Sexagenary cycle

The sexagenary cycle, also known as the Stems-and-Branches or ganzhi, is a cycle of sixty terms used for reckoning time in China and the East Asian cultural sphere.[1] It appears as a means of recording days in the first Chinese written texts, the Shang oracle bones of the late second millennium BC. Its use to record years began around the middle of the 3rd century BC.[2] The cycle and its variations have been an important part of the traditional calendrical systems in Chinese-influenced Asian states and territories, particularly those of Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, with the old Chinese system still in use in Taiwan.

This traditional method of numbering days and years no longer has any significant role in modern Chinese time keeping or the official calendar. However, the sexagenary cycle is still used in names of many historical events, such as the Chinese Xinhai Revolution, the Japanese Boshin War, and the Korean Imjin War. It also continues to have a role in contemporary Chinese astrology and fortune telling.

Sexagenary cycle
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin liùshí gānzhī
IPA [ljôu.ʂǐ kán.ʈʂí]
Stems-and-Branches
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin gānzhī
IPA [kán.ʈʂí]

Overview

Changchun-Temple-Jiazi-Dian-a-row-of-Tai-Sui-0340
Statues of Tai Sui deities responsible for individual years of the sexagenary cycle

Each term in the sexagenary cycle consists of two Chinese characters, the first being one of the ten Heavenly Stems of the Shang-era week and the second being one of the twelve Earthly Branches representing the years of Jupiter's duodecennial orbital cycle. The first term jiǎzǐ (甲子) combines the first heavenly stem with the first earthly branch. The second term yǐchǒu (乙丑) combines the second stem with the second branch. This pattern continues until both cycles conclude simultaneously with guǐhài (癸亥), after which it begins again at jiǎzǐ. This termination at ten and twelve's least common multiple leaves half of the combinations—such as jiǎchǒu (甲丑)—unused; this is traditionally explained by reference to pairing the stems and branches according to their yin and yang properties.

This combination of two sub-cycles to generate a larger cycle and its use to record time have parallels in other calendrical systems, notably the Akan calendar.[3]

History

The sexagenary cycle is attested as a method of recording days from the earliest written records in China, records of divination on oracle bones, beginning ca. 1250 BC. Almost every oracle bone inscription includes a date in this format. This use of the cycle for days is attested throughout the Zhou dynasty and remained common into the Han period for all documentary purposes that required dates specified to the day.

Almost all the dates in the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronological list of events from 722 to 481 BC, use this system in combination with regnal years and months (lunations) to record dates. Eclipses recorded in the Annals demonstrate that continuity in the sexagenary day-count was unbroken from that period onwards. It is likely that this unbroken continuity went back still further to the first appearance of the sexagenary cycle during the Shang period.[4]

The use of the sexagenary cycle for recording years is much more recent. The earliest discovered documents showing this usage are among the silk manuscripts recovered from Mawangdui tomb 3, sealed in 168 BC. In one of these documents, a sexagenary grid diagram is annotated in three places to mark notable events. For example, the first year of the reign of Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇), 246 BC, is noted on the diagram next to the position of the 60-cycle term yǐ-mǎo (乙卯, 52 of 60), corresponding to that year.[5] Use of the cycle to record years became widespread for administrative time-keeping during the Western Han dynasty (202 BC – 8 AD). The count of years has continued uninterrupted ever since:[6] the year 1984 began the present cycle (a 甲子jiǎ-zǐ year), and 2044 will begin another. Note that in China the new year, when the sexagenary count increments, is not January 1, but rather the lunar new year of the traditional Chinese calendar. For example, the ji-chou 己丑 year (coinciding roughly with 2009) began on January 26, 2009. (However, for astrology, the year begins with the first solar term "Lìchūn" (立春), which occurs near February 4.)

In Japan, according to Nihon shoki, the calendar was transmitted to Japan in 553. But it was not until the Suiko era that the calendar was used for politics. The year 604, when the Japanese officially adopted the Chinese calendar, was the first year of the cycle.[7]

The Japanese tradition of celebrating the 60th birthday (還暦 kanreki) (literally 'return of calendar') reflects the influence of the sexagenary cycle as a count of years.[8]

The Tibetan calendar also counts years using a 60-year cycle based on 12 animals and 5 elements, but while the first year of the Chinese cycle is always the year of the Wood Rat, the first year of the Tibetan cycle is the year of the Fire Rabbit (丁卯dīng-mǎo, year 4 on the Chinese cycle).[9]

Ten Heavenly Stems

No. Heavenly
Stem
Chinese
name
Japanese
name
Korean
name
Vietnamese
name
Yin Yang Wu Xing
Mandarin
(Pinyin)
Cantonese
(Lau)
Onyomi Kunyomi with
corresponding kanji
Romanized Hangul
1 jiǎ gaap3 kō (こう) kinoe (木の兄) gap giáp yang wood
2 yuet3 otsu (おつ) kinoto (木の弟) eul ất yin
3 bǐng bing2 hei (へい) hinoe (火の兄) byeong bính yang fire
4 dīng ding1 tei (てい) hinoto (火の弟) jeong đinh yin
5 mo6 bo () tsuchinoe (土の兄) mu mậu yang earth
6 gei2 ki () tsuchinoto (土の弟) gi kỷ yin
7 gēng gang1 kō (こう) kanoe (金の兄) gyeong canh yang metal
8 xīn san1 shin (しん) kanoto (金の弟) shin tân yin
9 rén yam4 jin (じん) mizunoe (水の兄) im nhâm yang water
10 guǐ gwai3 ki () mizunoto (水の弟) gye quý yin

Twelve Earthly Branches

No. Earthly
Branch
Chinese
name
Japanese
name
Korean
name
Vietnamese
name
Vietnamese
zodiac
Chinese
zodiac
Corresponding
hours
Mandarin
(pinyin)
Cantonese
(Lau)
Onyomi Kunyomi Romanized Hangul
1 ji2 shi ne ja Rat (chuột;𤝞) Rat () 11 p.m. to 1 a.m.
2 chǒu chau2 chū ushi chuk sửu Water buffalo (trâu;𤛠) Ox () 1 to 3 a.m.
3 yín yan4 in tora in dần Tiger (hổ/cọp;虎/𧲫) Tiger () 3 to 5 a.m.
4 mǎo maau5 u myo mão/mẹo Cat (mèo;猫) Rabbit () 5 to 7 a.m.
5 chén san4 shin tatsu jin thìn Dragon (rồng;龍) Dragon () 7 to 9 a.m.
6 ji6 shi mi sa tỵ Snake (rắn;𧋻) Snake () 9 to 11 a.m.
7 ng5 go uma o ngọ Horse (ngựa;馭) Horse () 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.
8 wèi mei6 mi or bi hitsuji mi mùi Goat (dê;羝) Goat () 1 to 3 p.m.
9 shēn san1 shin saru shin thân Monkey (khỉ;𤠳) Monkey () 3 to 5 p.m.
10 yǒu jau5 tori yu dậu Rooster (gà;𪂮) Rooster () 5 to 7 p.m.
11 sut1 jutsu inu sul tuất Dog (chó;㹥) Dog () 7 to 9 p.m.
12 hài hoi6 gai i hae hợi Pig (lợn/heo;𤞼/㺧) Pig () 9 to 11 p.m.

*The names of several animals can be translated into English in several different ways. The Vietnamese Earthly Branches use cat instead of Rabbit.

Sexagenary years

No. Stem-Branch Chinese name Korean name Japanese name Vietnamese name Associations AD BC Current Cycle
1 甲子 jiǎ-zǐ gapja 갑자 kōshi(kasshi)/kinoe-ne Giáp Tý Yang Wood Rat 4 57 1984
2 乙丑 yǐ-chǒu eulchuk 을축 itchū/kinoto-ushi Ất Sửu Yin Wood Ox 5 56 1985
3 丙寅 bǐng-yín byeongin 병인 heiin/hinoe-tora Bính Dần Yang Fire Tiger 6 55 1986
4 丁卯 dīng-mǎo jeongmyo 정묘 teibō/hinoto-u Đinh Mão Yin Fire Rabbit 7 54 1987
5 戊辰 wù-chén mujin 무진 boshin/tsuchinoe-tatsu Mậu Thìn Yang Earth Dragon 8 53 1988
6 己巳 jǐ-sì gisa 기사 kishi/tsuchinoto-mi Kỷ Tỵ Yin Earth Snake 9 52 1989
7 庚午 gēng-wǔ gyeongo 경오 kōgo/kanoe-uma Canh Ngọ Yang Metal Horse 10 51 1990
8 辛未 xīn-wèi sinmi 신미 shinbi/kanoto-hitsuji Tân Mùi Yin Metal Goat 11 50 1991
9 壬申 rén-shēn imsin 임신 jinshin/mizunoe-saru Nhâm Thân Yang Water Monkey 12 49 1992
10 癸酉 guǐ-yǒu gyeyu 계유 kiyū/mizunoto-tori Quý Dậu Yin Water Rooster 13 48 1993
11 甲戌 jiǎ-xū gapsul 갑술 kōjutsu/kinoe-inu Giáp Tuất Yang Wood Dog 14 47 1994
12 乙亥 yǐ-hài eulhae 을해 itsugai/kinoto-i Ât Hợi Yin Wood Pig 15 46 1995
13 丙子 bǐng-zǐ byeongja 병자 heishi/hinoe-ne Bính Tý Yang Fire Rat 16 45 1996
14 丁丑 dīng-chǒu jeongchuk 정축 teichū/hinoto-ushi Đinh Sửu Yin Fire Ox 17 44 1997
15 戊寅 wù-yín muin 무인 boin/tsuchinoe-tora Mậu Dần Yang Earth Tiger 18 43 1998
16 己卯 jǐ-mǎo gimyo 기묘 kibō/tsuchinoto-u Kỷ Mão Yin Earth Rabbit 19 42 1999
17 庚辰 gēng-chén gyeongjin 경진 kōshin/kanoe-tatsu Canh Thìn Yang Metal Dragon 20 41 2000
18 辛巳 xīn-sì sinsa 신사 shinshi/kanoto-mi Tân Tỵ Yin Metal Snake 21 40 2001
19 壬午 rén-wǔ imo 임오 jingo/mizunoe-uma Nhâm Ngọ Yang Water Horse 22 39 2002
20 癸未 guǐ-wèi gyemi 계미 kibi/mizunoto-hitsuji Quý Mùi Yin Water Goat 23 38 2003
21 甲申 jiǎ-shēn gapsin 갑신 kōshin/kinoe-saru Giáp Thân Yang Wood Monkey 24 37 2004
22 乙酉 yǐ-yǒu euryu 을유 itsuyū/kinoto-tori Ất Dậu Yin Wood Rooster 25 36 2005
23 丙戌 bǐng-xū byeongsul 병술 heijutsu/hinoe-inu Bính Tuất Yang Fire Dog 26 35 2006
24 丁亥 dīng-hài jeonghae 정해 teigai/hinoto-i Đinh Hợi Yin Fire Pig 27 34 2007
25 戊子 wù-zǐ muja 무자 boshi/tsuchinoe-ne Mậu Tý Yang Earth Rat 28 33 2008
26 己丑 jǐ-chǒu gichuk 기축 kichū/tsuchinoto-ushi Kỷ Sửu Yin Earth Ox 29 32 2009
27 庚寅 gēng-yín gyeongin 경인 kōin/kanoe-tora Canh Dần Yang Metal Tiger 30 31 2010
28 辛卯 xīn-mǎo sinmyo 신묘 shinbō/kanoto-u Tân Mão Yin Metal Rabbit 31 30 2011
29 壬辰 rén-chén imjin 임진 jinshin/mizunoe-tatsu Nhâm Thìn Yang Water Dragon 32 29 2012
30 癸巳 guǐ-sì gyesa 계사 kishi/mizunoto-mi Quý Tỵ Yin Water Snake 33 28 2013
31 甲午 jiǎ-wǔ gabo 갑오 kōgo/kinoe-uma Giáp Ngọ Yang Wood Horse 34 27 2014
32 乙未 yǐ-wèi eulmi 을미 itsubi/kinoto-hitsuji Ất Mùi Yin Wood Goat 35 26 2015
33 丙申 bǐng-shēn byeongsin 병신 heishin/hinoe-saru Bính Thân Yang Fire Monkey 36 25 2016
34 丁酉 dīng-yǒu jeongyu 정유 teiyū/hinoto-tori Đinh Dậu Yin Fire Rooster 37 24 2017
35 戊戌 wù-xū musul 무술 bojutsu/tsuchinoe-inu Mậu Tuất Yang Earth Dog 38 23 2018
36 己亥 jǐ-hài gihae 기해 kigai/tsuchinoto-i Kỷ Hợi Yin Earth Pig 39 22 2019
37 庚子 gēng-zǐ gyeongja 경자 kōshi/kanoe-ne Canh Tý Yang Metal Rat 40 21 2020
38 辛丑 xīn-chǒu sinchuk 신축 shinchū/kanoto-ushi Tân Sửu Yin Metal Ox 41 20 2021
39 壬寅 rén-yín imin 임인 jin'in/mizunoe-tora Nhâm Dần Yang Water Tiger 42 19 2022
40 癸卯 guǐ-mǎo gyemyo 계묘 kibō/mizunoto-u Quý Mão Yin Water Rabbit 43 18 2023
41 甲辰 jiǎ-chén gapjin 갑진 kōshin/kinoe-tatsu Giáp Thìn Yang Wood Dragon 44 17 2024
42 乙巳 yǐ-sì eulsa 을사 itsushi/kinoto-mi Ất Tỵ Yin Wood Snake 45 16 2025
43 丙午 bǐng-wǔ byeongo 병오 heigo/hinoe-uma Bính Ngọ Yang Fire Horse 46 15 2026
44 丁未 dīng-wèi jeongmi 정미 teibi/hinoto-hitsuji Đinh Mùi Yin Fire Goat 47 14 2027
45 戊申 wù-shēn musin 무신 boshin/tsuchinoe-saru Mậu Thân Yang Earth Monkey 48 13 2028
46 己酉 jǐ-yǒu giyu 기유 kiyū/tsuchinoto-tori Kỷ Dậu Yin Earth Rooster 49 12 2029
47 庚戌 gēng-xū gyeongsul 경술 kōjutsu/kanoe-inu Canh Tuất Yang Metal Dog 50 11 2030
48 辛亥 xīn-hài sinhae 신해 shingai/kanoto-i Tân Hợi Yin Metal Pig 51 10 2031
49 壬子 rén-zǐ imja 임자 jinshi/mizunoe-ne Nhâm Tý Yang Water Rat 52 9 2032
50 癸丑 guǐ-chǒu gyechuk 계축 kichū/mizunoto-ushi Quý Sửu Yin Water Ox 53 8 2033
51 甲寅 jiǎ-yín gabin 갑인 kōin/kinoe-tora Giáp Dần Yang Wood Tiger 54 7 2034
52 乙卯 yǐ-mǎo eulmyo 을묘 itsubō/kinoto-u Ất Mão Yin Wood Rabbit 55 6 2035
53 丙辰 bǐng-chén byeongjin 병진 heishin/hinoe-tatsu Bính Thìn Yang Fire Dragon 56 5 2036
54 丁巳 dīng-sì jeongsa 정사 teishi/hinoto-mi Đinh Tỵ Yin Fire Snake 57 4 2037
55 戊午 wù-wǔ muo 무오 bogo/tsuchinoe-uma Mậu Ngọ Yang Earth Horse 58 3 2038
56 己未 jǐ-wèi gimi 기미 kibi/tsuchinoto-hitsuji Kỷ Mùi Yin Earth Goat 59 2 2039
57 庚申 gēng-shēn gyeongsin 경신 kōshin/kanoe-saru Canh Thân Yang Metal Monkey 60 1 2040
58 辛酉 xīn-yǒu sinyu 신유 shin'yū/kanoto-tori Tân Dậu Yin Metal Rooster 1 60 2041
59 壬戌 rén-xū imsul 임술 jinjutsu/mizunoe-inu Nhâm Tuất Yang Water Dog 2 59 2042
60 癸亥 guǐ-hài gyehae 계해 kigai/mizunoto-i Quý Hợi Yin Water Pig 3 58 2043

Conversion between cyclic years and Western years

Sexagenary cycle years
Relationship between sexagenary cycle and recent Common Era years

As mentioned above, the cycle first started to be used for indicating years during the Han dynasty, but it also can be used to indicate earlier years retroactively. Since it repeats, by itself it cannot specify a year without some other information, but it is frequently used with the Chinese era name (年号; "niánhào") to specify a year.[10] The year starts with the new year of whoever is using the calendar. In China, the cyclic year normally changes on the Chinese Lunar New Year. In Japan until recently it was the Japanese lunar new year, which was sometimes different from the Chinese; now it is January 1. So when calculating the cyclic year of a date in the Gregorian year, one have to consider what their "new year" is. Hence, the following calculation deals with the Chinese dates after the Lunar New Year in that Gregorian year; to find the corresponding sexagenary year in the dates before the Lunar New Year would require the Gregorian year to be decreased by 1.

As for example, the year 2697 BC (or -2696, using the astronomical year count), traditionally the first year of the reign of the legendary Yellow Emperor, was the first year (甲子; jiǎ-zǐ) of a cycle. 2700 years later in 4 AD, the duration equivalent to 45 60-year cycles, was also the starting year of a 60-year cycle. Similarly 1980 years later, 1984 was the start of a new cycle.

Thus, to find out the Gregorian year's equivalent in the sexagenary cycle use the appropriate method below.

  1. For any year number greater than 4 AD, the equivalent sexagenary year can be found by subtracting 3 from the Gregorian year, dividing by 60 and taking the remainder. See example below.
  2. For any year before 1 AD, the equivalent sexagenary year can be found by adding 2 to the Gregorian year number (in BC), dividing it by 60, and subtracting the remainder from 60.
  3. 1 AD, 2 AD and 3 AD correspond respectively to the 58th, 59th and 60th years of the sexagenary cycle.
  4. The formula for years AD is (year - 3 or + 57) mod 60 and for years BC is 60 - (year + 2) mod 60.

The result will produce a number between 0 and 59, corresponding to the year order in the cycle; if the remainder is 0, it corresponds to the 60th year of a cycle. Thus, using the first method, the equivalent sexagenary year for 2012 AD is the 29th year (壬辰; rén-chén), as (2012-3) mod 60 = 29 (i.e., the remainder of (2012-3) divided by 60 is 29). Using the second, the equivalent sexagenary year for 221 BC is the 17th year (庚辰; gēng-chén), as 60- [(221+2) mod 60] = 17 (i.e., 60 minus the remainder of (221+2) divided by 60 is 17).

Examples

Step-by-step example to determine the sign for 1967:

  1. 1967 – 3 = 1964 ("subtracting 3 from the Gregorian year")
  2. 1964 ÷ 60 = 32 ("divide by 60 and discard any fraction")
  3. 1964 – (60 × 32) = 44 ("taking the remainder")
  4. Show one of the Sexagenary Cycle tables (the following section), look for 44 in the first column (No) and obtain Fire Goat (丁未; dīng-wèi).

Step-by-step example to determine the cyclic year of first year of the reign of Qin Shi Huang (246 BC):

  1. 246 + 2 = 248 ("adding 2 to the Gregorian year number (in BC)")
  2. 248 ÷ 60 = 4 ("divide by 60 and discard any fraction")
  3. 248 – (60 × 4) = 8 ("taking the remainder")
  4. 60 – 8 = 52 ("subtract the remainder from 60")
  5. Show one of the Sexagenary Cycle table (the following section), look for 52 in the first column (No) and obtain Wood Rabbit (乙卯; yǐ-mǎo).

A shorter equivalent method

Start from the AD year, take directly the remainder mod 60, and look into column AD:

  • 1967 = 60 × 32 + 47. Remainder is therefore 47 and the AD column of the table "Sexagenary years" (just above) gives 'Fire Goat'

For a BC year: discard the minus sign, take the remainder of the year mod 60 and look into column BC:

  • 246 = 60 × 4 + 6. Remainder is therefore 6 and the BC column of table "Sexagenary years" (just above) gives 'Wood Rabbit'.

When doing these conversions, year 246 BC cannot be treated as -246 AD due to the lack of a year 0 in the Gregorian AD/BC system.

The following tables show recent years (in the Gregorian calendar) and their corresponding years in the cycles:

1804–1923

No. 1804–1863 Heavenly stem Earthly branch 1864–1923
Year (Elements) (Animals) Year
1 Feb 11 1804 – Jan 30 1805 甲 Yang Wood Rat Feb 8 1864 – Jan 26 1865
2 Jan 31 1805 – Feb 17 1806 乙 Yin Wood Ox Jan 27 1865 – ~~ 1866
3 Feb 18 1806 – Feb 6 1807 丙 Yang Fire Tiger ~~ 1866 – ~~ 1867
4 Feb 7 1807 – Jan 27 1808 丁 Yin Fire Rabbit ~~ 1867 – ~~ 1868
5 Jan 28 1808 – Feb 13 1809 戊 Yang Earth Dragon ~~ 1868 – ~~ 1869
6 Feb 14 1809 – Feb 3 1810 己 Yin Earth Snake ~~ 1869 – Jan 30 1870
7 Feb 4 1810 – Jan 24 1811 庚 Yang Metal Horse Jan 31 1870 – Feb 18 1871
8 Jan 25 1811 – Feb 12 1812 辛 Yin Metal Goat Feb 19 1871 – ~~ 1872
9 Feb 13 1812 – Jan 31 1813 壬 Yang Water Monkey ~~ 1872 – ~~ 1873
10 Feb 1 1813 – Feb 19 1814 癸 Yin Water Rooster ~~ 1873 – ~~ 1874
11 Feb 201814 – Feb 8 1815 甲 Yang Wood Dog ~~ 1874 – ~~ 1875
12 Feb 9 1815 – Jan 28 1816 乙 Yin Wood Pig ~~ 1875 – ~~ 1876
13 Jan 29 1816 – Jan 16 1817 丙 Yang Fire Rat ~~ 1876 – ~~ 1877
14 Jan 17 1817 – Feb 4 1818 丁 Yin Fire Ox ~~ 1877 – ~~ 1878
15 Feb 5 1818 – Jan 25 1819 戊 Yang Earth Tiger ~~ 1878 – ~~ 1879
16 ~~ 1819 – ~~ 1820 己 Yin Earth Rabbit ~~ 1879 – ~~ 1880
17 ~~ 1820 – ~~ 1821 庚 Yang Metal Dragon ~~ 1880 – ~~ 1881
18 ~~ 1821 – ~~ 1822 辛 Yin Metal Snake ~~ 1881 – ~~ 1882
19 ~~ 1822 – ~~ 1823 壬 Yang Water Horse ~~ 1882 – ~~ 1883
20 ~~ 1823 – ~~ 1824 癸 Yin Water Goat ~~ 1883 – ~~ 1884
21 ~~ 1824 – ~~ 1825 甲 Yang Wood Monkey ~~ 1884 – ~~ 1885
22 ~~ 1825 – ~~ 1826 乙 Yin Wood Rooster ~~ 1885 – ~~ 1886
23 ~~ 1826 – ~~ 1827 丙 Yang Fire Dog ~~ 1886 – ~~ 1887
24 ~~ 1827 – ~~ 1828 丁 Yin Fire Pig ~~ 1887 – ~~ 1888
25 ~~ 1828 – ~~ 1829 戊 Yang Earth Rat ~~ 1888 – Jan 30 1889
26 ~~ 1829 – ~~ 1830 己 Yin Earth Ox Jan 31 1889 – Jan 20 1890
27 ~~ 1830 – ~~ 1831 庚 Yang Metal Tiger Jan 21 1890 – Feb 08 1891
28 ~~ 1831 – ~~ 1832 辛 Yin Metal Rabbit Feb 09 1891 – ~~ 1892
29 ~~ 1832 – ~~ 1833 壬 Yang Water Dragon ~~ 1892 – ~~ 1893
30 ~~ 1833 – ~~ 1834 癸 Yin Water Snake ~~ 1893 – ~~ 1894
31 ~~ 1834 – ~~ 1835 甲 Yang Wood Horse ~~ 1894 – ~~ 1895
32 ~~ 1835 – ~~ 1836 乙 Yin Wood Goat ~~ 1895 – Feb 12 1896
33 ~~ 1836 – ~~ 1837 丙 Yang Fire Monkey Feb 13 1896 – Feb 01 1897
34 ~~ 1837 – ~~ 1838 丁 Yin Fire Rooster Feb 02 1897 – Jan 21 1898
35 ~~ 1838 – ~~ 1839 戊 Yang Earth Dog Jan 22 1898 – Feb 09 1899
36 ~~ 1839 – ~~ 1840 己 Yin Earth Pig Feb 10 1899 – Jan 30 1900
37 ~~ 1840 – ~~ 1841 庚 Yang Metal Rat Jan 31 1900 – Feb 18 1901
38 ~~ 1841 – ~~ 1842 辛 Yin Metal Ox Feb 19 1901 – Feb 07 1902
39 ~~ 1842 – ~~ 1843 壬 Yang Water Tiger Feb 08 1902 – Jan 28 1903
40 ~~ 1843 – ~~ 1844 癸 Yin Water Rabbit Jan 29 1903 – Feb 15 1904
41 ~~ 1844 – ~~ 1845 甲 Yang Wood Dragon Feb 16 1904 – Feb 03 1905
42 ~~ 1845 – ~~ 1846 乙 Yin Wood Snake Feb 04 1905 – Jan 24 1906
43 ~~ 1846 – ~~ 1847 丙 Yang Fire Horse Jan 25 1906 – Feb 12 1907
44 ~~ 1847 – ~~ 1848 丁 Yin Fire Goat Feb 13 1907 – Feb 01 1908
45 ~~ 1848 – ~~ 1849 戊 Yang Earth Monkey Feb 02 1908 – Jan 21 1909
46 ~~ 1849 – ~~ 1850 己 Yin Earth Rooster Jan 22 1909 – Feb 09 1910
47 ~~ 1850 – ~~ 1851 庚 Yang Metal Dog Feb 10 1910 – Jan 29 1911
48 ~~ 1851 – ~~ 1852 辛 Yin Metal Pig Jan 30 1911 – Feb 17 1912
49 ~~ 1852 – ~~ 1853 壬 Yang Water Rat Feb 18 1912 – Feb 05 1913
50 ~~ 1853 – ~~ 1854 癸 Yin Water Ox Feb 06 1913 – Jan 25 1914
51 ~~ 1854 – ~~ 1855 甲 Yang Wood Tiger Jan 26 1914 – Feb 13 1915
52 ~~ 1855 – ~~ 1856 乙 Yin Wood Rabbit Feb 14 1915 – Feb 02 1916
53 ~~ 1856 – ~~ 1857 丙 Yang Fire Dragon Feb 03 1916 – Jan 22 1917
54 ~~ 1857 – ~~ 1858 丁 Yin Fire Snake Jan 23 1917 – Feb 10 1918
55 ~~ 1858 – ~~ 1859 戊 Yang Earth Horse Feb 11 1918 – Jan 31 1919
56 ~~ 1859 – ~~ 1860 己 Yin Earth Goat Feb 01 1919 – Feb 19 1920
57 ~~ 1860 – ~~ 1861 庚 Yang Metal Monkey Feb 20 1920 – Feb 07 1921
58 ~~ 1861 – ~~ 1862 辛 Yin Metal Rooster Feb 08 1921 – Jan 27 1922
59 ~~ 1862 – ~~ 1863 壬 Yang Water Dog Jan 28 1922 – Feb 15 1923
60 ~~ 1863 – Feb 7 1864 癸 Yin Water Pig Feb 16 1923 – Feb 04 1924

1924–2043

No. 1924–1983 Heavenly stem Earthly branch 1984–2043
Year (Elements) (Animals) Year
1 Feb 05 1924 – Jan 23 1925 甲 Yang Wood Rat Feb 02 1984 – Feb 19 1985
2 Jan 24 1925 – Feb 12 1926 乙 Yin Wood Ox Feb 20 1985 – Feb 08 1986
3 Feb 13 1926 – Feb 01 1927 丙 Yang Fire Tiger Feb 09 1986 – Jan 28 1987
4 Feb 02 1927 – Jan 21 1928 丁 Yin Fire Rabbit Jan 29 1987 – Feb 16 1988
5 Jan 22 1928 – Feb 08 1929 戊 Yang Earth Dragon Feb 17 1988 – Feb 05 1989
6 Feb 09 1929 – Jan 28 1930 己 Yin Earth Snake Feb 06 1989 – Jan 26 1990
7 Jan 29 1930 – Feb 16 1931 庚 Yang Metal Horse Jan 27 1990 – Feb 14 1991
8 Feb 17 1931 – Feb 05 1932 辛 Yin Metal Goat Feb 15 1991 – Feb 03 1992
9 Feb 06 1932 – Jan 24 1933 壬 Yang Water Monkey Feb 04 1992 – Jan 22 1993
10 Jan 25 1933 – Feb 13 1934 癸 Yin Water Rooster Jan 23 1993 – Feb 09 1994
11 Feb 14 1934 – Feb 02 1935 甲 Yang Wood Dog Feb 10 1994 – Jan 30 1995
12 Feb 04 1935 – Jan 23 1936 乙 Yin Wood Pig Jan 31 1995 – Feb 18 1996
13 Jan 24 1936 – Feb 10 1937 丙 Yang Fire Rat Feb 19 1996 – Feb 06 1997
14 Feb 11 1937 – Jan 30 1938 丁 Yin Fire Ox Feb 07 1997 – Jan 27 1998
15 Jan 31 1938 – Feb 18 1939 戊 Yang Earth Tiger Jan 28 1998 – Feb 15 1999
16 Feb 19 1939 – Feb 07 1940 己 Yin Earth Rabbit Feb 16 1999 – Feb 04 2000
17 Feb 08 1940 – Jan 26 1941 庚 Yang Metal Dragon Feb 05 2000 – Jan 23 2001
18 Jan 27 1941 – Feb 14 1942 辛 Yin Metal Snake Jan 24 2001 – Feb 11 2002
19 Feb 15 1942 – Feb 04 1943 壬 Yang Water Horse Feb 12 2002 – Jan 31 2003
20 Feb 05 1943 – Jan 24 1944 癸 Yin Water Goat Feb 01 2003 – Jan 21 2004
21 Jan 25 1944 – Feb 12 1945 甲 Yang Wood Monkey Jan 22 2004 – Feb 08 2005
22 Feb 13 1945 – Feb 01 1946 乙 Yin Wood Rooster Feb 09 2005 – Jan 28 2006
23 Feb 02 1946 – Jan 21 1947 丙 Yang Fire Dog Jan 29 2006 – Feb 17 2007
24 Jan 22 1947 – Feb 09 1948 丁 Yin Fire Pig Feb 18 2007 – Feb 03 2008
25 Feb 10 1948 – Jan 28 1949 戊 Yang Earth Rat Feb 07 2008 – Jan 25 2009
26 Jan 29 1949 – Feb 16 1950 己 Yin Earth Ox Jan 26 2009 – Feb 13 2010
27 Feb 17 1950 – Feb 05 1951 庚 Yang Metal Tiger Feb 14 2010 – Feb 02 2011
28 Feb 06 1951 – Jan 26 1952 辛 Yin Metal Rabbit Feb 03 2011 – Jan 22 2012
29 Jan 27 1952 – Feb 13 1953 壬 Yang Water Dragon Jan 23 2012 – Feb 09 2013
30 Feb 14 1953 – Feb 02 1954 癸 Yin Water Snake Feb 10 2013 – Jan 30 2014
31 Feb 03 1954 – Jan 23 1955 甲 Yang Wood Horse Jan 31 2014 – Feb 18 2015
32 Jan 24 1955 – Feb 11 1956 乙 Yin Wood Goat Feb 19 2015 – Feb 07 2016
33 Feb 12 1956 – Jan 30 1957 丙 Yang Fire Monkey Feb 08 2016 – Jan 27 2017
34 Jan 31 1957 – Feb 17 1958 丁 Yin Fire Rooster Jan 28 2017 – Feb 15 2018
35 Feb 18 1958 – Feb 07 1959 戊 Yang Earth Dog Feb 16 2018 – Feb 04 2019
36 Feb 08 1959 – Jan 27 1960 己 Yin Earth Pig Feb 05 2019 – Jan 24 2020
37 Jan 28 1960 – Feb 14 1961 庚 Yang Metal Rat Jan 25 2020 – Feb 11 2021
38 Feb 15 1961 – Feb 04 1962 辛 Yin Metal Ox Feb 12 2021 – Jan 31 2022
39 Feb 05 1962 – Jan 24 1963 壬 Yang Water Tiger Feb 01 2022 – Jan 21 2023
40 Jan 25 1963 – Feb 12 1964 癸 Yin Water Rabbit Jan 22 2023 – Feb 09 2024
41 Feb 13 1964 – Feb 01 1965 甲 Yang Wood Dragon Feb 10 2024 – Jan 28 2025
42 Feb 02 1965 – Jan 20 1966 乙 Yin Wood Snake Jan 29 2025 – Feb 16 2026
43 Jan 21 1966 – Feb 08 1967 丙 Yang Fire Horse Feb 17 2026 – Feb 05 2027
44 Feb 09 1967 – Jan 29 1968 丁 Yin Fire Goat Feb 06 2027 – Jan 25 2028
45 Jan 30 1968 – Feb 16 1969 戊 Yang Earth Monkey Jan 26 2028 – Feb 12 2029
46 Feb 17 1969 – Feb 05 1970 己 Yin Earth Rooster Feb 13 2029 – Feb 02 2030
47 Feb 06 1970 – Jan 26 1971 庚 Yang Metal Dog Feb 03 2030 – Jan 22 2031
48 Jan 27 1971 – Feb 14 1972 辛 Yin Metal Pig Jan 23 2031 – Feb 10 2032
49 Feb 15 1972 – Feb 02 1973 壬 Yang Water Rat Feb 11 2032 – Jan 30 2033
50 Feb 03 1973 – Jan 22 1974 癸 Yin Water Ox Jan 31 2033 – Feb 18 2034
51 Jan 23 1974 – Feb 10 1975 甲 Yang Wood Tiger Feb 19 2034 – Feb 07 2035
52 Feb 11 1975 – Jan 30 1976 乙 Yin Wood Rabbit Feb 08 2035 – Jan 27 2036
53 Jan 31 1976 – Feb 17 1977 丙 Yang Fire Dragon Jan 28 2036 – Feb 14 2037
54 Feb 18 1977 – Feb 06 1978 丁 Yin Fire Snake Feb 15 2037 – Feb 03 2038
55 Feb 07 1978 – Jan 27 1979 戊 Yang Earth Horse Feb 04 2038 – Jan 23 2039
56 Jan 28 1979 – Feb 15 1980 己 Yin Earth Goat Jan 24 2039 – Feb 11 2040
57 Feb 16 1980 – Feb 04 1981 庚 Yang Metal Monkey Feb 12 2040 – Jan 31 2041
58 Feb 05 1981 – Jan 24 1982 辛 Yin Metal Rooster Feb 01 2041 – Jan 21 2042
59 Jan 25 1982 – Feb 12 1983 壬 Yang Water Dog Jan 22 2042 – Feb 09 2043
60 Feb 13 1983 – Feb 01 1984 癸 Yin Water Pig Feb 10 2043 – Jan 29 2044

Sexagenary months

The branches are used marginally to indicate months. Despite there being twelve branches and twelve months in a year, the earliest use of branches to indicate a twelve-fold division of a year was in the 2nd century BC. They were coordinated with the orientations of the Great Dipper, (建子月: jiànzǐyuè, 建丑月: jiànchǒuyuè, etc.).[11] There are two systems of placing these months, the lunar one and the solar one.

One system follows the ordinary Chinese lunar calendar and connects the names of the months directly to the central solar term (中氣; zhōngqì). The jiànzǐyuè (()子月) is the month containing the winter solstice (i.e. the 冬至 Dōngzhì) zhōngqì. The jiànchǒuyuè (()丑月) is the month of the following zhōngqì, which is Dàhán (大寒), while the jiànyínyuè (()寅月) is that of the Yǔshuǐ (雨水) zhōngqì, etc. Intercalary months have the same branch as the preceding month. [12] In the other system (節月; jiéyuè) the "month" lasts for the period of two solar terms (two 氣策 qìcì). The zǐyuè (子月) is the period starting with Dàxuě (大雪), i.e. the solar term before the winter solstice. The chǒuyuè (丑月) starts with Xiǎohán (小寒), the term before Dàhán (大寒), while the yínyuè (寅月) starts with Lìchūn (立春), the term before Yǔshuǐ (雨水), etc. Thus in the solar system a month starts anywhere from about 15 days before to 15 days after its lunar counterpart.

The branch names are not usual month names; the main use of the branches for months is astrological. However, the names are sometimes used to indicate historically which (lunar) month was the first month of the year in ancient times. For example, since the Han dynasty, the first month has been jiànyínyuè, but earlier the first month was jiànzǐyuè (during the Zhou dynasty) or jiànchǒuyuè (traditionally during the Shang dynasty) as well.[13]

For astrological purposes stems are also necessary, and the months are named using the sexagenary cycle following a five-year cycle starting in a jiǎ (; 1st) or (; 6th) year. The first month of the jiǎ or year is a bǐng-yín (丙寅; 3rd) month, the next one is a dīng-mǎo (丁卯; 4th) month, etc., and the last month of the year is a dīng-chǒu (丁丑, 14th) month. The next year will start with a wù-yín (戊寅; 15th) month, etc. following the cycle. The 5th year will end with a yǐ-chǒu (乙丑; 2nd) month. The following month, the start of a or jiǎ year, will hence again be a bǐng-yín (3rd) month again. The beginning and end of the (solar) months in the table below are the approximate dates of current solar terms; they vary slightly from year to year depending on the leap days of the Gregorian calendar.

Earthly Branches of the certain months Solar term Zhongqi (the Middle solar term) Starts at Ends at Names in year of Jia or Ji(/己年) Names in year of Yi or Geng (/庚年) Names in year of Bing or Xin (/辛年) Names in year of Ding or Ren (/壬年) Names in year of Wu or Gui (/癸年)
Month of Yin (寅月) LichunJingzhe Yushui February 4 March 6 Bingyin / 丙寅月 Wuyin / 戊寅月 Gengyin / 庚寅月 Renyin / 壬寅月 Jiayin / 甲寅月

Month of Mao (卯月)

JingzheQingming Chunfen March 6 April 5 Dingmao / 丁卯月 Jimao / 己卯月 Xinmao / 辛卯月 Guimao / 癸卯月 Yimao / 乙卯月
Month of Chen (辰月) QingmingLixia Guyu April 5 May 6 Wuchen / 戊辰月 Gengchen / 庚辰月 Renchen / 壬辰月 Jiachen / 甲辰月 Bingchen / 丙辰月
Month of Si (巳月) LixiaMangzhong Xiaoman May 6 June 6 Jisi / 己巳月 Xinsi / 辛巳月 Guisi / 癸巳月 Yisi / 乙巳月 Dingsi / 丁巳月
Month of Wu (午月) MangzhongXiaoshu Xiazhi June 6 July 7 Gengwu / 庚午月 Renwu / 壬午月 Jiawu / 甲午月 Bingwu / 丙午月 Wuwu / 戊午月
Month of Wei (未月) XiaoshuLiqiu Dashu July 7 August 8 Xinwei / 辛未月 Guiwei / 癸未月 Yiwei / 乙未月 Dingwei / 丁未月 Jiwei / 己未月
Month of Shen (申月) LiqiuBailu Chushu August 8 September 8 Renshen / 壬申月 Jiashen / 甲申月 Bingshen / 丙申月 Wushen / 戊申月 Gengshen / 庚申月
Month of You (酉月) BailuHanlu Qiufen September 8 October 8 Guiyou / 癸酉月 Yiyou / 乙酉月 Dingyou / 丁酉月 Jiyou / 己酉月 Xinyou / 辛酉月
Month of Xu (戌月) HanluLidong Shuangjiang October 8 November 7 Jiaxu / 甲戌月 Bingxu / 丙戌月 Wuxu / 戊戌月 Gengxu / 庚戌月 Renxu / 壬戌月
Month of Hai (亥月) LidongDaxue Xiaoxue November 7 December 7 Yihai / 乙亥月 Dinghai / 丁亥月 Jihai / 己亥月 Xinhai / 辛亥月 Guihai / 癸亥月
Month of Zi (子月) DaxueXiaohan Dongzhi December 7 January 6 Bingzi / 丙子月 Wuzi / 戊子月 Gengzi / 庚子月 Renzi / 壬子月 Jiazi / 甲子月
Month of Chou (丑月) XiaohanLichun Dahan January 6 February 4 Dingchou / 丁丑月 Jichou / 己丑月 Xinchou / 辛丑月 Guichou / 癸丑月 Yichou / 乙丑月

Sexagenary days

Table for sexagenary days
Day
(stem)
Month
(stem)
2-digit year
mod 40
(stem)
Century
(stem)
N Century
(branch)
2-digit year
mod 16
(branch)
Month
(branch)
Day
(branch)
Julian
mod 2
Gregorian Julian
mod 4
Gregorian
00 10 20 30 Aug 00 02 21 23 00 16 00 00 00 07 Nov 00 12 24
01 11 21 31 Sep Oct 04 06 25 27 21 01 14 01 13 25
02 12 22 Nov Dec 08 10 29 31 19 02 16 19 05 Feb Apr 02 14 26
03 13 23 12 14 33 35 03 03 22 03 12 Feb Jun 03 15 27
04 14 24 16 18 37 39 17 24 04 10 Aug 04 16 28
05 15 25 01 03 20 22 01 22 15 05 15 01 Oct 05 17 29
06 16 26 05 07 24 26 06 02 18 08 15 Dec 06 18 30
07 17 27 Mar Jan 09 11 28 30 20 07 21 06 Jan Mar 07 19 31
08 18 28 Jan Apr May Feb 13 15 32 34 18 08 24 13 Jan May 08 20
09 19 29 Feb Jun Jul 17 19 36 38 23 09 01 04 11 Jul 09 21
Dates with the pale yellow background indicate they are for this year. 10 17 02 10 22
11 20 23 09 Sep 11 23
  • N for the year: (5y + [y/4]) mod 10, y = 0–39 (stem); (5y + [y/4]) mod 12, y = 0–15 (branch)
  • N for the Gregorian century: (4c + [c/4] + 2) mod 10 (stem); (8c + [c/4] + 2) mod 12 (branch), c ≥ 15
  • N for the Julian century: 5c mod 10, c = 0–1 (stem); 9c mod 12, c = 0–3 (branch)

The table above allows one to find the stem & branch for any given date. For both the stem and the branch, find the N for the row for the century, year, month, and day, then add them together. If the sum for the stems' N is above 10, subtract 10 until the result is between 1 and 10. If the sum for the branches' N is above 12, subtract 12 until the result is between 1 and 12.

For any date before October 15, 1582, use the Julian century column to find the row for that century's N. For dates after October 15, 1582, use the Gregorian century column to find the century's N. When looking at dates in January and February of leap years, use the bold & italic Feb and Jan.

Examples

  • Step-by-step example to determine the stem-branch for October 1, 1949.
    • Stem
      • (day stem N + month stem N + year stem N + century stem N) = * of stem. If over 10, subtract 10 until within 1 - 10.
        • Day 1: N = 1,
        • Month of October: N = 1,
        • Year 49: N = 7 ,
          • 49 isn't on the table, so we'll have to mod 49 by 40. This gives us year 9, which we can follow to find the N for that row.
        • Century 19: N = 2.
      • (1 + 1 + 7 + 2) = 11. This is more than 10, so we'll subtract 10 to bring it between 1 and 10.
        • 11 - 10 = 1,
        • Stem = 1, .
    • Branch
      • (day branch N + month branch N + year branch N + century branch N)= * of branch. If over 12, subtract 12 until within 1 - 12.
        • Day 1: N = 1,
        • Month of October: N = 5,
        • Year 49: N = 5,
          • Again, 49 is not in the table for year. Modding 49 by 16 gives us 1, which we can look up to find the N of that row.
        • Century 19: N = 2.
      • (1 + 5 + 5 + 2) = 13. Since 13 is more than 12, we'll subtract 12 to bring it between 1 and 12.
        • 13 - 12 = 1,
        • Branch = 1, .
    • Stem-branch = 1, 1 (甲子, 1 in sexagenary cycle).
More detailed examples
  • Stem-branch for December 31, 1592
    • Stem = (day stem N + month stem N + year stem N + century stem N)
      • Day 31: N = 1; month of December: N = 2; year 92 (92 mod 40 = 12): N = 3; century 15: N = 5.
      • (1 + 2 + 3 + 5) = 11; 11 - 10 = 1.
      • Stem = 1, .
    • Branch = (day branch N + month branch N + year branch N + century branch N)
      • Day 31: N = 7; month of December: N = 6; year 92 (92 mod 16 = 12): N = 3; century 15: N = 5.
      • (7 + 6 + 3 + 5) = 21; 21 - 12 = 9.
      • Branch = 9,
    • Stem-branch = 1, 9 (甲申, 21 in cycle)
  • Stem-branch for August 4, 1338
    • Stem = 8,
      • Day 4: N = 4; month of August: N = 0; year 38: N = 9; century 13 (13 mod 2 = 1): N = 5.
      • (4 + 0 + 9 + 5) = 18; 18 - 10 = 8.
    • Branch = 12,
      • Day 4: N = 4; month of August: N = 4; year 38 (38 mod 16 = 6): N = 7; century 13 (13 mod 4 = 1): N = 9.
      • (4 + 4 + 7 + 9) = 24; 24 - 12 = 12
    • Stem-branch = 8, 12 (辛亥, 48 in cycle)
  • Stem-branch for May 25, 105 BC (-104).
    • Stem = 7,
      • Day 25: N = 5; month of May: N = 8; year -4 (-4 mod 40 = 36): N = 9; century -1 (-1 mod 2 = 1): N = 5.
      • (5 + 8 + 9 + 5) = 27; 27 - 10 = 17; 17 - 10 = 7.
    • Branch = 3,
      • Day 25: N = 1; month of May: N = 8; year -4 (-4 mod 16 = 12): N = 3; century -1 (-1 mod 4 = 3): N = 3.
      • (1 + 8 + 3 + 3) = 15; 15 - 12 = 3.
    • Stem-branch = 7, 3 (庚寅, 27 in cycle)
    • Alternately, instead of doing both century and year, one can exclude the century and simply use -104 as the year for both the stem and the branch to get the same result.

Sexagenary hours

Table for sexagenary hours (5-day cycle)
Stem of the day Zǐ hour
子时
23:00–1:00
Chǒu hour
丑时
1:00–3:00
Yín hour
寅时
3:00–5:00
Mǎo hour
卯时
5:00–7:00
Chén hour
辰时
7:00–9:00
Sì hour
巳时
9:00–11:00
Wǔ hour
午时
11:00–13:00
Wèi hour
未时
13:00–15:00
Shēn hour
申时
15:00–17:00
Yǒu hour
酉时
17:00–19:00
Xū hour
戌时
19:00–21:00
Hài hour
亥时
21:00–23:00
Jia or Ji day
(甲/己)
1 甲子 2乙丑 3 丙寅 4 丁卯 5 戊辰 6 己巳 7 庚午 8 辛未 9 壬申 10 癸酉 11 甲戌 12 乙亥
Yi or Geng day
(乙/庚)
13 丙子 14 丁丑 15 戊寅 16 己卯 17 庚辰 18 辛巳 19 壬午 20 癸未 21 甲申 22 乙酉 23 丙戌 24 丁亥
Bing or Xin day
(丙/辛)
25 戊子 26 己丑 27 庚寅 28 辛卯 29 壬辰 30 癸巳 31 甲午 32 乙未 33 丙申 34 丁酉 35 戊戌 36 己亥
Ding or Ren day
(丁/壬)
37 庚子 38 辛丑 39 壬寅 40 癸卯 41 甲辰 42 乙巳 43 丙午 44 丁未 45 戊申 46 己酉 47 庚戌 48 辛亥
Wu or Gui day
(戊/癸)
49 壬子 50 癸丑 51 甲寅 52 乙卯 53 丙辰 54 丁巳 55 戊午 56 己未 57 庚申 58 辛酉 59 壬戌 60 癸亥

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Jikkan-jūnishi" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 420.
  2. ^ Smith (2011), pp. 1, 28.
  3. ^ For the Akan calendar, see Bartle (1978).
  4. ^ Smith (2011), p. 24,26-27.
  5. ^ Kalinowski (1998), fig. 3 and p. 145; Smith (2011), p. 29.
  6. ^ Smith (2011), p. 28.
  7. ^ National Diet Library, "Calendar History; the Source" Archived January 6, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.; retrieved 2013-1-1.
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of Shinto, "Kanreki"; retrieved 2013-1-1.
  9. ^ Chattopadhyaya, Alaka. (1999). Atisa and Tibet: Life and Works of Dipamkara Srijnana in relation to the history and religion of Tibet, pp. 566-568.
  10. ^ The Mathematics of the Chinese Calendar
  11. ^ Smith (2011), p. 28, p. 29 fn2, ; 建す, Kōjien, Toyko: Iwanami Shoten
  12. ^ "Records part 6" 本紀第六 肅宗 代宗, Xīn Tángshū 新唐書 [New Book of Tang], 二年……,九月壬寅,大赦,去「乾元大圣光天文武孝感」号,去「上元」号,称元年,以十一月为岁首,月以斗所建辰为名。赐文武官阶、勋、爵,版授侍老官,先授者叙进之。停四京号。
      元年建子月癸巳,曹州刺史常休明及史朝义将薛崿战,败之。己亥,朝圣皇天帝于西内。丙午,卫伯玉及史朝义战于永宁,败之。己酉,朝献于太清宫。庚戌,朝享于太庙及元献皇后庙。建丑月辛亥,有事于南郊。己未,来瑱及史朝义战于汝州,败之。乙亥,侯希逸及朝义将李怀仙战于范阳,败之。宝应元年建寅月甲申,追册靖德太子琮为皇帝,妃窦氏为皇后。乙酉,葬王公妃主遇害者。丙戌,盗发敬陵、惠陵。甲辰,李光弼克许州。吐蕃请和。戊申,史朝义陷营州。建卯月辛亥,大赦。赐文武官阶、爵。五品以上清望及郎官、御史荐流人有行业情可矜者。停贡鹰、鹞、狗、豹。以京兆府为上都,河南府为东都,凤翔府为西都,江陵府为南都,太原府为北都。壬子,羌、浑、奴剌寇梁州。癸丑,河东军乱,杀其节度使邓景山,都知兵马使辛云京自称节度使。乙丑,河中军乱,杀李国贞及其节度使荔非元礼。戊辰,淮西节度使王仲升及史朝义将谢钦让战于申州,败绩。庚午,敦子仪知朔方、河中、北庭、潞仪泽沁节度行营,兴平、定国军兵马副元帅。壬申,鄜州刺史成公意及党项战,败之。建辰月壬午,大赦,官吏听纳赃免罪,左降官及流人罚镇效力者还之。甲午,奴剌寇梁州。戊申,萧华罢。户部侍郎元载同中书门下平章事。建巳月庚戌,史朝义寇泽州,刺史李抱玉败之。壬子,楚州献定国宝玉十有三。甲寅,圣皇天帝崩。乙丑,皇太子监国。大赦,改元年为宝应元年,复以正月为岁首,建巳月为四月。丙寅,闲厩使李辅国、飞龙厩副使程元振迁皇后于别殿,杀越王系、兗王亻闲。是夜,皇帝崩于长生殿,年五十二。查《壽星萬年曆》,
    唐肅宗之元年
    冬至所在月(761.12):初一壬午大雪,十三癸巳,十七冬至,十九己亥,廿五丙午,廿八己酉,廿九庚戌
    大寒所在月(762.02):初一辛亥,初三小寒,初九己未,十八大寒,廿五乙亥
    雨水所在月(762.03):初一辛巳,初三立春,初四甲申,初五乙酉,初六丙戌,十八雨水,廿四甲辰,廿八戊申
    春分所在月(762.3):初一辛亥,初四驚蜇,初二壬子,初三癸丑,十五乙丑,十八戊辰,十九春分,二十庚午,廿一壬申,
    穀雨所在月(762.4):初一庚辰,初三壬午,初五清明,十五甲午,二十穀雨,廿九戊申
    小滿所在月(762.5):初一庚戌,初三壬子,初五甲寅立夏,初五乙丑,十六丙寅。
    大寒所在月初一辛亥,已稱建丑月,初三才小寒
    春分所在月初一辛亥,已稱建卯月,初四才驚蜇
    穀雨所在月初三壬午,已稱建辰月,初五才清明
    小滿所在月初一庚戌、初三壬子,已稱建巳月,初五才立夏
    由此可見,唐代地支紀月自朔日始,非自節氣始。
  13. ^ 三正, Kōjien, Toyko: Iwanami Shoten

Sources

  • Bartle, P. F. W. (1978). "Forty days: the Akan calendar". Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. 48 (1): 80–84. doi:10.2307/1158712.
  • Kalinowski, Marc (2007). "Time, space and orientation: figurative representations of the sexagenary cycle in ancient and medieval China". In Francesca Bray. Graphics and text in the production of technical knowledge in China : the warp and the weft. Leiden: Brill. pp. 137–168. ISBN 978-90-04-16063-7.
  • Smith, Adam (2011). "The Chinese sexagenary cycle and the ritual origins of the calendar". In John Steele. Calendars and years II : astronomy and time in the ancient and medieval world. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 1–37. ISBN 978-1-84217-987-1.

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