The Universal Exposition of Seville (Expo '92) took place from Monday, April 20 to Monday, October 12, 1992 on La Isla de La Cartuja (Cartuja Island), Seville, Spain. The theme for the Expo was "The Age of Discovery" and over 100 countries were represented. The total amount of land used for the Expo was 215 hectares and the total number of visitors was 41,814,571 (as per the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) website ). Although not related, the exposition ran at the same time as the smaller Genoa Expo '92.
Panorama of the pavilions on the Lago de España at Expo'92 Seville.
|Name||Exposición Universal de Sevilla 1992|
|Motto||The era of discoveries|
|Organized by||Manuel Olivencia|
|Venue||Isla de la Cartuja|
|Bidding||March 3, 1982|
|Awarded||December 8, 1982|
|Opening||April 20, 1992|
|Closure||October 12, 1992|
|Previous||Expo '70 in Osaka|
|Next||Expo 2000 in Hanover|
|Previous||Expo 91 in Plovdiv|
|Next||Taejon Expo '93 in Taejon|
|Previous||Expo '90 in Osaka|
|Next||1993 World Horticultural Exposition in Stuttgart|
|Specialized||Genoa Expo '92|
|Horticultural (AIPH)||Floriade 1992|
|Website||Web de Expo´92|
Expo'92 was organized to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus (1492-1992). The exposition was to be jointly held with the City of Chicago, however, due to national, state, and local funding difficulties, Chicago did not accept the offer.
Expo'92 Seville was widely known for its massive site, held at the Isla de la Cartuja, reputed site of reference for Columbus for his voyage to the New World, and required at least several days to visit most of the Pavilions. It was also known for its numerous spectacular gates and bridges, and the diversity of transport within the Expo site from bus to ferry boat, to cable car and monorail. It also gave an impressive architectural tour of the world, with many countries vying for the position of the most inventive or creative Pavilion structure - outstanding amongst these was the Pavilion of Japan - the world's largest wooden structure, the Pavilion of Morocco, a re-creation of a Moroccan Palace-Mansion, and the modernistic cube and sphere of the flagship Spanish Pavilion, to name a few. The most popular pavilions with visitors were those of Spain and Canada.
The event was directed by Manuel Olivencia. "Long-term benefits [to Seville] will include new airports in Seville and Jerez, airport renovation in Malaga, a new port and train station here, new railroad lines, trains and highways, not to mention a completely new infrastructure," Olivencia said. He also saw time as an issue with planning of the event, as well as staff changes. Olivencia prevented the United States from having the largest pavilion: "we as hosts intend to have the largest".
Pavilions at the Expo consisted of the Royal Pavilion and the five thematic Pavilions - Navigation, Discovery, Nature, Environment, and the Fifteenth Century; the flagship Spanish and Andalusian Pavilions at the Lake of Spain; the Spanish Autonomous Regions Pavilions all along the Lake of Spain; over 100 international Pavilions; and numerous Corporate Pavilions.
In particular the Discoveries Pavilion featured an Omnimax Theatre, where a Spanish government commissioned theme film, Eureka!, made by Greg MacGillivray and Jon Boorstin, based on The Discoverers, by Daniel J. Boorstin was presented. The first IMAX film to use a light-weight hand held camera (with a steadicam), it won the principal creative award at the fair.
To offset costs by developing nations, and to allow a 'first-ever' representation by every South American nation, a special monumental structure, the 'Plaza de Americas' was constructed, a large enclosed Plaza-type building in a rustic red colour which also hosted a special Exhibition on the Gold of South America. A 'Plaza de Africa' was also created to allow maximum participation from developing African states.
It was created by German designer Heinz Edelmann (who is best known for his work on the 1968 animated film, Yellow Submarine), who also gave it the name Curro, an Andalusian pet form of Spanish male name Francisco.
It was presented officially in the Plaza de España of Seville, in a big fest of light and sound on the 20 April 1990, two years before the Fair's inauguration.
The hot Sevillian summer was largely abated by a microfilter water air conditioning system throughout the site, principally along the main avenues and streets, under canopied sections both of tensile fabric and greenery. Visitors were sprayed with cool mist in various locations, and could make use of the numerous fountains and wading pools to cool off.
At the conclusion of the Expo, many of the Pavilions were dismantled, and today the site is divided between a research and development park called Cartuja 93 and a theme park called Isla Mágica, the 'Magic Island', which also hosts the popular Pavilion of Spain. The Government of Canada donated the Canadian Pavilion for use as a new trade school.
One can walk throughout Cartuja 93 for free, however, admission to the Isla Mágica requires an entrance fee.
Over one hundred nations were represented at the Expo, making it one of the largest ever hosted.
The 1992 Ibero-American Championships in Athletics (Spanish: V Campeonato Iberoamericano de Atletismo) was the fifth edition of the international athletics competition between Ibero-American nations which was held at the Estadio Olímpico de La Cartuja in Seville, Spain from 17–19 July. A total of 41 track and field events were contested (22 by men and 19 by women) and 14 new championship records were set.The 1992 Barcelona Olympics were to be celebrated a month later and, as a result of timing and location, the Ibero-American Championships attracted a number of top foreign athletes who were preparing for the Olympics. A record high of 462 athletes representing 22 nations participated at the competition. The combination of high participation and performances made the 1992 edition one of the most successful in Ibero-American Championships history. The event fell within the cultural programme of the Seville Expo '92.The Cuban delegation was the most successful: it won all four relay races and all but two of the men's and women's field events. Cuban athletes won 23 of the 41 events and ended the competition with a medal count of 36. Brazil had the second best team performance, with eight event winners from 27 medallists, while the host nation Spain had the next highest totals with three gold medals and 26 medals in total.The marathon races were not included in the programme in 1992 (a permanent change) and were instead held separately in Barcelona that year, with Spaniards Rodrigo Gavela and Ana Isabel Alonso taking the honours. The women's triple jump was contested for the first time and Cuba's Niurka Montalvo did a long and triple jump double. Carmem de Oliveira of Brazil won both the 3000 metres and 10,000 metres races. Nineteen-year-old Iván Pedroso broke the championship record in the men's long jump. Robson da Silva won the men's 200 metres for a record fourth time consecutively.The men's high jump winner Javier Sotomayor became Olympic champion the following August. Among other competitors, Ximena Restrepo and Ana Fidelia Quirot (the winners of the 400 m and 800 m races) went on to win Olympic bronzes at the 1992 Barcelona Games, while the winning Cuban men's relay teams also reached the Olympic podium.Cartuja 93
The Cartuja 93 park is a technological and scientific complex located in Seville, in the Isla de la Cartuja, next to the Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas. It started in 1993 to exploit the showground and buildings inherited from the 1992 Universal Exposition Seville Expo '92.
Cartuja 93 integrates five different development fields: Advanced Technology Enterprises, Public Services of R&D, Scientific Research Centers, Technology Centers, and technical, business and University colleges.
Nowadays, Cartuja´93 is one of the most important technological and scientific parks of south Europe: during 2009 it invoiced 2,194 millions of euros, and employed 14,380 people.Cierva C.6
The Cierva C.6 was the sixth autogyro designed by engineer Juan de la Cierva, and the first one to travel a "major" distance. Cierva, the engineer responsible for the invention of the autogyro, had spent all his funds on the research and creation of his first five prototypes. Therefore, in 1923, he turned to the Cuatro Vientos Aerodynamics Laboratory chief, Commander Emilio Herrera, who succeeded in persuading General Francisco Echagüe, the director of the Military Aviation Aeronautics Department, to take over the second stage in the research and development of Cierva's autogyros.
After several wind tunnel tests, Military Aviation built a Cierva C.6 autogyro in an Avro 504 frame. This machine, piloted by Captain Joaquín Loriga Taboada, made three flights, all of them in March 1924. One of those flights, the eight-minute trip from Cuatro Vientos airfield to Getafe airfield (10.5 km / 7 miles), was considered a giant step for Cierva's autogyros.
The Cierva C.6 prototype was fitted with ailerons mounted on two small wings, also with elevators and a rudder. This complete three-axis control scheme was needed because the pilot had only limited control over the rotor. Only the front propeller was powered, so this aircraft could not hover, and could lose control at low speed. The vertical axis rotor spun freely; the faster the autogyro flew, the faster the rotor would spin and the greater lift it produced.
A replica of the Cierva C.6 was built to be shown in Murcia pavilion in Seville Expo '92 World's Fair. That replica can be now be seen in Museo del Aire (Spain), Cuatro Vientos, Madrid, Spain.Expo '92
Expo '92 is the informal name of the World's Fair held in 1992, which had two sites:
Seville Expo '92 Universal Exposition in Seville, Spain
and the minor Genoa Expo '92 International Exposition in Genoa, Italy, opened on May 15, 1992See also
Expo 92 motorcycle Grand PrixGenoa Expo '92
L'Esposizione Internazionale Specializzata Genova '92 - Colombo '92 (in English International Exhibition Genoa '92 - Colombo '92) or more informally Expo 1992, held in Genoa, Italy from 15 May to 15 August 1992. The theme was "Christopher Columbus, The Ship and the Sea", and the Expo was timed to celebrate the 500 years since the Discovery of America by the Genoese sailor Christopher Columbus. Because of the theme, the expo was also known as Colombiadi. It was a specialized Exhibition with 54 countries represented. Total visitors were 694,800. Although not related, the exposition ran at the same time as Seville Expo '92. The expo's logo was a "500" number with the Genoa's flag; the mascot was a cat dressed like Christopher Columbus called "Gatto Cristoforo"Håkon Wexelsen Freihow
Håkon Wexelsen Freihow (born 6 April 1927) is a Norwegian diplomat.
He graduated in political science from the University of Oslo in 1956, and started working for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the same year. Early diplomatic posts include services at the embassy in Mexico, Spain and the NATO embassy in Belgium. He was an embassy councillor in Belgium from 1971, and a deputy under-secretary of state in 1979. He served as the Norwegian ambassador to Japan from 1981 to 1989 and Portugal from 1992 to 1995. As a side effect of the latter position, he was also the ambassador to Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau from 1993 and Morocco from 1994.From 1989 to 1992 he was a "general commissioner" for the Norwegian contribution to Seville Expo '92. It generated a lot of media coverage in the three years. After the project was finished, it was criticized for a budget deficit of 12 million kr. Freihow had been responsible for the daily affairs of the project, together with Helga Hernes and vice general commissioner Tore Tanum.He is son of Rev. Halvdan Wexelsen Freihow and the father of writer Halfdan Wexel Freihow.Isla Mágica
Isla Mágica (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈizla ˈmaxika], Magic Island) is a theme park in Seville, Spain. The park was constructed on the former grounds of the Expo '92 World's Fair in Seville and opened in 1997. It features a large lake and many other attractions including roller coasters and various other types of rides as well as both live and cinematic shows.
The park's slogan is "Diversión sin límites" which translates as "Fun without Limits".Isla de La Cartuja
Isla de la Cartuja (Island of the Carthusians) is an island in the Guadalquivir River at Seville, Spain.
The island's name derives from the cloistered monastery (Cartuja) located on the site, the Monasterio de Santa María de las Cuevas, where Cristopher Columbus lived when planning the voyage to the west.
The world's fair to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the first Columbian expeditions, the Expo '92 was located here. Before 1992, the island was completely isolated between two Guadalquivir river branches. After the rearrangement of the river channel system on the occasion of Expo '92, it was joined to mainland by a wide isthmus in the South with Triana neighbourhood.
The former island is connected by notable bridges, such as the Calatrava designed Puente del Alamillo and the Puente de la Barqueta. Among other infrastructures and buildings located on the Isla de la Cartuja, the most important is Cartuja 93 park, a research and development complex, employing 15,000 persons. The La Cartuja Stadium, University Schools of Engineering and Communications, the musealized Pavilion of Navigation, the Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo (Andalusian Contemporary Art Center) and the Jardín Americano (American Garden, a public botanic garden) are also located here. Additionally, La Cartuja houses several discothèques, and a number of concert halls and theaters, including the Rocío Jurado auditorium, and the Central Theatre, as well as the amusement park Isla Mágica.
Museums in the area include The Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo (CAAC)) in the former Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas also known as the Monastery of the Cartuja.
The neighbourhood and city district has been the focus of urbanization plans for at least a decade. New residential areas and commercial zones have been developed in the neighborhood, and major plans, such as the skyscraper Cajasol Tower, now known as the Sevilla Tower and completed in 2016.Jens Galschiøt
Jens Galschiøt, (Born 4 June 1954), is a Danish sculptor best known for the Pillar of Shame. Galschiøt moved to Odense in 1973, and in 1985 he opened a 2000 square metre combined foundry, studio, Gallery Galschiøt and sculpture park. In 1990, Galschiøt, Erik Mortensen and Jean Voigt, created the sculpture The Ringwearer's Jacket, which was commissioned by the Clothing Industry’s Union of Denmark for Queen Margrethe II’s 50th birthday. Galschiøt contributed work to the Seville Expo '92.
Jens Galschiot is a very complex artist, who moves around in the main distributing frame as, Installation art , Conceptual art, Happening, Performance art and Street Art with clear references to "social sculptures" (Joseph Beuys), Symbolism and Art Nouveau. Jens Galschiot mainly works with sculptures to fight the injustice in the world, and puts them up in big squares and cities all around the world. The sculptures are mainly made in bronze and paid for with his own money.
In 1997, he created the Pillar of Shame in Hong Kong. This became the start of a series of sculptures with the same name when he created a second in Mexico in 1999 and a third in Brazil in 2000.
In 2008, Galschiøt started The Color Orange campaign against human rights violations in China. He was denied entry to Hong Kong, where he had intended to paint the Pillar of Shame orange.Manuel Olivencia
Manuel Olivencia Ruiz (25 July 1929 – 1 January 2018) was a Spanish lawyer with a career as a professor, economist, and diplomat. He worked at the University of Seville and organized Seville Expo '92.Michael Lake
Michael or Mike Lake is the name of:
Mike Lake (politician) (born 1969), Canadian politician
Mike Lake (footballer) (born 1966), English football (soccer) player
Michael Lake, former member of the Australian alternative rock band Adam Said Galore
Michael Lake, designer of the Jamaica theme of the World's Fair/Universal Exposition, Seville Expo '92
Tin Can Mike Lake, lake in MinnesotaMichael Laucke discography and filmography
Michael Laucke (born 29 January 1947) is a Canadian classical, new flamenco, and flamenco guitarist, and a music industry entrepreneur. This page is dedicated to CDs, films and atonal works written for, dedicated to and recorded by Laucke.
Laucke has broadened the repertoire of the guitar with over 100 transcriptions and twenty-five Canadian composers have written atonal works for him, including a flamenco concierto for guitar with full symphonic orchestra. He has recorded sixteen albums and appeared in six films. His albums have won the Grand Prix du Disque for Best Canadian Recording, the Jules Léger Prize for New Chamber Music and his album Jade Eyes, for CBS records, was reviewed by Guitar and Lute magazine (Hawaii) as the best international classical guitar album of the year. He also created an instructional video series which was critically reviewed by Guitar Player magazine and Frets Magazine.Laucke performed in the first IMAX HD film in 48 frames per second, a Super IMAX film called Momentum, produced by the National Film Board of Canada and co-directed by Colin Low. Its premiere took place in the Canadian pavilion during the Universal Exposition of Seville (Expo '92)—a world's fair. Laucke's CD Flamenco Road reached number one on video charts across Canada for five consecutive weeks. SOCAN's The Music Scene magazine considered Laucke to be one of "five of Canada's best-known soloists". Music critic emeritus, historian, and musician Eric McLean of the Montreal Gazette avowed, "Laucke is the person who has done more for the guitar in this country than anyone else." After 50 years of concert performances, Laucke continues an active career. In 2015, Laucke was nominated for the Order of Canada Lifetime Achievement Award, which is his country's second-highest civilian honour.Momentum (IMAX film)
Momentum was the first film shot and released in the IMAX HD film format, which ran at 48 frames per second, and was also one of the first films to use Ambisonic surround sound. The film was produced for the Canada pavilion at Seville Expo '92 by National Film Board of Canada, by the same creative team that made the 1986 3D IMAX film Transitions for Expo 86. The film takes viewers across Canada, demonstrating the ability of the 48 frame/s process to portray motion on the giant IMAX screen with reduced strobing.Puente de la Barqueta
The Puente de la Barqueta (literally "bridge of the barges", in reference to the formerly present "Barqueta Gate"), officially named Puente Mapfre, is a bridge in the city of Seville (Andalusia, Spain), which spans the Alfonso XII channel of the Guadalquivir river. It constituted one of the main means of access to the Isla de la Cartuja ("Cartuja island").It was built between 1989 and 1992, on the occasion of the Universal Exposition Expo'92, and conceived as the main gate for this.Puente del Alamillo
The Alamillo Bridge is a structure in Seville, Andalucia (Spain), which spans the Canal de Alfonso XIII, allowing access to La Cartuja, a peninsula between the canal and the Guadalquivir River. The bridge was constructed as part of infrastructure improvements for Expo 92, which was held on large banana farms on the island. Construction of the bridge began in 1989 and was completed in 1992 from a design by Santiago Calatrava.
The bridge is of the cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge type and consists of a single pylon, counterbalancing a 200 m span with thirteen lengths of cables. The original intent was to build two symmetrical bridges on either side of the island, but in the end, the Alamillo's singular design has proved most striking.
With no economic constraints on construction, the goal was to create a bridge of symbolic importance.
This bridge represented the soaring aspirations of the city of Seville in preparation for Expo '92, and is visible from the top of La Giralda, the former minaret which is the sentimental roof of the city, linking Seville's past and present. Similar to the Brooklyn Bridge, there is an elevated walkway for pedestrians. In addition to the elevated walkway, the Alamillo Bridge features a lookout at the top of the mast, accessible by an enclosed stairway.
The Puente del Alamillo is the only bridge that is balanced solely through added weights not requiring any type of back anchorage. There are 54 steel piles under the bridge, acting passively under the mast.
Calatrava's Sundial Bridge in Redding, California (2004), the Mesoghion Avenue Footbridge in Athens and Chords Bridge in Jerusalem are similar in design to the Alamillo Bridge.Reincidentes
Reincidentes is a Spanish rock/punk rock band. They started playing in the 1980s as Incidente Local, formed by Manuel Pizarro on drums, Juan Barea on bass, and Fernando Medina on guitar and vocals. They performed their first live concert in 1987 at University of Seville. After became finalists at a local rock contest and joined sax player José Luis Nieto, they recorded their debut album in 1989 released by Discos Trilita. After signing up to Discos Suicidas label and participating in Seville Expo '92, they started touring Central America. Later, Selu left the band and Finito de Badajoz became the new guitarist. In 1997, the band signed up to BMG and shortly thereafter their live album Algazara achieved their first gold record in 1998.Spanish garden
A traditional Spanish garden is a style of garden or designed landscape developed in historic Spain, incorporating principles and elements of garden design from precedents in ancient Persian gardens, Roman gardens and Islamic gardens, and the great Moorish gardens of the Al-Andalus era on the Iberian Peninsula. In the 20th and 21st centuries a 'Spanish Garden,' or new gardens in Spain, have continued, interpreted, abstracted, or departed from these traditional planning and aesthetic motifs.Teatro de la Maestranza
The Teatro de la Maestranza is an opera house located in Seville, Spain.The theatre was conceived to be one of the main cultural venues of the Seville Expo '92, and the first performance took place in 1991, shortly before the inauguration of the Universal Exposition. The theatre was refurbished in 2005.Although the Teatro de la Maestranza is mainly devoted to opera, there are also performances of Zarzuela (Spanish operetta) and other musical performances.The resident orchestra is the Royal Seville Symphony Orchestra (ROSS), and the artistic director is Pedro Halffter. The theatre is the ROSS' main concert venue and the home of the Choir of the Friends' Society of the Maestranza Theatre.On 16 July 1992, during a rehearsal at the Teatro de la Maestranza for a performance by the Opéra national de Paris of Verdi's Otello, a suspended platform which formed part of the scenery collapsed onto the stage, killing a female member of the chorus and injuring a further 41 people, several of them seriously.Treasures of the Underworld
Treasures of the Underworld was an exhibition featured in the New Zealand pavilion of Seville Expo '92.