Sh'erit ha-Pletah

Sh'erit ha-Pletah (Hebrew: שארית הפליטה‎, lit. 'the surviving remnant') is a biblical (Ezra 9:14 and 1 Chronicles 4:43) term used by Jewish refugees who survived the Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed in postwar Europe following the liberation in the spring of 1945.

Hundreds of thousands of survivors spent several years following their repatriation in Displaced Persons (DP) camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy. The refugees became socially and politically organized, advocating at first for their political and human rights in the camps, and then for the right to immigrate to British Mandate of Palestine, most of which became the Jewish State of Israel where the majority ended up living by 1950.

Formation of the DP camps

DP class at Schauenstein camp
School children at Schauenstein DP camp in 1946

In an effort to destroy the evidence of war crimes, Nazi authorities and military staff accelerated the pace of killings, forced victims on death marches, and attempted to deport many of them away from the rapidly shrinking German lines. As the German war effort collapsed, survivors were typically left on their own, on trains, by the sides of roads, and in camps. Concentration camps and death camps were liberated by Allied forces in the final stages of the war, beginning with Majdanek, in July 1944, and Auschwitz, in January 1945; Buchenwald, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau, Mauthausen, and other camps were liberated in April and May 1945.[1]

At the time of Germany's unconditional surrender on 7 May 1945 there were some 6.5 to 7 million displaced persons in the Allied occupation zones,[2] among them an estimated 55,000 [3] to 60,000[4] Jews. The vast majority of non-Jewish DPs were repatriated in a matter of months.[5] The number of Jewish DPs, however, subsequently grew many fold as Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe migrated westward. It is estimated that a total of more than 250,000 Jewish DPs resided in camps or communities in Germany, Austria, and Italy during the period from 1945 to 1952.[6]

In the first weeks after liberation, Allied military forces improvised relief in the form of shelter, food, and medical care. A large number of refugees were in critical condition as a result of malnutrition, abuse, and disease. Many died, but medical material was requisitioned from military stores and German civilian facilities. Military doctors as well as physicians among the survivors themselves used available resources to help a large number recover their physical health. The first proper funerals of Holocaust victims took place during this period with the assistance of Allied forces and military clergy.

Shelter was also improvised in the beginning, with refugees of various origins being housed in abandoned barracks, hotels, former concentration camps, and private homes.

As Germany and Austria came under Allied military administration, the commanders assumed responsibility for the safety and disposition of all displaced persons. The Allies provided for the DPs according to nationality, and initially did not recognize Jews as constituting a separate group. One significant consequence of this early perspective was that Jewish DPs sometimes found themselves housed in the same quarters with former Nazi collaborators.[7][8] Also, the general policy of the Allied occupation forces was to repatriate DPs to their country of origin as soon as possible, and there was not necessarily sufficient consideration for exceptions; repatriation policy varied from place to place, but Jewish DPs, for whom repatriation was problematic, were apt to find themselves under pressure to return home.[9]

General George Patton, the commander of the United States Third Army and military governor of Bavaria, where most of the Jewish DPs resided, was known for pursuing a harsh, indiscriminate repatriation policy.[10][11] However, his approach raised objections from the refugees themselves, as well as from American military and civilian parties sympathetic to their plight. In early July 1945, Patton issued a directive that the entire Munich area was to be cleared of displaced persons with an eye toward repatriating them. Joseph Dunner, an American officer who in civilian life was a professor of political science, sent a memorandum to military authorities protesting the order. When 90 trucks of the Third Army arrived at Buchberg to transport the refugees there, they refused to move, citing Dunner's memo. Based on these efforts and blatant antisemitic remarks, Patton was relieved of this command.[12]

Harrison report

By June 1945 reports had circulated back in the United States concerning overcrowded conditions and insufficient supplies in the DP camps, as well as the ill treatment of Jewish survivors at the hand of the U.S. Army. American Jewish leaders, in particular, felt compelled to act.[13][14] American Earl G. Harrison was sent by president Truman to investigate conditions among the "non-repatriables" in the DP camps. Arriving in Germany in July, he spent several weeks visiting the camps and submitted his final report on 24 August. Harrison's report stated among other things that:

Generally speaking... many Jewish displaced persons and other possibly non-repatriables are living under guard behind barbed-wire fences, in camps of several descriptions (built by the Germans for slave-laborers and Jews), including some of the most notorious of the concentration camps, amidst crowded, frequently unsanitary and generally grim conditions, in complete idleness, with no opportunity, except surreptitiously, to communicate with the outside world, waiting, hoping for some word of encouragement and action in their behalf....
...While there has been marked improvement in the health of survivors of the Nazi starvation and persecution program, there are many pathetic malnutrition cases both among the hospitalized and in the general population of the camps... at many of the camps and centers including those where serious starvation cases are, there is a marked and serious lack of needed medical supplies...
...many of the Jewish displaced persons, late in July, had no clothing other than their concentration camp garb-a rather hideous striped pajama effect-while others, to their chagrin, were obliged to wear German S.S. uniforms. It is questionable which clothing they hate the more...
...Most of the very little which has been done [to reunite families] has been informal action by the displaced persons themselves with the aid of devoted Army Chaplains, frequently Rabbis, and the American Joint Distribution Committee...
...The first and plainest need of these people is a recognition of their actual status and by this I mean their status as Jews... While admittedly it is not normally desirable to set aside particular racial or religious groups from their nationality categories, the plain truth is that this was done for so long by the Nazis that a group has been created which has special needs...
...Their desire to leave Germany is an urgent one.... They want to be evacuated to Palestine now, just as other national groups are being repatriated to their homes... Palestine, while clearly the choice of most, is not the only named place of possible emigration. Some, but the number is not large, wish to emigrate to the United States where they have relatives, others to England, the British Dominions, or to South America...
...No other single matter is, therefore, so important from the viewpoint of Jews in Germany and Austria and those elsewhere who have known the horrors of the concentration camps as is the disposition of the Palestine question...
...As matters now stand, we appear to be treating the Jews as the Nazis treated them except that we do not exterminate them. They are in concentration camps in large numbers under our military guard instead of S.S. troops.[15]

Harrison's report was met with consternation in Washington, and its contrast with Patton's position ultimately contributed to Patton being relieved of his command in Germany in September 1945.

Growth of the camps

The number of refugees in the Sh'erit ha-Pletah continued to grow as displaced Jews who were in Western Europe at war's end were joined by hundreds of thousands of refugees from Eastern Europe. Many of these were Polish Jews who had initially been repatriated. Nearly 90% of the approximately 200,000 Polish Jews who had survived the war in the Soviet Union chose to return to Poland under a Soviet-Polish repatriation agreement.[16] But Jews returning to their erstwhile homes in Poland met with a generally hostile reception from their non-Jewish neighbors. Between fall 1944 and summer 1946 as many as 600 Jews were killed in anti-Jewish riots in various towns and cities,[17] including incidents in Cracow, around August 20, 1945;[18] Sosnowiec, on October 25; and Lublin, on November 19. Most notable was the pogrom in Kielce on July 4, 1946, in which 42 Jews were killed.[19] In the course of 1946 the flight of Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe toward the West amounted to a mass exodus that swelled the ranks of DPs in Germany and Austria, especially in the U.S. Zone.[20]

Although hundreds of DP camps were in operation between 1945 and 1948, the refugees were mostly segregated, with several camps being dedicated to Jews. These camps varied in terms of the conditions afforded to the refugees, how they were managed, and the composition of their population.

In the American sector, the Jewish community across many camps organized itself rapidly for purposes of representation and advocacy. In the British sector, most refugees were concentrated in the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp and were under tighter control.

Humanitarian services in the DP camps

The Allies had begun to prepare for the humanitarian aftermath of the war while it was still going on, with the founding of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), on 9 November 1943. However, the beginnings of the agency were plagued by organizational problems and corruption.[21] The military authorities were, in any case, reluctant to yield significant responsibility for the DP assembly centers to a civilian organization, until it became clear that there would be a need to house and care for the DPs for an extended period of time.[21][22] At the point when it was supposed to begin its work the UNRRA was woefully understaffed in view of the larger than expected numbers of DPs, and additional staff that were hastily recruited were poorly trained.[23] The agency began to send staff into the field in summer 1945; its mission had been conceived mainly as a support to the repatriation process, including providing medical services, and assuring the delivery of adequate nutrition, as well as attending to the DPs' needs for comfort and entertainment; however, it often fell short of fulfilling these functions.[24] As of 15 November 1945, the UNRRA officially assumed responsibility for the administration of the camps, while remaining generally subordinate to the military, which continued to provide for housing and security in the camps, as well as the delivery of food, clothing, and medical supplies. Over time the UNRRA supplemented the latter basic services with health and welfare services, recreational facilities, self-help programs, and vocational guidance.[25]

By the time that the UNRRA took the reins of administration of the camps, the Jewish DPs had already begun to elect their own representatives, and were vocal about their desire for self-governance. However, since camp committees did not yet have any officially sanctioned role, their degree of power and influence depended at first on the stance of the particular UNRRA director at the given camp.[26]

The UNRRA was active mainly through the end of 1946 and had wound down its operations by mid 1947. In late 1947 a new successor organization, the International Refugee Organization (IRO) absorbed some of the UNRRA staff and assumed its responsibilities, but with a focus turned toward resettlement, as well as care of the most vulnerable DPs, rather than repatriation.[27]

A number of other organizations played an active role in the emerging Jewish community in the DP camps. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee ("Joint") provided financial support and supplies from American sources; in the British sector, the Jewish Relief Unit acted as the British equivalent to the Joint; and the ORT established numerous vocational and other training.

From representation to autonomy

The refugees who found themselves in provisional, sparse quarters under military guard soon spoke up against the ironic nature of their liberation, invoking an oft-repeated slogan "From Dachau to Feldafing." [28] Working committees were established in each camp, and on July 1, 1945 the committees met for a founding session of a federation for Jewish DP camp committees in Feldafing. The session also included representatives of the Jewish Brigade and the Allied military administration. It resulted in the formation of a provisional council and an executive committee chaired by Zalman Grinberg. Patton's attempt at repatriating Jewish refugees had resulted in a resolve within the Sh'erit ha-Pletah to define their own destiny. Bolstered by the support from Harrison and Patton's frustrated attempts at forcing a solution upon them, the various camp committees convened a conference for the entire Sh'erit ha-Pletah on July 25 at the St. Ottilien camp. The delegates passed a fourteen-point program that established a broad mandate, including the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine with UN recognition, compensation to victims, participation in the trials against Nazi war criminals, archival of historical records, and full autonomy for the committees.

As it turned out, the American and British sectors developed independent organization structures.

The center for the British sector in Germany was at the Bergen-Belsen DP camp, where Josef Rosensaft had been the primus motor for establishing what became the Central Committee for Displaced Persons in the British zone. In the American sector, Zalman Grinberg and Samuel Gringauz and others led the formation of the Central Committee of the Liberated Jews, which was to establish offices first in the former Deutsches Museum and then in Siebertstrasse 3 in Munich.

The central organizations for Jewish refugees had an overwhelming number of issues to resolve, among them:

  • Ensuring healthy and dignified living conditions for the refugees living in various camps and installations
  • Establishing political legitimacy for themselves by establishing a constitution with a political process with debates, elections, etc.
  • Facilitating and encouraging religious, educational, and cultural expression within the camps
  • Arranging for employment for the refugees, though not in enterprises that would contribute to the German economy
  • Supporting the absorption in the camp infrastructure of "new" refugees arriving from Eastern Europe
  • Resolving acrimonious and sometimes violent disputes between the camps and German police
  • Managing the public image of displaced persons, particularly with respect to black market activities
  • Advocating immigration destinations for the refugees, in particular to the British Mandate in Palestine, but also the United States, Australia, and elsewhere

Military authorities were at first reluctant to officially recognize the central committees as the official representatives of the Jewish refugees in DP camps, though cooperation and negotiations carried characteristics of a de facto acceptance of their mandate. But on September 7, 1946, at a meeting in Frankfurt, the American military authorities recognized the Central Committee of the Liberated Jews as a legitimate party to the issue of the Jewish displaced persons in the American sector.

Political activism

What the people of the Sh'erit ha-Pletah had in common was what had made them victims in the first place, but other than that they were a diverse group. Their outlook, needs, and aspirations varied tremendously. There were strictly observant Jews as well as individuals that had earlier been assimilated into secular culture. Religious convictions ran from the Revisionist group to Labor Zionists and even ideological communists. Although Yiddish was the common language within the community, individuals came from virtually every corner of Europe.

There was lively political debate, involving satire, political campaigns, and the occasional acrimony. The growth of Yiddish newspapers within the camps added fuel to the political culture.

The political environment of the community evolved during its years of existence. In the first year or two, it was predominantly focused on improving the conditions in the camps and asserting the legitimacy of the community as an autonomous entity. Over time, the emphasis shifted to promoting the Zionist goals of allowing immigration into the British Mandate in Palestine; political divisions within the Sh'erit ha-Pletah mirrored those found in the Yishuv itself.

At every turn, the community expressed its opposition and outrage against British restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine. In the British sector, the protests approached a level of civil disobedience; in the American sector, attempts were made to apply political pressure to alleviate these restrictions. The relationship between Sh'erit ha-Pletah and British authorities remained tense until the State of Israel was formed. This came to a head when Lieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan - then UNRRA chief of operations in Germany - claimed that the influx of Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe as "nothing short of a skillful campaign of anti-British aggression on the part of Zion aided and abetted by Russia... [meaning] death to the British." (Morgan was allowed to remain in his post after this comment but was fired when making similar comments later).

In late 1945, the UNRRA conducted several surveys among Jewish refugees, asking them to list their preferred destination for emigration. Among one population of 19,000, 18,700 named "Palestine" as their first choice, and 98% also named "Palestine" as their second choice. At the camp in Fürth, respondents were asked not to list Palestine as both their first and second choice, and 25% of the respondents then wrote "crematorium". [29]

All the while, the Sh'erit ha-Pletah retained close relationships with the political leadership of the Yishuv, prompting several visits from David Ben-Gurion and other Zionist leaders. While officially detached from the committees, there was considerable support for clandestine immigration to Palestine through the Aliya Beth programs among the refugees; and tacit support for these activities also among American, UNRRA, Joint and other organizations. A delegation (consisting of Norbert Wollheim, Samuel Schlumowitz, Boris Pliskin, and Leon Retter flew to the United States to raise funds for the community, appealing to a sense of pride over "schools built for our children, four thousand pioneers on the farms... thousands of youths in trades schools... self-sacrifice of doctors, teachers, writers... democratization... hard-won autonomy,"[30] and also met with officials at the US War Department and Sir Raphael Salento over the formation of the International Refugee Organization.

Over time, the Sh'erit ha-Pletah took on the characteristics of a state in its own right. It coordinated efforts with the political leadership in the Yishuv and the United States, forming a transient power triangle within the Jewish world. It sent its own delegation to the Twenty-Second Zionist Congress in Basel.

A community dedicated to its own dissolution

With the exception of 10,000–15,000 who chose to make their homes in Germany after the war (see Central Council of Jews in Germany), the vast majority of the Jewish DPs ultimately left the camps and settled elsewhere. About 136,000 settled in Israel, 80,000 in the United States, and sizeable numbers also in Canada and South Africa.[6]

Although the community established many of the institutions that characterize a durable society, and indeed came to dominate an entire section of Munich, the overriding imperative was to find new homes for the refugees. To make the point, many of the leaders emigrated at the first possible opportunity. Both overt lobbying efforts and underground migration sought to open for unrestricted immigration to Palestine. And the camps largely emptied once the state of Israel was established, many of the refugees immediately joining the newly formed Israel Defense Forces to fight the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

The Central Committee in the American sector declared its dissolution on December 17, 1950 at the Deutsche Museum in Munich. Of the original group that founded the committee, only Rabbi Samuel Snieg remained for the dissolution. All the others had already emigrated, most of them to Israel. Rabbi Snieg had remained to complete the first full edition of the Talmud published in Europe after the Holocaust, the so-called Survivors' Talmud.

The last DP camp, Föhrenwald, closed in February 1957, by then populated only by the so-called "hardcore" cases, elderly, and those disabled by disease.

Legacy

While most Holocaust survivors view their time in the DP camps as a transitional state, the Sh'erit ha-Pletah became an organizing force for the repatriation of the remnant in general and to Israel in particular. Its experience highlighted the challenges of ethnic groups displaced in their entirety without recourse to their original homes. It also demonstrated the resolve and ingenuity of individuals who had lost everything but made a new life for themselves.

Some struggled with survivor guilt for decades.

Suicide amongst survivors has been a subject of some disagreement amongst Israeli medical professionals. In 1947, Dr. Aharon Persikovitz, a gynecologist who had survived the Dachau concentration camp gave a lecture called "The Psychological State Of the New Immigrant" in which he said: "Holocaust survivors do not commit suicide; they heroically prove the continuity of the Jewish people". According to Professor Yoram Barak this statement became "an accepted national myth". Barak says "The survivors themselves also did not want to be stigmatized as `sick, weak and broken;' rather, they wanted to join in the myth of the heroic sabra who just recently fought a glorious War of Independence against the enemy."[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. "Liberation." Holocaust Encyclopedia. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  2. ^ Königseder, Angelika, and Juliane Wetzel. Waiting for Hope: Jewish Displaced Persons in Post-World War II Germany. Trans. John A. Broadwin. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2001. 15.
  3. ^ Berger, Joseph. "Displaced Persons." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd Ed. Vol. 5. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 684-686; here: 684. Berger cites historian Jehuda Bauer as estimating that 200,000 Jews in total emerged alive from the concentration camps.
  4. ^ Pinson, Koppel S. "Jewish Life in Liberated Germany: A Study of the Jewish DP's." Jewish Social Studies 9.2 (April 1947): 101-126; here: 103.
  5. ^ According to Königseder and Wetzel (p. 15), in September 1945 there were a total of approximately one million DPs remaining, who, for various reasons, such as political differences with the new regime in their homeland, or fear of persecution, were considered to be "non-repatriable."
  6. ^ a b "Displaced Persons". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  7. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 16.
  8. ^ Mankowitz, Zeev W. Life between Memory and Hope: The Survivors of the Holocaust in Occupied Germany. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 13.
  9. ^ Mankowitz, 12-16.
  10. ^ Mankowitz, 16.
  11. ^ Brenner, Michael. After the Holocaust: Rebuilding Jewish Lives in Postwar Germany. Trans. Barbara Harshav. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997. 15.
  12. ^ Jürgen Matthäus (ed). Approaching an Auschwitz Survivor: Holocaust Testimony and its Transformations. Oxford University Press, 2008. 88.
  13. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 31.
  14. ^ Mankowitz, 52-53.
  15. ^ Report of Earl G. Harrison. As cited in United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, "Resources," Life Reborn: Jewish Displaced Persons, 1945-1951 [online exhibition]. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  16. ^ Königseder, Angelika, and Juliane Wetzel. Waiting for Hope: Jewish Displaced Persons in Post-World War II Germany. Trans. John A. Broadwin. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2001. 45.
  17. ^ Engel, David. "Poland since 1939." The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  18. ^ "Serious Anti-Jewish Disturbances in Cracow; Local Council Blames Reactionary Poles." Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 21 August 1945.
  19. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 46.
  20. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 43.
  21. ^ a b Shephard, Ben. The Long Road Home: The Aftermath of the Second World War. New York: Knopf, 2011. 138-164.
  22. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 28.
  23. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 28-29.
  24. ^ Shephard, 140, 145-146.
  25. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 29-30.
  26. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 97.
  27. ^ Königseder and Wetzel, 64-65.
  28. ^ Leo Walder Schwarz. The Redeemers: A Saga of the Years 1945-1952. New York: Farrar Straus and Young, 1953. 19.
  29. ^ Mark Wyman: DPs: Europe's Displaced Persons, 1945–1951. Ithaca, 1989 and 1998. Cornell University Press.
  30. ^ Boris Pliskin et al: An Evaluation of the AJDC Program in the American Occupied Zone of Germany from its inception to January 1947. American Joint Distribution Committee
  31. ^ "Study: Holocaust Survivors 3 Times More Likely to Attempt Suicide". Haaretz. 2005-08-10. Retrieved 2018-04-16.

Further reading

  • Angelika Königseder and Juliane Wetzel: Waiting for Hope: Jewish Displaced Persons in Post-World War II Germany. Evanston, Illinois, 2001. Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-1477-1
  • Leo W. Schwarz: The Redeemers: A Saga of the Years 1945–1952. New York, 1953. Farrar, Straus, and Young.
  • Mark Wyman: DPs: Europe's Displaced Persons, 1945–1951. Ithaca, 1989 and 1998. Cornell University Press.
  • Eli Barnavi (ed.): A Historical Atlas of the Jewish People. New York, 1992. Schocken Books.
  • Juliane Wetzel, "An uneasy existence: Jewish survivors in Germany after 1945," in: Hanna Schissler (ed.), Miracle Years. A cultural history of West Germany 1949-1968, Princeton, Oxford 2000, S. 131–144;
  • Angelika Königseder and Juliane Wetzel, "DP Camp 1945–1950: The British Section", in: Erik Somers/René Kok (eds.) Jewish Displaced Persons in Camp Bergen-Belsen 1945–1950, Waanders Publishers Zwolle 2003, S. 42-55.
  • Zeev W. Mankowitz, Life between Memory and Hope, The Survivors of the Holocaust in Occupied Germany, Cambridge University Press, 348 pages, ISBN 0-521-81105-8, ISBN 978-0-521-81105-7
  • Ha-Dimah (The Tear), by Rafael Olewski, published by Irgun She'erit Hapleta Bergen-Belsen Be-Israel, Tel-Aviv, 1983. ISBN 978-965-91217-0-0
  • Françoise Ouzan, "Rebuilding Jewish identities in Displaced Persons Camps in Germany" (French version: La reconstruction des identités juives dans les camps de personnes déplacées d’Allemagne), Bulletin du Centre de recherche français à Jérusalem, vol. 14, 2004, pp. 98–111

External links

1946

1946 (MCMXLVI)

was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1946th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 946th year of the 2nd millennium, the 46th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1940s decade.

Aliyah Bet

Aliyah Bet (Hebrew: עלייה ב', "Aliyah 'B'" – bet being the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet) was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews, most of whom were Holocaust survivors and refugees from Nazi Germany, to Mandatory Palestine between 1934–48, in violation of the restrictions laid out in the British White Paper of 1939.

In modern-day Israel it has also been called by the Hebrew term Ha'pala (Hebrew: הַעְפָּלָה; ascension). The Aliyah Bet is distinguished from the Aliyah Aleph ("Aliyah 'A'", Aleph being the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet) which refers to the limited Jewish immigration permitted by British authorities during the same period. The name Aliya B is also shortened name for Aliya Bilty Legalit (עלייה בלתי-לגאלית; illegal immigration).

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee

The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, also known as the Joint or the JDC, is a Jewish relief organization based in New York City.

Beni Virtzberg

Beni Virtzberg (Hebrew: בני וירצברג‎; August 12, 1928 – August 4, 1968) was an Israeli forester, Holocaust survivor and writer who was among the first in Israel to write an autobiographical account of his experiences during and after the Holocaust. He began writing his book Migei Haharega Lesha'ar Hagai (From the Valley of Slaughter to the Gate of the Valley) in the wake of the Adolf Eichmann trial, when court testimony by survivors prompted Israelis to openly and publicly discuss what the survivors had lived through.

Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp

Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp was a displaced persons (DP) camp for refugees after World War II, in Lower Saxony in northwestern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle. It was in operation from the summer of 1945 until September 1950. For a time, Belsen DP camp was the largest Jewish DP camp in Germany and the only one in the British occupation zone with an exclusively Jewish population. The camp was under British authority and overseen by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) with camp directors that included Simon Bloomberg. Today, the camp is a Bundeswehr barracks, having been a British Army base (see Hohne Station) until 2015.

Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe

Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe were established in Germany, Austria, and Italy, primarily for refugees from Eastern Europe and for the former inmates of the Nazi German concentration camps. A "displaced persons camp" is a temporary facility for displaced persons, whether refugees or internally displaced persons. Two years after the end of World War II in Europe, some 850,000 people lived in displaced persons camps across Europe, among them Armenians, Poles, Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians, Yugoslavs, Jews, Greeks, Russians, Ukrainians and Czechoslovaks.At the end of the Second World War, at least 11 million people had been displaced from their home countries, with about seven million in Allied-occupied Germany. These included former prisoners of war, released slave laborers, and both non-Jewish and Jewish concentration-camp survivors. The Allies categorized the refugees as “displaced persons” (DPs) and assigned the responsibility for their care to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA).

Expulsions and exoduses of Jews

In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions and have fled from areas after experiencing ostracism and threats of various kinds by various local authorities seeking refuge in other countries.

The Land of Israel was always regarded by Jews as the Jewish homeland. After its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel adopted the 1950 Law of Return restoring Israel as the Jewish homeland and making it the place of refuge for Jewish refugees at the time and into the future. This law was intended to encourage Jews to return to their homeland in Israel.

Feldafing displaced persons camp

Feldafing displaced persons camp in Bavaria was the first DP camp exclusively for use by liberated Jewish concentration camp prisoners. It was later used by Jewish refugees from the Russian-controlled Jewish areas. The camp was located in Feldafing's Höhenberg area and beyond.

Föhrenwald

Föhrenwald (German: [ˈføːʁənˌvalt]) was one of the largest displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe and the last to close, in 1957. It was located in the section now known as Waldram in Wolfratshausen in Bavaria, Germany.The camp facilities were originally built in 1939 by IG Farben as housing for its employees at the several munitions factories that it operated in the vicinity. During the war it was used to house slave laborers. In June 1945, the camp was appropriated by the US Army administration of postwar Germany's American sector, for the purpose of housing international refugees. The camp's initial population comprised refugees of Jewish, Yugoslavian, Hungarian, and Baltic origin. On 3 October 1945 General Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered that Föhrenwald be made an exclusively Jewish DP camp, after he had found living conditions at the Feldafing DP camp unacceptable.

From 1946 to 1948, Föhrenwald grew to become the third largest DP camp in the American sector, after Feldafing and Landsberg. By January 1946, its population had reached 5,600. Many couples got married there. The birth rate in 1946 stood at 70-80 births per thousand, about double that of countries in the developing world.

As part of the network of Displaced Persons camps, Föhrenwald operated under the auspices of UNRRA. The camp's director, Henry Cohen, was a young US army veteran who went to great lengths to provide for the residents' welfare. Assisting Cohen in the camp's administration and operation was a Camp Committee whose members were elected from among candidates representing a range of political parties.

As director, Cohen fostered the rehabilitation of the camp's residents, encouraging adult education and vocational training. A school was established for youngsters, with extracurricular activities arranged largely through the efforts of local chapters of the Jewish youth movements. The camp's autonomous cultural life included musical and theatrical performances. It published an internal newspaper, Bamidbar ("In the wilderness", the Hebrew name for the Book of Numbers), that in 1947 issued a 100-page almanac documenting the camp's activities.

Residents enjoyed freedom to practice their religion. A yeshiva (rabbinic seminary and Torah academy) was established within the camp. With the presence of Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam, founder of the Sanz-Klausenberg Hasidic sect, and his followers, Föhrenwald became the center for Hasidic Jewry in the American sector.

During the early years of the camp's operation, residents mounted several protest campaigns against Allied policy, particularly regarding the restrictions on Jewish immigration to Mandatory Palestine. The Zionist youth movements organized communal groups called kibbutzim for training young pioneers. A number of residents who attempted clandestine immigration to Mandatory Palestine in violation of British restrictions, were apprehended by the authorities and sent back to Föhrenwald.

A tuberculosis epidemic swept the camp in the summer of 1946, prompted the establishment of a "Committee of Jewish Tubercular Patients". The committee became an advocate for those residents who were unwilling or unable to leave.

In 1951, the West German government took over administration of the camp, while the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee maintained a presence there until 1954. By that time, the remaining residents of other camps that were closed were transferred to Föhrenwald which continued in operation until it closed on 28 February 1957.Since then, the camp site was renamed Waldram and is a residential area. Streets in Föhrenwald were typically named for American states and individuals, but these have been renamed. For example, Rooseveltstrasse is now Thomasstrasse; Pennsylvianastrasse has become Faulhaberstrasse, etc.

History of Zionism

Zionism as an organized movement is generally considered to have been founded by Theodor Herzl in 1897. However, the history of Zionism began earlier and is related to Judaism and Jewish history. The Hovevei Zion, or the Lovers of Zion, were responsible for the creation of 20 new Jewish settlements in Palestine between 1870 and 1897.Before the Holocaust, the movement's central aims were the creation of a Jewish national home and cultural centre in Palestine by facilitating Jewish migration. After the Holocaust, the movement focused on creation of a Jewish state (usually defined as a secular state with a Jewish majority), attaining its goal in 1948 with the creation of Israel.

Since the creation of Israel, the importance of the Zionist movement as an organization has declined, as the Israeli state has grown stronger.The Zionist movement continues to exist, working to support Israel, assist persecuted Jews and encourage Jewish emigration to Israel. While most Israeli political parties continue to define themselves as Zionist, modern Israeli political thought is no longer formulated within the Zionist movement.

The success of Zionism has meant that the percentage of the world's Jewish population who live in Israel has steadily grown over the years and today 40% of the world's Jews live in Israel. There is no other example in human history of a nation being reestablished after such a long period of existence as a diaspora.

Holocaust Survivors and Grown-Up Green Leaf Party

The Holocaust Survivors & Grown-Up Green Leaf Party (Hebrew: ניצולי השואה עם בוגרי עלה ירוק‎) was a political party in Israel, formed as an alliance of some members of Ale Yarok ("Green Leaf" in Hebrew) - a liberal political party best known for its ideology of legalizing cannabis, and members of the "New Zionism" party, whose head was a Holocaust survivor and an activist for this cause. The party ran in the 2009 Knesset elections.

The party's chairman and first person on the list was Ohad Shem-Tov, former chairman of the Green Leaf party. On the second spot was Yaakov Peri, a Holocaust survivor and activist, who had founded the "New Zionism - The People's Party" in 2006 (which didn't win any seats in the government in that year's general election). The alliance between the two came as a result of disagreements within the Green Leaf party, and discussions between Shem-Tov and Peri.

The unusual alliance between these parties, one focused on Holocaust issues and the other on the legalization of recreational drugs, sparked some public controversy in Israel - critics said that this pairing was inappropriate as it was disrespecting the cause of the Holocaust.

The party's platform included: Improving government treatment of the rights of Holocaust survivors, better health care system, environmental protection, reforms in mandatory education, animal experimentations and other social economic-related issues.

It won 2,346 votes (0.07%), well below the 2% electoral threshold.

Index of World War II articles (S)

S-1 Uranium Committee

S-50

S-mine

S-Phone

S. A. Ayer

S. J. Warmington

S.L.A. Marshall

S.S. Doomtrooper

S.S. Pink Star

Sławomir Maciej Bittner

Sōkichi Takagi

Sōsaku Suzuki

Søren Kam

S1 Scout Car

Sa vz. 58

Saar Offensive

Sabine Ulibarrí

Sabine Zlatin

Saboteur (2008 video game)

Sabu Dastagir

Saburō Kurusu

Saburo Sakai

Sachsenburg (concentration camp)

Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Sackville Pelham, 5th Earl of Yarborough

Sacramento Mather Airport

Sacred Band (World War II)

Sadae Inoue

Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes

Sadako Kurihara

Sadako Sasaki

Sadamichi Kajioka

Sadao Araki

Sadao Munemori

Sadatoshi Tomioka

Sadayoshi Yamada

Sadeq Hedayat

Safeguarding Military Information

Saga (singer)

Saga of the Franklin

Sahara (1943 American film)

Sahtu

Said bin Taimur

Sailor of the King

Saint-Étienne-du-Mont

Saint-Ambroise (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin Church (Paris)

Saint-Denis - Université (Paris Métro)

Saint-Fargeau (Paris Métro)

Saint-François-Xavier (Paris Métro)

Saint-Georges (Paris Métro)

Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris Métro)

Saint-Germain-des-Prés

Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois

Saint-Jacques (Paris Métro)

Saint-Jacques Tower

Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre

Saint-Lazare (Paris Métro)

Saint-Leu-d'Esserent

Saint-Louis-en-l'Île Church

Saint-Mandé (Paris Métro)

Saint-Marcel (Paris Métro)

Saint-Merri

Saint-Michel (Paris Métro)

Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet

Saint-Paul (Paris Métro)

Saint-Philippe du Roule (Paris Métro)

Saint-Placide (Paris Métro)

Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse (Paris RER)

Saint-Sulpice (Paris Métro)

Saint-Sébastien - Froissart (Paris Métro)

Saint-Séverin (Paris)

Saint-Vincent-de-Paul church, Paris

Saint-Vincent Cemetery

Saint-George Ashe

Saint Julien Memorial

Saint Pierre de Montmartre

Sainte-Chapelle

Sainte-Pélagie

Saints and Soldiers

Saints Innocents Cemetery

Saitō Makoto

Saitō Takao

Sajmište concentration camp

Sakae Oba

Sakhalin Koreans

Sakuma Samata

Sakurakai

Salah Assad

Salamaua-Lae campaign

Salerno landings

Salerno Mutiny

Salim Jay

Salinas Municipal Airport

Salinas Sports Complex

Salle du Manège

Sally-Anne Stapleford

Sally B

Salmon-class submarine

Salo Landau

Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch

Salome Zourabichvili

Salomon Gluck

Salomon Isacovici

Salomon James de Rothschild

Salomon Olembé

Salon (Paris)

Salon d'Automne

Salon Kitty

Salote Tupou III of Tonga

Salpa Line

Saltash Passage

Salute to the Marines

Salvador Bacarisse

Salvatore John Cavallaro

Salvatore Scarpitta

Salvatore Tripoli

Salzburg

Sam Barry

Sam Chapman

Sam Dalrymple

Sam Davis Presley

Sam Dente

Sam Edwards (physicist)

Sam Ferris

Sam Francis (American football)

Sam Gibbons

Sam Goldman

Sam Kydd

Sam Walton

Sam West

Samisdat Publishers

Sammy Davis, Jr.

Sammy Traoré

Samochód pancerny wz. 29

Samochód pancerny wz. 34

Samson (1961 Polish film)

Samson Siasia

Samuel A. Goldblith

Samuel Abraham Goudsmit

Samuel Adams (naval officer)

Samuel Adler (composer)

Samuel B. Griffith

Samuel B. Roberts

Samuel Beckett

Samuel Bing

Samuel Bowers

Samuel C. Phillips

Samuel Chappuzeau

Samuel T. Cohen

Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr.

Samuel D. Waksal

Samuel David Dealey

Samuel E. Anderson

Samuel Fuller

Samuel G. Fuqua

Samuel Glasstone

Samuel Hahnemann

Samuel Jaskilka

Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita

Samuel Kahanamoku

Samuel King Allison

Samuel L. Gravely, Jr.

Samuel Meekosha

Samuel Murray Robinson

Samuel Pearson Goddard, Jr.

Samuel Ramos

Samuel Sharman

Samuel Stockton Miles

Samuel Underhill

Samuel V. Wilson

Samuel Vance (sport shooter)

Samuel W. Koster

San Andreas (novel)

San Marcos Army Air Field

Sandakan Death Marches

Sandro Pertini

Sands of Iwo Jima

Sandweiler German war cemetery

Sandy Jack

Sandy Pearson

Saneyoshi Yasuzumi

Saneyuki Akiyama

Sangamon-class escort carrier

Sankt Georgen an der Gusen

Sannō Shrine

Sano Tsuneha

Sansei Japanese American

Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre

Santa Ana Army Air Base

Santa Anita Park

Santa Maria al Bagno

Santa Maria Public Airport

Santiago Amat

Santos-Dumont 14-bis

Santos Urdinarán

Sapper army

Sara Payne Hayden

Sara Yorke Stevenson

Sarah Bernhardt

Sarah Monette

Sarah Churchill (daughter of Winston Churchill)

Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport

Sarath Amunugama

Sardar-e-Jung

Sargent Shriver

Sargo-class submarine

Sark during the German occupation of the Channel Islands

Sarmiza Bilcescu

Sarny Fortified Area

Sasebo Naval Arsenal

Sasha Fillipov

Sat Okh

Satō Tetsutarō

Satchel charge

Satsuma-class battleship

Sauer 38H

Saul Amarel

Saul Friedländer

Saul Zaentz

Saunders-Roe SR.A/1

Saunders-Roe Lerwick

Sauwastika

Sava Kovačević (Yugoslav partisan)

Savari

Savić Marković Štedimlija

Saving Private Ryan

Saving the Port

Savitri Devi

Savoia-Marchetti heavy fighter prototypes

Savoia-Marchetti S.74

Savoia-Marchetti S.83

Savoia-Marchetti SM.73

Savoia-Marchetti SM.79

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 operational history

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 propulsion

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81

Savoia-Marchetti SM.82

Savoia-Marchetti SM.89

SB2A Buccaneer

SB2C Helldiver

SB2U Vindicator

SBD Dauntless

SC convoys

SC Seahawk

SC250 bomb

Scalphunter (Marvel Comics)

Scammell Pioneer Semi-trailer

Scammell Pioneer

Scarlat Callimachi (communist activist)

Schalburg Corps

Schalburg Cross

Scharführer

Scharnhorst-class battleship

Schiller International University

Schindler's List

Schindlerjuden

Schlachtgeschwader 2

Schloss Hartheim

Schmetterling

Schnellbomber

Schnellboot

Schütze

Schofield tank

Schola Cantorum

Schrödinger (Hellsing)

Schräge Musik

Schutzstaffel unit insignia

Schutzstaffel

Schuyler Enck

Schwarze Kapelle

Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission

Schweizerischer Vaterländischer Verband

Schwerbelastungskörper

Schwere Wehrmachtschlepper

Schwerer Gustav

Schwerer Panzerspähwagen

Science and technology in Nazi Germany

Scots College (Paris)

Scott Atran

Scott Corbett

Scouting in displaced persons camps

SCR-268 radar

SCR-270 radar

SCR-536

SCR-584 radar

Scrap Iron Flotilla

Screamin' Jay Hawkins

Scribner Army Airfield

Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

Sd.Kfz. 10

Sd.Kfz. 11

Sd.Kfz. 2

Sd.Kfz. 250

Sd.Kfz. 251

Sd.Kfz. 252

Sd.Kfz. 253

Sd.Kfz. 254

Sd.Kfz. 4

Sd.Kfz. 6

Sd.Kfz. 7

Sea of Azov coastal advance

Sea of Sand

Seabees in World War II

Seagoing cowboys

Search for HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation

Sebastian Haffner

Sebring Regional Airport

Sechsschartenturm, Heavy MG bunker, La Mare Mill

Second Air Force

Second anti-Partisan offensive

Second Army (Australia)

Second Army (United Kingdom)

Second Artillery Corps

Second Australian Imperial Force

Second Battle of El Alamein order of battle

Second Battle of El Alamein

Second Battle of Kharkov

Second Battle of Sirte

Second Battle of the Java Sea

Second Cairo Conference

Second East Turkestan Republic

Second Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign

Second French Indochina Campaign

Second Great Fire of London

Second Guangxi Campaign

Second Happy Time

Second Infantry Fusiliers Division

Second Philippine Republic

Second Quebec Conference

Second Raid on Schweinfurt

Second Sino-Japanese War

Second Taiwan Strait Crisis

Second United Front

Second United States Army

Second Vienna Award

Second World War at Sea series

Secret Agent (1947 film)

Secret Agent X-9 (1945 serial)

Secret Army (Belgium)

Secret Army (TV series)

Secret Polish Army

Secret Service in Darkest Africa

Secret Weapons Over Normandy

Security Battalions

Security Division (Germany)

Sedgley OSS .38

Sedjenane

Seeds of Destiny

Seehund

Seetakt radar

Seeteufel

Sefanaia Sukanaivalu

Seigo Kosaku

Seiichi Itō

Seiichi Kuno

Seiji Yoshida

Seine

Seishirō Itagaki

Sekula Drljević

Selarang Barracks Incident

Selbstopfer

Selbstschutz

Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

Self-Government Guiding Board

Self-portrait with a friend (Raphael)

Self determination

Selim Ben Achour

Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger

Selvino children

Selâhattin Ülkümen

Semitan

Semovente 105/25

Semovente 47/32

Semovente 75/18

Semovente 75/34

Semovente 90/53

Semovente da 149/40

Semyon Krivoshein

Semyon Rudniev

Semyon Timoshenko

Senate of France

Sendai-class cruiser

Senger Line

Senio

Senjūrō Hayashi

Senjinkun military code

Senninbari

Sentai

Sentarō Ōmori

Sentier (Paris Métro)

Sentimental Journey (aircraft)

Sentinel tank

Sentosa

Sepp Dietrich

Seppo Lindström

September Massacres

Serbia (1941-1944)

Serbian State Guard

Serbian Volunteer Corps

Serge and Beate Klarsfeld

Serge Elisséeff

Serge Gainsbourg

Serge Le Dizet

Serge Moscovici

Serge Nigg

Serge Thion

Serge Weinberg

Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov

Sergei Khudyakov

Sergei Semak

Sergey Belavenets

Sergey Biryuzov

Sergey Kavtaradze

Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Parisse

Sergio Pignedoli

Series E bond

Serjeant's Inn

Serrate radar detector

Service d'ordre légionnaire

Service for Poland's Victory

Servicemen's Readjustment Act (USA)

Services Reconnaissance Department

Seán Russell

Seth Neddermeyer

Settela Steinbach

Seven anti-Partisan offensives

Seven Beauties

Seven Wise Dwarfs

Seventeen Moments of Spring

Seventeenth Air Force

Seventeenth Army (Japan)

Seventh Air Force

Seventh United States Army

Severin Louis Rombach

Severodvinsk

Seweryn Franciszek Czetwertyński-Światopełk

Sexton (artillery)

Sexual enslavement by Nazi Germany in World War II

Seymour Benzer

Seymour W. Terry

Sfarmă-Piatră

SG-43 Goryunov

SGH War Memorial

Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos

Sgt. Rock (comics)

Sh'erit ha-Pletah

Shōji Nishimura

Shōjirō Iida

Shōwa Restoration

Shōzō Murata

Shaanxi Y-8

Shaanxi Y-9

Shadi Air Base

Shadow of Suribachi: Raising the Flags on Iwo Jima

Shadows of Memory

Shafter Airport

Shag Crawford

Shah Nawaz Khan (general)

Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi

Shahid-e-Bharat

Shakespeare and Company (bookstore)

Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

Shalom Yoran

Shalva Maghlakelidze

Shang Zhen

Shangdang Campaign

Shangguan Yunxiang

Shanghai Campaign

Shanghai Expeditionary Army

Shanghai ghetto

Shanlin

Shantou-class gunboat

Shaukat Malik

Shchuka-class submarine

Sheffield Blitz

Shefqet Verlaci

Shek Kong Airfield

Shelby Storck

Shell Shock

Shelling of Mainila

Shenton Thomas

Shenyang J-11

Shenyang J-5

Shenyang J-6

Shenyang J-8

Shenyang Military Region

Sher-e-Hind

Sher Bahadur Thapa

Sher Shah (VC)

Sheriff Andy Taylor

Sherman Firefly

Sherman W. Tribbitt

Sherwood H. Hallman

Sherwood Lett

Sherwood Schwartz

Shetland bus boats

Shetland bus

Shevah Weiss

Shi-Ki

Shi Yousan

Shiba Gorō

Shibayama Yahachi

Shigekazu Shimazaki

Shigematsu Sakaibara

Shigenori Tōgō

Shigeru Fukudome

Shigeru Honjō

Shigetarō Shimada

Shigeyoshi Inoue

Shigeyoshi Miwa

Shigiyasu Suzuki

Shiing-Shen Chern

Shikata ga nai

Shikishima-class battleship

Shimamura Hayao

Shimane Maru-class escort aircraft carrier

Shimushu-class coastal defense ship

Shimushu escort

Shin guntō

Shin Onna Tachiguishi-Retsuden

Shinkolobwe

Shinozaki Mamoru

Shintarō Hashimoto

Shinyei Nakamine

Shinyo (suicide boat)

Shinzo Hamai

Ship of Fools (painting)

Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Shipyard Railway

Shirō Ishii

Shiratsuyu-class destroyer

Shiro Azuma

Shiva N'Zigou

Shizo Kanakuri

Shizuichi Tanaka

Shizuo Yokoyama

Shizuya Hayashi

Shlomo Carlebach (rabbi)

Shmuel Alexandrov

Shmuel Dovid Ungar

Shmuel Tamir

Sho Ito

Shoah (film)

Shoah Foundation

Shocker (Kamen Rider)

Shoes on the Danube Promenade

Shohatsu-class landing craft

Shoichi Yokoi

Shony Alex Braun

Shoo Shoo Baby (aircraft)

SHORAN

Shoreham Aircraft Museum

Short Seaford

Short Sunderland

Showa Steel Works

Shozo Sakurai

Shuangduiji Campaign

Shukri al-Quwatli

Shunji Isaki

Shunkichi Kikuchi

Shunroku Hata

Shyaulyay Offensive Operation

Sibiu Literary Circle

Sicherheitsdienst

Sicherheitspolizei

Sichuan invasion

Sid Luckman

Sid McMath

Sid Scales

Sidney Bates

Sidney Cotton

Sidney Dillon Ripley

Sidney Drell

Sidney George Rogerson

Sidney Hinds

Sid Jelinek

Sidney Keyes

Sidney Kirkman

Sidney Mashbir

Sidney R. Yates

Sidney Sheldon

Siebel Si 204

Sieg Heil

Sieg im Westen

Siege of Bastogne

Siege of Breslau

Siege of Calais (1940)

Siege of Changchun

Siege of Dunkirk

Siege of Malta (World War II)

Siege of Mogilev

Siege of Odessa (1941)

Siege of Sevastopol (1941-1942)

Siege of Tobruk

Siege of Warsaw (1939)

Siegfried Alkan

Siegfried Flesch

Siegfried Freytag

Siegfried Gumbel

Siegfried Handloser

Siegfried Hecker

Siegfried Kasche

Siegfried Knappe

Siegfried Line

Siegfried Müller (mercenary)

Siegfried Rasp

Siegfried Rädel

Siegfried Seidl

Siegfried Uiberreither

Siegfried Verbeke

Siegfried Wolfgang Fehmer

Siegmund Sredzki

Siemens-Schuckert D.I

Siemens-Schuckert D.III

Siemens-Schuckert D.IV

Siemens and Halske T52

Sieradz National Defence Brigade

Sig Rune

SIGABA

Sigfrid Lindberg

Siggie Nordstrom

Sigismund-Helmut von Dawans

Sigismund Payne Best

Sigmaringen

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Rascher

Sigmund Sobolewski

Signe Johansson-Engdahl

Sigrid Hunke

Sigrid Schultz

Sikorski-Mayski Agreement

Sikorsky Memorial Airport

Silas Rhodes

Silbervogel

Silent Hunter 4: Wolves of the Pacific

Silent Hunter II

Silent Hunter III

Silent Hunter

Silent Raiders

Silent Running: My Years on a World War II Attack Submarine

Silent Service (video game)

Silent Service II

Silesian Offensives

Silver Star

Silverplate

Silvestre de Sacy

Silvestre S. Herrera

Silvio Cator

Simcha Rotem

Simcha Zorin

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Šimun Katalinić

Simion Stoilow

Simmon Latutin

Simo Dubajić

Simo Häyhä

Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.

Simon Dubnow

Simon Emil Koedel

Simon François Ravenet

Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat

Simon Kitson

Simon Sabiani

Simon Sheppard (far-right activist)

Simon Srebnik

Simon Vouet

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wilton Phipps

Simon Zimny

Simone and Cino Del Duca Foundation

Simone Del Duca

Simone Signoret

Simone Veil

Simone Weil

Simplon (Paris Métro)

Sin (Marvel Comics)

Sinan Hasani

Since You Went Away

Sinclair Ross

Sink the Bismarck!

Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse

Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941)

Sino-Japanese relations (1931-1937)

Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)

Siping Campaign

Sippenhaft

Sir Alfred Rawlinson, 3rd Baronet

Sir Charles Madden, 2nd Baronet

Sir Edmund Bacon, 13th Baronet

Sir Edmund Paston-Bedingfeld, 9th Baronet

Sir George Dick-Lauder, 12th Baronet

Sir Godfrey Nicholson, 1st Baronet

Sir Guy Campbell, 5th Baronet

Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher, 6th Baronet

Sir Hugh Barrett-Lennard, 6th Baronet

Sir Ivar Colquhoun, 8th Baronet

Sir James Hutchison, 1st Baronet

Sir John Arbuthnot, 1st Baronet

Sir John Aubrey-Fletcher, 7th Baronet

Sir John Dick-Lauder, 11th Baronet

Sir John Gilmour, 3rd Baronet

Sir John Smyth, 1st Baronet

Sir Louis Spears, 1st Baronet

Sir Martin Lindsay, 1st Baronet

Sir Max Aitken, 2nd Baronet

Sir Peter Proby, 2nd Baronet

Sir Richard Wallace, 1st Baronet

Sir Robert Cary, 1st Baronet

Sir Ronald Ross, 2nd Baronet

Sir Rupert Clarke, 3rd Baronet

Sir Standish O'Grady Roche, 4th Baronet

Sir Stephen Bull, 2nd Baronet

Sir William Gladstone, 7th Baronet

Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet

Sir Winston Churchill High School

Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School (Vancouver)

Siracourt

Sisak children's concentration camp

Sisters in Resistance

Site A/Plot M Disposal Site

Situation Hopeless ... But Not Serious

Situation Hopeless... But Not Serious

Sixteenth Air Force

Sixteenth Army (Japan)

Sixth anti-Partisan offensive

Sixth United States Army Group

Sixth United States Army

SJ radar

Skink anti-aircraft tank

Skip bombing

Skitch Henderson

Skoda 100 mm Model 16/19

Skoda 100 mm Model 1916

Skoda 105 mm Model 1939

Skoda 150 mm Model 1918

Skoda 37 mm A7

Skoda 37 mm Model 1934

Skoda 37 mm Model 1937

Skoda 75 mm Model 15

Skoda 75 mm Model 1928

Skoda 75 mm Model 1936

Skoda 75 mm Model 1939

Skoda K-series

Skokie (film)

Skorpa, Møre og Romsdal

Skorpa prisoner of war camp

Skåne Line

Slaughterhouse-Five (film)

Slaughterhouse-Five

Slavko Šlander

Slavko Kvaternik

Slavko Stanzer

Sliač Airport

Slim Aarons

Sloan Doak

Sloan Wilson

Slobodan Jovanović

Slovak-Hungarian War

Slovak Insurgent Air Force

Slovak invasion of Poland

Slovak National Uprising

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Slovene Home Guard

Slovenská pospolitosť - Národná strana

Slutsk Affair

Small Box Girder

Small Scale Raiding Force

Smatchet

SMERSH

Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Smith & Wesson M&P

Smith Gun

SMK tank

Smoky (dog)

Smyth Report

SN machine gun

SNCF Class Z 20500

Sniper's Badge

Sniper! (board game)

SNOS

Snow White's Scary Adventures

So Proudly We Hail!

SO3C Seamew

Soap made from human corpses

Sobhuza II of Swaziland

Sobibor extermination camp

Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany

Social Pact

Society of Red Tape Cutters

Sociétaires of the Comédie-Française

SOE F Section networks

SOE F Section timeline

Soemu Toyoda

Sofiane Feghouli

Soldau concentration camp

Soldier of Orange

Soldier, what did you see?

Soldiers at War

Soldiers: Heroes of World War II

Solférino (Paris Métro)

Solko van den Bergh

Solomon Blatt, Jr.

Solomon Islands campaign

Solomon Islands Labour Corps

Solothurn S-18/1000

Solovyovo, Priozersky District, Leningrad Oblast

Solveig Dommartin

Some Punkins

Somerset Arthur Maxwell

SOMUA MCG

Somua S35

Sonderaktion 1005

Sonderaktion Krakau

Sonderkommando Elbe

Sonderkommando

Sonderkraftfahrzeug

Sonderweg

Song of Russia

Song Xilian

Song Zheyuan

Songs of the Third Reich

Sonja Morgenstern

Sonja Mugoša

Sonkrai

Sonnenstein castle

Sonny Bupp

Sonya Butt

Sonya Olschanezky

Soobrazitelny-class destroyer

Sook Ching massacre

Soong Mei-ling

Sophie's Choice (film)

Sophie Gengembre Anderson

Sophie Scholl

Sophie Zawistowski

Sophoklis Venizelos

Sorbonne

Sorley MacLean

Sotirios Versis

Sotnia

Souleymane Bamba

Soup Nazi

South-East Asian theatre of World War II

South-East Asian Theatre of World War II

South Alberta Regiment

South Atlantic air ferry route in World War II

South Atlantic Station

South by Java Head

South East Asia Command

South Manchuria Railway

South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command

South Pacific Scouts

South Quay Estate

South Sea Fleet

South Seas Detachment

South Seas Force

South West Pacific Area (command)

South West Pacific Area

South West Pacific theatre of World War II

Southampton Blitz

Southeast Area Fleet

Southern California Logistics Airport

Southern Expeditionary Army Group

Southern Front (Soviet Union)

Southern Jiangsu Campaign

Southern Rhodesia in World War II

Southwest Area Fleet

Southwestern Front (Soviet Union)

Souviens-toi du jour

Soviet-Japanese Border Wars

Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

Soviet Air Forces Order of Battle 1 May 1945

Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

Soviet battleship Sovetskaya Ukraina

Soviet cruiser Kirov

Soviet cruiser Krasnyi Krym

Soviet cruiser Maxim Gorky

Soviet deportations from Bessarabia

Soviet deportations from Estonia

Soviet destruction battalion 1941

Soviet gunboat Krasnoye Znamya

Soviet helmets during World War II

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

Soviet occupation of Hungary

Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940

Soviet occupation of Romania

Soviet occupation zone

Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939

Soviet partisan brigade 1941-1944

Soviet partisan detachment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan group 1941-1944

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Soviet partisan united formation 1941-1944

Soviet partisans in Poland

Soviet partisans

Soviet propaganda during World War II

Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939-1946)

Soviet S-class submarine

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Soviet tank production during World War II

Soviet Tankmen's Song

Soviet Union

Soviet VHF transceiver A7

Soviet Volunteer Group

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Soviet women in the Great Patriotic War

Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

Sovremenny-class destroyer

Space Mountain (Disneyland, Paris)

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Space Nazis

Spain in World War II

Spallation Neutron Source

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Spanish Cross

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SPARS

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Special Bureau for India

Special Courts

Special Engineering Detachment

Special Intelligence Service

Special Interrogation Group

Special Operations Executive

Special Repair Service

Specifications for World War II infantry weapons

Speculation about Mona Lisa

Speer und Er

Spica-class torpedo boat

Spike Milligan

Spirit of the Winter War

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Spiv

Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes

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Spring 1945 offensive in Italy

Springbok Club

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Spyforce

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Squad Leader

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SR West Country and Battle of Britain Classes

Srbe na vrbe!

Srbosjek (knife)

Sreten Žujović

Srul Bronshtein

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers

SS-Dienstalterslisten

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SS-GB

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SS Albert M. Boe

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SS Athenia

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SS Beatus

SS Benjamin Harrison

SS Bessemer Victory

SS Blairspey

SS blood group tattoo

SS Booker T. Washington

SS Brigade Westfalen

SS British Premier

SS Caribou

SS Castilian

SS Ceramic (1912)

SS Charles Bulfinch

SS Charles H. Cugle

SS Charles H. Herty

SS Chivalry

SS City of Benares

SS City of Cairo

SS City of Flint (1919)

SS City of Johannesburg

SS City of Nagpur

SS City of Paris (1922)

SS City of Pretoria

SS City of Venice

SS Clan Alpine

SS Clan Campbell (1937)

SS Clan Chisholm

SS Clan Forbes

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SS Clara Barton

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SS Commissaire Ramel

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SS Daniel Webster

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SS Davidson Victory

SS Deutschland (1923)

SS Donau (1929)

SS Duchess of York

SS Eaglescliffe Hall

SS Emidio

SS Empire Brigade

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SS Empire Miniver

SS English Trader

SS Fanad Head

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SS Flynderborg (1930)

SS Führungshauptamt

SS Fort La Monte

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SS marschiert

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Sándor Büchler

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Sára Salkaházi

St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church

St-Michel - Notre-Dame (Paris RER)

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St Martin's Church, Bladon

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St. Nazaire Raid

St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport

St. Sebastian (Mantegna)

St. Victor's Abbey, Paris

Stab-in-the-back legend

Stab (Luftwaffe designation)

Stabilizing Automatic Bomb Sight

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Stabsführer

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Stade de France

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Stade de Paris

Stade des Alpes

Stade Français Paris (football)

Stade Français Paris in cup finals

Stade Français

Stade Jean-Bouin

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Staf De Clercq

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Stahlhelm

Stalag 133

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Stalag IX-B

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Stalag Luft 7

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Stalag VI-C

Stalag VI-K

Stalag VII-A

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Stalag VIII-C

Stalag VIII-D

Stalag VIII-E

Stalag VIII-F

Stalag X-B

Stalag XI-A

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Stalag XI-C

Stalag XIII-C

Stalag XIII-D

Stalag XVIII-A

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Stalag XX-A

Stalag XX-B

Stalag XXI-D

Stalag

Stalin's Missed Chance

Stalin's speech on August 19, 1939

Stalin Line

Stalingrad (2005 video game)

Stalingrad (book)

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Stalingrad (2013 film)

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Stan Cullis

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Stand Up for Justice: The Ralph Lazo Story

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Stanislas Dehaene

Stanislas Julien

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Stanislaw Ulam

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Stanley Burton Centre for Holocaust Studies

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Stanley Internment Camp

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Star Bonifacio Echeverria, S.A.

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Star Tours

Stara Gradiška concentration camp

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Starry Night Over the Rhone

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Stasys Lozoraitis

State of Burma

State racism

Statute on Jews

Stawka większa niż życie

Steel Panthers (series)

Steen Rømer Larsen

Steeve Joseph-Reinette

Stefan de Walden

Stefan Filipkiewicz

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Stefan Lichański

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Stefan Wolpe

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Stefan Zweig

Stefanie Zweig

Stefanos Sarafis

Stella Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading

Stella Kübler

Sten Mellgren

Sten Pettersson

Sten submachine gun

Stendhal University

Stendhal

Stepan Bandera

Stepan Kretov

Stephan Sinding

Stephanie von Hohenlohe

Stephen Ambrose

Stephen Bungay

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Stephen Dodgson

Stephen Fleck

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Steppe Front

Sterling Hayden

Stevan Dedijer

Stevan Sekereš

Steve Gohouri

Steve Hutchinson (figure skater)

Steve Reeves

Steve Shirley

Steven Derounian

Steven T. Katz

Stevo Žigon

Stew Bowers

Stewart Farrar

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Stewart Menzies

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Steyr-Münichholz subcamp

StG44

StG45

Sticky bomb

Stien Kaiser

Stinson Municipal Airport

Stitch Encounter

Stjepan Filipović

Stockton Metropolitan Airport

Stolpersteine in the district of Braunau am Inn

Stolpersteine

Storm Across Europe

Storm Over Arnhem

Storm Over the Pacific

Storm Warning (Higgins novel)

Storming of the Bastille

Storybook Land Canal Boats

Stoyan Stoyanov

Straža na Drini

Strafbattalion

Straight Flush (B-29)

Strange Cargo (B-29)

Strasbourg - Saint-Denis (Paris Métro)

Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic Bombing Survey (Atomic attacks)

Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific War)

Strategic Bombing Survey

Strategic Command: European Theater

Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II

Strawberry Fields (film)

StrayDog: Kerberos Panzer Cops

Street Names of Paris, 1er arrondissement

Strength Through Joy

Stridsvagn m/41

Strikers 1945 Plus

Strom Thurmond

Structure of the Imperial Japanese forces in the South Pacific Mandate

Structure of the Japanese Army in Mengjiang

Struma disaster

Stuart Greeves

Stuart Price

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Stuart S. Stryker

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Stuart tank

Studebaker US6

Studio Tram Tour: Behind the Magic

Sturer Emil

Sturmabteilung

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Stuttgart Municipal Airport

Stutthof concentration camp

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Stéphanie Cohen-Aloro

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SU-100

SU-100Y Self-Propelled Gun

SU-101 and SU-102 self-propelled guns

SU-122

SU-14

SU-152

SU-76

SU-85

Su Bingwen

Su Yu

Sub-district II of Żoliborz (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district III of Wola (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district IV of Ochota (of Armia Krajowa)

Sub-district VI of Praga (of Armia Krajowa)

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Subhas Brigade

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Subject of the state

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Submarines of the People's Liberation Army Navy

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Subsequent Nuremberg Trials

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Suffren-class cruiser

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Suggestion Box

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Suite française (Irène Némirovsky)

Suiyuan Campaign (1936)

Sukhoi Su-6

Sullivan brothers

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Sully Prudhomme

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Suma-class cruiser

Sumiteru Taniguchi

SUMKA

Summer Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

Summi Pontificatus

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Sumter-class attack transport

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Suomi M/31

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Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Order of Caucasians

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Survivors' Talmud

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Swedish iron ore during World War II

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Swift training rifle

Swing Kids (film)

Swing Kids

Switzerland during the World Wars

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The Swoose

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Sy Bartlett

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Sydspissen concentration camp

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Sylvain Distin

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Syria-Lebanon Campaign

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Sébastien Denis

Sébastien Izambard

Ségur (Paris Métro)

Sèvres - Babylone (Paris Métro)

Sèvres - Lecourbe (Paris Métro)

Josef Rosensaft

Josef Rosensaft (January 15, 1911 - September 11, 1975) was a Holocaust survivor who led the community of Jewish displaced persons (Sh'erit ha-Pletah) through the establishment of a Central Committee of Liberated Jews that first served the interests of the refugees in Bergen-Belsen DP camp and then DP camps throughout the entire British sector.

Rosensaft was born to an affluent scrap-metal dealer in Będzin in Poland and was in his youth active in the Zionist Labor Movement. He was deported to Auschwitz in 1943 but escaped the transport by jumping into the Vistula River. He was injured by gunfire during the escape but walked back to Będzin, where he was captured again, given 250 lashes and confined to a chicken cage,Josef Rosensaft before being sent to Auschwitz and several other concentration camps until he was sent on a death march to Bergen-Belsen, where he was liberated on April 15, 1945. He weighed 76 lbs when he was liberated.

He was elected by the refugees in the DP camp to the Central Committee of Liberated Jews and served as the chairman of the British sector committee until it was disbanded in 1950. In addition to promoting the rights and interests of the refugees, he was an active opponent of the British policy of restrictive Jewish immigration to the British Mandate of Palestine. He met and married a fellow survivor, doctor Hadassah (Ada) Bimko, in the camp. Their son is noted activist Menachem Z. Rosensaft.

After his time in the DP camp, Rosensaft went into the art collection and real estate business and lived in Montreux, Switzerland before moving to the United States in the late 1950s. He founded and served as president of the World Federation of Bergen-Belsen Survivors, and led a delegation of 200 Belsen survivors to the former camp in 1970 to commemorate the 25th anniversary of its liberation. He was known as an uncompromising advocate for Holocaust remembrance, often saying that he would "never forget, and never forgive."

He died in London while on a business trip there but was buried in New York City. He left a formidable art collection that had to be sold to settle debts related to the acquisition of the art and by some accounts an extravagant lifestyle. The 1976 sale arranged by Sotheby’s was bought in its entirety by the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, where it all remains today. This sale set a record for a piece by Paul Gauguin called Still Life with Japanese Woodcut at $1.4 million, and the work is currently valued at $45 million.

Joseph Kushner

Joseph Kushner (né Berkowitz; October 10, 1922 – October 5, 1985) was an American real estate magnate, the father of Murray Kushner and Charles Kushner, grandfather of Jared Kushner, Joshua Kushner, and Marc Kushner. At the end of his career, he owned over 4,000 apartments, houses, and properties, which he willed to his family.

He was born in October 1922 to Chana and Moshe Berkowitz. In August 1945, he married Reichel "Rae" Kushner (February 27, 1923 – 2004) in Budapest. Rae Kushner is from the city of Navahrudak, and is remembered for their participation in the escape (via digging a tunnel) from the local Jewish ghetto established by the Nazis. Joseph is also from the Novogrudok area. In an area where about 10,000 Jews lived before World War II, about 550 survived. The story of Rae Kushner and her brother Honie is on display in the local Museum of Jewish Resistance, for which Charles Kushner was the chief benefactor. The Kushners came to the US as Sh'erit ha-Pletah from the USSR in 1949.The Joseph Kushner Hebrew Academy and the Rae Kushner Yeshiva High School, both in Livingston, New Jersey, are named in their honour.

List of Holocaust survivors

The people on this list are or were survivors of Nazi Germany's attempt to exterminate the Jews in Europe before and during World War II. A state-enforced persecution of Jews in Nazi-controlled Europe lasted from the introduction of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 to Hitler's defeat in 1945. Although there were many victims of the Holocaust, the International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims (ICHEIC) defines a Holocaust survivor as, "Any Jew who lived for any period of time in a country that was ruled by the Nazis or their allies."

The United States Holocaust Museum (USHMM) gives a broader definition: "The Museum honors as a survivor any person who was displaced, persecuted, and/or discriminated against by the racial, religious, ethnic, social, and/or political policies of the Nazis and their allies between 1933 and 1945. In addition to former inmates of concentration camps and ghettos, this includes refugees and people in hiding." Most notably, as well as Jews, this includes Poles, Romani people, Jehovah's Witnesses and those who were persecuted for political reasons such as Communists, those who were persecuted for religious reasons (such as Pastor Niemoller), and homosexuals and those of other sexual orientations. It includes those who were actually in hiding in Nazi-occupied countries. The latter includes Hidden Children, who were hidden to escape the Nazis.

Most especially, in contrast to the ICHEIC definition, it includes refugees, who fled from their homeland to escape the Nazis, and never lived in a Nazi-controlled country.

The ICHEIC definition was created for the purpose of resolving some insurance claims. Over time, the classes of insurance claims have greatly expanded.

This list does not include refugees, since it is created on the basis of the restricted ICHEIC definition. There were many, many eminent refugees (too many to mention). Refugees include the unaccompanied children of the Kindertransport, which includes Physics Nobel Laureate Arno Allan Penzias. Refugees also include the unaccompanied One Thousand Children, which includes Physics Nobel Laureate Jack Steinberger. (Somewhat inconsistently the refugee Kindertransport Nobel Laureate Walter Kohn, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry, is listed below.)

Noam Lanir

Noam Lanir (born February 18, 1967) is an Israeli entrepreneur and the controlling shareholder and CEO of Livermore Investment Group, formerly known as Empire Online.

Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam

Rabbi Yekusiel Yehudah Halberstam (January 10, 1905 – June 18, 1994) was an Orthodox rabbi and the founding Rebbe of the Sanz-Klausenburg Hasidic dynasty.

Halberstam became one of the youngest rebbes in Europe, leading thousands of followers in the town of Klausenburg, Romania, before World War II. His wife, eleven children and most of his followers were murdered by the Nazis while he was incarcerated in several concentration camps. After the war, he moved to the United States and later to Israel, rebuilt Jewish communal life in the displaced persons camps of Western Europe, re-established his dynasty in the United States and Israel, founded a Haredi neighborhood in Israel and a Sanz community in the United States, established a hospital in Israel run according to Jewish law, and rebuilt his own family with a second marriage and the birth of seven more children.

Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe
Sites in the
American zone
Sites in the
British zone
Sites in Italy

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