
The politics of Shaanxi is structured in a triple party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.
The Governor of Shaanxi is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Shaanxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor is considered to have less power than the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary (中共陕西省委书记), colloquially termed the "Shaanxi CPC Party Chief"; since the Governor is always ranked as the First-Deputy Secretary in the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee.
Shaanxi was established as a provincial government since Qing dynasty. On 10 January 1950, the People's Government of Shaanxi was established in Xi'an. Ma Minfang was then appointed as the first Governor of Shaanxi.
As of the mid-19th century, Shaanxi exported animal skins, wine, liquor, and musk. Money loans were also common, with Shaanxi business people involved in the Guangzhou loan business. Shaanxi commonly imported European animal skins, watches, Chinese language books, and cloth.
The fossil fuel and high technology sectors compose the two largest industries in Shaanxi province. During 2009, the province ranked third in China for production of coal, natural gas and crude oil. As the home of several of the leading universities and research institutes in Western China, Shaanxi province also plays a major role in China's burgeoning aircraft and aerospace industries, producing more than 50% of the R&D and manufacturing equipment for the country's domestic commercial air industry. Nominal GDP for 2011 was 1,239 billion RMB (US$196.7 billion) and GDP per capita was 21,729 RMB (US$3,179), ranking 17th in the PRC.
Established in 1992, Baoji Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was approved as a national hi-tech zone by the State Council. It has a long-term planned area of 40 km2 (15 sq mi). The transportation system around the zone includes Xi'an-Xianyang International Airport and National Highway 310, and industries operating within the zone include auto parts, electronics, IT, pharmaceuticals and bioengineering industries and new materials.
Shaanxi Xi'an Export Processing Zone (XEPZ) was approved on 21 June 2002 by the State Council for its establishment and was put on 5 April 2004. As the first state-level export processing zone in northwest China, XEPZ has become one of the seven pioneer EPZs with the function of bonded logistics in China. XEPZ is under the leadership of the Administrative Committee of Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone (XETDZ), which is designated by Xi'an municipal government to exercise economic and administrative power within the zone. XEPZ is a special economic zone. By now, there are more than 40 enterprises home and abroad settled in XEPZ. The pillar industries feature aviation, machinery, electronics and new energy.
The Western Triangle is a new economic zone composing the three major city-level economies of Western China: Xi'an, Chongqing and Chengdu. It is believed that the addition of Xi'an to the Triangle will spur economic growth in the region and allow the city an opportunity to capitalize on the commercial potential of its high-technology industries.
Established in 1993, Xi'an Economic and Technology Development Zone was approved as a national zone in 2000. The zone is 20 minutes from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport, and national highways pass through. It has formed four pillar industries: automotive, electronics, food, and new materials industries. So far, the zone has attracted more than 1,700 enterprises.
Xi'an HTDZ opened its gates in 1991. It was established as a "pivotal location" for investment by high-tech industry companies in central and northwest China. Established in 1991, Xi'an Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone is a national high-tech zone. It is surrounded by national highways and it is 30 minutes from Xi'an International Airport. Furthermore, it is ranked in the top three high-tech zones in China.
Xi'an Software Park, established in December 1998, is the professional park for Xi'an to develop scale software and service outsourcing industries. The park has been appraised as a software industry base under the National Torch Program, national software industry base, national software export base, city demonstrational area of national service outsourcing base. It is one of the four parks with "double bases" of software in China. Xi'an Software Park assembles 90% of enterprises engaging in software and service outsourcing in Xi'an. There were nearly 780 companies, of which foreign-funded enterprises account for 170, and over 71,000 jobholders in the park by the end of 2008.
Yangling Agriculture Hi-Tech Industrial Zone was approved as a national-level hi-tech development zone by State Council in 1997. It is 82 km (51 mi) from Xi'an to the east and 70 km (43 mi) from Xi'an Xianyang International Airport.
Nearly all the people in Shaanxi are ethnic Han Chinese, with pockets of Hui population in the northwestern region (adjacent to Ningxia). Shaanxi province is one of the centers of ancient Chinese civilization. The southern part of Shaanxi, known as Guanzhong, where the provincial capital Xi'an is located, is more populated compared to the northern part.
|Xi'an part of Shaanxi Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Shaanxi Province.|
The predominant religions in Shaanxi are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 7.58% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, while 1.57% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 90.85% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and small minorities of Muslims.
Banpo Neolithic village, near Xi'an
Professional sports teams based in Shaanxi include:
The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake or Huaxian earthquake (simplified Chinese: 华县大地震; traditional Chinese: 華縣大地震; pinyin: Huáxiàn Dàdìzhèn) or Jiajing earthquake (Chinese: 嘉靖大地震; pinyin: Jiājìng Dàdìzhèn) was the deadliest earthquake in recorded history, killing approximately 830,000 people.It occurred on the morning of 23 January 1556 in Shaanxi, during the Ming Dynasty. More than 97 counties in the provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Gansu, Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu and Anhui were affected. Buildings were damaged slightly in the cities of Beijing, Chengdu and Shanghai. An 840-kilometre-wide (520 mi) area was destroyed, and in some counties as much as 60% of the population was killed. Most of the population in the area at the time lived in yaodongs, artificial caves in loess cliffs, many of which collapsed with catastrophic loss of life.Baoji
Baoji (simplified Chinese: 宝鸡; traditional Chinese: 寶雞; pinyin: Bǎojī) is a prefecture-level city in western Shaanxi province, People's Republic of China. Since the early 1990s, Baoji has been the second largest city in Shaanxi.Beijing Renhe F.C.
Beijing Renhe Football Club (Chinese: 北京人和; pinyin: Běijīng Rénhé) is a professional Chinese football club that currently participates in the Chinese Super League under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Fengtai, Beijing and their home stadium is the Beijing Fengtai Stadium that has a seating capacity of 31,043. Their current majority shareholder is Chinese property developers of shopping centers Renhe Commercial Holdings Company Limited.
The club was founded in Pudong, Shanghai in February 3, 1995 and were originally known as Shanghai Pudong before they made their debut in the third tier of China's football league pyramid in the 1995 league season. They would work there way up to the top tier while changing name to accommodate their sponsors. In the 2006 league season the club would relocate the team to Shaanxi and rename themselves Xi'an Chanba International, however by the 2012 league season, the club relocated this time to Guizhou, and changed their name to Guizhou Renhe. In the 2016 league season the club relocated the team to Fengtai, Beijing, and changed their name to Beijing Renhe. Throughout the clubs history their greatest achievement has been winning the 2013 Chinese FA Cup while the highest position they have ever finished was second within the 2003 league season.Fugu Airport
Fugu Airport (Chinese: 府谷机场) is an airport being constructed to serve Fugu County in northern Shaanxi Province, China. It is located near Sangyuanliang Village, Fugu Town.The airport project was launched by the Fugu County government in 2009, and received approval from the State Council of China and the Central Military Commission on 23 January 2019. It will be the first county-level airport in Shaanxi.The airport will have a runway that is 2,800 metres (9,200 ft) long and 45 metres (148 ft) wide (class 4C) and four aircraft parking places. It is projected to handle 450,000 passengers and 1,200 tons of cargo annually by 2025.Guanzhong
Guanzhong (formerly romanised as Kwanchung; simplified Chinese: 关中; traditional Chinese: 關中; pinyin: Guānzhōng; Wade–Giles: Kuan1-chung1; literally: 'Inside the Pass'), or Guanzhong Plain, is a historical region of China corresponding to the lower valley of the Wei River. It is called Guanzhong or 'within the passes', as opposed to 'Guandong' or 'east of the pass', i.e., the North China Plain. The North China Plain is bordered on the west by mountains. The Yellow River cuts through the mountains at the Hangu Pass or Tong Pass separating Guanzhong from Guandong.Han River (Hubei)
The Han River, also known by its Chinese names Hanshui and Han Jiang, is a left tributary of the Yangtze in central China. It has a length of 1,532 kilometers (952 mi) and is the longest tributary of the Yangtze system.
The river gave its name to the Han dynasty and, through it, to the Han Chinese, the dominant ethnicity in China and the most populous ethnic group in the world. It is also the namesake of the city of Hanzhong on its upper course.Huayin
Huayin is a county-level city in Weinan, Shaanxi province, China. Prior to 1990, Huayin had been regarded as a county. Huayin literally means to the north of Mount Hua, because it is situated to the north of that mountain.Mount Hua
Mount Hua (simplified Chinese: 华山; traditional Chinese: 華山; pinyin: Huà Shān) is a mountain located near the city of Huayin in Shaanxi province, about 120 kilometres (75 mi) east of Xi'an. It is the western mountain of the Five Great Mountains of China, and has a long history of religious significance. Originally classified as having three peaks, in modern times the mountain is classified as five main peaks, of which the highest is the South Peak at 2,154.9 metres (7,070 ft).Northern Shaanxi
Shaanbei (simplified Chinese: 陕北; traditional Chinese: 陝北; pinyin: Shǎnběi) is the northern portion of Shaanxi province in Northwest China, and is a natural as well as cultural area, forming part of the Loess Plateau. As it includes Yan'an, it is known as the birthplace of the Chinese Communist revolution.Shaanxi Y-8
The Shaanxi Y-8 or Yunshuji-8 (Chinese: 运-8) aircraft is a medium size medium range transport aircraft produced by Shaanxi Aircraft Corporation in China, based on the Soviet Antonov An-12. It has become one of China's most popular military and civilian transport/cargo aircraft, with many variants produced and exported. Although the An-12 is no longer made in Ukraine, the Chinese Y-8 continues to be upgraded and produced. An estimated 169 Y-8 aircraft had been built by 2010.Southern Shaanxi
Shaannan (simplified Chinese: 陕南; traditional Chinese: 陝南; pinyin: Shǎnnán) is a region referring to the southern portion of Shaanxi province, China. Its name derives from the abbreviation of the province Shaan (陕), combined with its geographical location within the province (南).
Much of the region is south of the Qin Mountains as well, and for this reason it was for long part of varying kingdoms known as Shu, which also included parts of the Sichuan Basin. In the Yuan Dynasty, the area began to be merged with what is the Guanzhong Plain to form Shaanxi Province. This barrier has also created major differences in climate, cultural traditions and language between Shaannan and the central and northern parts of Shaanxi, and thus there is some similarity between Shaannan and Sichuan.Tongchuan
Tongchuan (simplified Chinese: 铜川; traditional Chinese: 銅川; pinyin: Tóngchuān; literally: 'copper river') is a prefecture-level city located in central Shaanxi province, People's Republic of China on the southern fringe of the Loess Plateau that defines the northern half of the province (Shanbei) and the northern reaches of the Guanzhong Plain.Weinan
Weinan (Chinese: 渭南; pinyin: Wèinán) is a prefecture-level city in the east of Shaanxi province, China. The city lies about 60 km (37 mi) east of the provincial capital Xi'an.Xi'an
Xi'an ( SHYAHN, also UK: shee-AN, US: shee-AHN, Chinese: [ɕí.án] (listen)) is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China. A sub-provincial city on the Guanzhong Plain in northwestern China, it is one of the oldest cities in China, and the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang. Xi'an is the starting point of the Silk Road and home to the Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and space exploration. Xi'an currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 9 districts and 4 counties. As of 2018 Xi'an has a population of 12,005,600, and the Xi'an–Xianyang metropolitan area a population of 12.9 million. It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China, the other two are Chongqing and Chengdu. In 2012, it was named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China.Xianyang
Xianyang (Chinese: 咸阳; pinyin: Xiányáng) is a prefecture-level city in central Shaanxi province, situated on the Wei River a few kilometers upstream (west) from the provincial capital of Xi'an. Once the capital of the Qin dynasty, it is now integrated into the Xi'an metropolitan area, one of the main urban agglomerations in inland China, with more than 7.17 million inhabitants, its built-up area made of 2 urban districts (Qindu and Weicheng) was 945,420 inhabitants at the 2010 census. It has a total area of 10,213 square kilometres (3,943 sq mi).Yan'an
Yan'an (Chinese: 延安; Mandarin pronunciation: [jɛ̌n.án]) is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west. It administers several counties, including Zhidan (formerly Bao'an), which served as the headquarters of the Chinese Communists before the city of Yan'an proper took that role.
Yan'an was near the endpoint of the Long March, and became the center of the Chinese Communist revolution from late 1935 to early 1947. Chinese communists celebrate Yan'an as the birthplace of the revolution.Yulin, Shaanxi
Yulin (Chinese: 榆林; pinyin: Yúlín) is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the east, and Ningxia to the west. It has an administrative area of 43,578 km2 (16,826 sq mi) and a population of 3,380,000.Yulin Xisha Airport
Yulin Xisha Airport is a former airport in Yulin, Shaanxi China. The official Yulin airport codes were changed to the new Yulin Yuyang Airport when the latter was opened in March 2008.
Yulin Xisha Airport was the first airport in Yulin, officially opened in 1988, but the planned expansion of the airport was cancelled when it failed to meet the requirements for new developments. Instead, the construction of a new airport was ordered and Yulin Xisha Airport has been demolished.The airport has one runway (15/33) that is approximately 1,500 metres long.Yulin Yuyang Airport
Yulin Yuyang Airport (IATA: UYN, ICAO: ZLYL) is an airport serving the city of Yulin in Shaanxi Province, China. The airport opened in March 2008, replacing the old Yulin Xisha Airport. The airport is located 15.5 km (9.6 mi) from the urban area of Yulin. Its construction started in 2005 and it was classified as a 4C grade civil regional airport.
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Shaanxi Province||陕西省||Shǎnxī Shěng|
|Xi'an city||西安市||Xī'ān Shì|
|Tongchuan city||铜川市||Tóngchuān Shì|
|Baoji city||宝鸡市||Bǎojī Shì|
|Xianyang city||咸阳市||Xiányáng Shì|
|Weinan city||渭南市||Wèinán Shì|
|Yan'an city||延安市||Yán'ān Shì|
|Hanzhong city||汉中市||Hànzhōng Shì|
|Yulin city||榆林市||Yúlín Shì|
|Ankang city||安康市||Ānkāng Shì|
|Shangluo city||商洛市||Shāngluò Shì|
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(1)||Xi'an (new districts)[a]||389,830||889,854||see Xi'an||2010-11-01|
|(5)||Yulin (new district)[c]||114,188||288,053||see Yulin||2010-11-01|
|(7)||Hanzhong (new district)[d]||144,596||471,634||see Hanzhong||2010-11-01|
|(8)||Weinan (new district)[e]||107,467||322,148||see Weinan||2010-11-01|
|(9)||Yan'an (new district)[f]||74,945||171,552||see Yan'an||2010-11-01|
Places adjacent to Shaanxi
|Special administrative regions|