Seti I

Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I in Greek) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC[4] and 1290 BC to 1279 BC[5] being the most commonly used by scholars today.

The name 'Seti' means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set (also termed "Sutekh" or "Seth"). As with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen "mn-m3‘t-r‘ ", usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means "Established is the Justice of Re."[1] His better known nomen, or birth name, is transliterated as "sty mry-n-ptḥ" or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty, and gave him a reign length of 55 years, though no evidence has ever been found for so long a reign.

Seti I
Sethi I
Image of Seti I from his temple in Abydos
Image of Seti I from his temple in Abydos
Pharaoh
Reign1290–1279 BC (19th Dynasty)
PredecessorRamesses I
SuccessorRamesses II
ConsortTuya
ChildrenTia, Ramesses II, Nebchasetnebet, Henutmire (?)
FatherRamesses I
MotherSitre
Died1279 BC
BurialKV17
MonumentsMortuary Temple of Seti I, Temple at Abydos, Great Hypostyle Hall

Reign

Hieroglyphs from the tomb of Seti I
Hieroglyphs from the tomb of Seti I

After the enormous social upheavals generated by Akhenaten's religious reform, Horemheb, Ramesses I and Seti I's main priority was to re-establish order in the kingdom and to reaffirm Egypt's sovereignty over Canaan and Syria, which had been compromised by the increasing external pressures from the Hittite state. Seti, with energy and determination, confronted the Hittites several times in battle. Without succeeding in destroying the Hittites as a potential danger to Egypt, he reconquered most of the disputed territories for Egypt and generally concluded his military campaigns with victories. The memory of Seti I's military successes was recorded in some large scenes placed on the front of the temple of Amun, situated in Karnak. A funerary temple for Seti was constructed in what is now known as Qurna (Mortuary Temple of Seti I), on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes while a magnificent temple made of white limestone at Abydos featuring exquisite relief scenes was started by Seti, and later completed by his son. His capital was at Memphis. He was considered a great king by his peers, but his fame has been overshadowed since ancient times by that of his son, Ramesses II.

Duration of reign

Basalt fragment. Part of a necklace, in relief, is shown together with a cartouche of Seti I. 19th Dynasty. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Basalt fragment. Part of a necklace, in relief, is shown together with a cartouche of Seti I. 19th Dynasty. From Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London

Seti I's reign length was either 11 or 15 full years. Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen has estimated that it was 15 years, but there are no dates recorded for Seti I after his Year 11 Gebel Barkal stela. As he is otherwise quite well documented in historical records, other scholars suggest that a continuous break in the record for his last four years is unlikely, although it is technically possible simply that no records have been yet discovered.

GD-EG-Abydos001
Temple of Seti I at Abydos

Peter J. Brand noted that the king personally opened new rock quarries at Aswan to build obelisks and colossal statues in his Year 9.[6] This event is commemorated on two rock stelas in Aswan. However, most of Seti's obelisks and statues — such as the Flaminian and Luxor obelisks were only partly finished or decorated by the time of his death since they were completed early under his son's reign based on epigraphic evidence. (they bore the early form of Ramesses II's royal prenomen: 'Usermaatre') Ramesses II used the prenomen 'Usermaatre' to refer to himself in his first year and did not adopt the final form of his royal title--'Usermaatre Setepenre'--until late into his second year.[7]

Brand aptly notes that this evidence calls into question the idea of a 15 Year reign for Seti I and suggests that "Seti died after a ten to eleven year reign" because only two years would have passed between the opening of the Rock Quarries and the partial completion and decoration of these monuments.[8] This explanation conforms better with the evidence of the unfinished state of Seti I's monuments and the fact that Ramesses II had to complete the decorations on "many of his father's unfinished monuments, including the southern half of the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak and portions of his father's temples at Gurnah and Abydos" during the very first Year of his own reign.[9] Critically, Brand notes that the larger of the two Aswan rock stelas states that Seti I "has ordered the commissioning of multitudinous works for the making of very great obelisks and great and wondrous statues (i.e. colossi) in the name of His Majesty, L.P.H. He made great barges for transporting them, and ships crews to match them for ferrying them from the quarry." (KRI 74:12-14)[10] However, despite this promise, Brand stresses that

there are few obelisks and apparently no colossi inscribed for Seti. Ramesses II, however, was able to complete the two obelisks and four seated colossi from Luxor within the first years of his reign, the two obelisks in particular being partly inscribed before he adopted the final form of his prenomen sometime in [his] year two. This state of affairs strongly implies that Seti died after ten to eleven years. Had he ruled on until his fourteenth or fifteenth year, then surely more of the obelisks and colossi he commissioned in [his] year nine would have been completed, in particular those from Luxor. If he in fact died after little more than a decade on the throne, however, then at most two years would have elapsed since the Aswan quarries were opened in year nine, and only a fraction of the great monoliths would have been complete and inscribed at his death, with others just emerging from the quarries so that Ramesses would be able to decorate them shortly after his accession. ... It now seems clear that a long, fourteen-to fifteen-year reign for Seti I can be rejected for lack of evidence. Rather, a tenure of ten or more likely probably eleven, years appears the most likely scenario.[11]

La tombe de Sethi 1er (KV.17) (Vallée des Rois, Thèbes ouest) -5
Astronomical ceiling of Seti I tomb showing the personified representations of stars and constellations

The German Egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath also accepts that Seti I's reign lasted only 11 Years.[12] Seti's highest known date is Year 11, IV Shemu day 12 or 13 on a sandstone stela from Gebel Barkal[11] but he would have briefly survived for 2 to 3 days into his Year 12 before dying based on the date of Ramesses II's rise to power. Seti I's accession date has been determined by Wolfgang Helck to be III Shemu day 24, which is very close to Ramesses II's known accession date of III Shemu day 27.[13]

In 2011, Jacobus van Dijk questioned the "Year 11" stated on the Gebel Barkal stela. This monument is quite badly preserved but still depicts Seti I in erect posture, which is the only case occurring since his Year 4 when he started to be depicted in a stooping posture on his stelae. Furthermore, the glyphs "I ∩" representing the 11 are damaged in the upper part and may just as well be "I I I" instead. Subsequently, Van Dijk proposed that the Gebel Barkal stela is dated to Year 3 of Seti I, and that Seti's highest date more likely is Year 9 as suggested by the wine jars found in his tomb.[14] In a 2012 paper, David Aston analyzed the wine jars and came to the same conclusion since no wine labels higher than his 8th regnal year were found in his tomb.[15]

Seti's military campaigns

Seti I fought a series of wars in western Asia, Libya and Nubia in the first decade of his reign. The main source for Seti’s military activities are his battle scenes on the north exterior wall of the Karnak Hypostyle Hall, along with several royal stelas with inscriptions mentioning battles in Canaan and Nubia.

In his first regnal year, he led his armies along the "Horus Military road," the coastal road that led from the Egyptian city of Tjaru (Zarw/Sile) in the northeast corner of the Egyptian Nile Delta along the northern coast of the Sinai peninsula ending in the town of "Canaan" in the modern Gaza strip. The Ways of Horus consisted of a series of military forts, each with a well, that are depicted in detail in the king’s war scenes on the north wall of the Karnak Hypostyle Hall. While crossing the Sinai, the king’s army fought local Bedouins called the Shasu. In Canaan, he received the tribute of some of the city states he visited. Others, including Beth-Shan and Yenoam, had to be captured but were easily defeated. The attack on Yenoam is illustrated in his war scenes, while other battles, such as the defeat of Beth-Shan, were not shown because the king himself did not participate, sending a division of his army instead. The year one campaign continued into Lebanon where the king received the submission of its chiefs who were compelled to cut down valuable cedar wood themselves as tribute.

At some unknown point in his reign, Seti I defeated Libyan tribesmen who had invaded Egypt's western border. Although defeated, the Libyans would pose an ever-increasing threat to Egypt during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses III. The Egyptian army also put down a minor "rebellion" in Nubia in the 8th year of Seti I. Seti himself did not participate in it although his crown prince, the future Ramesses II, may have.

Capture of Kadesh

The greatest achievement of Seti I's foreign policy was the capture of the Syrian town of Kadesh and neighboring territory of Amurru from the Hittite Empire. Egypt had not held Kadesh since the time of Akhenaten. Tutankhamun and Horemheb had failed to recapture the city from the Hittites. Seti I was successful in defeating a Hittite army that tried to defend the town. He entered the city in triumph together with his son Ramesses II and erected a victory stela at the site. Kadesh, however, soon reverted to Hittite control because the Egyptians did not or could not maintain a permanent military occupation of Kadesh and Amurru which were close to the Hittite homelands. It is unlikely that Seti I made a peace treaty with the Hittites or voluntarily returned Kadesh and Amurru to them but he may have reached an informal understanding with the Hittite king Muwatalli on the precise boundaries of the Egyptian and Hittite Empires. Five years after Seti I's death, however, his son Ramesses II resumed hostilities and made a failed attempt to recapture Kadesh. Kadesh was henceforth effectively held by the Hittites even though Ramesses temporarily occupied the city in his 8th year.

The traditional view of Seti I's wars was that he restored the Egyptian empire after it had been lost in the time of Akhenaten. This was based on the chaotic picture of Egyptian-controlled Syria and Palestine seen in the Amarna letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence from the time of Akhenaten found at Akhenaten’s capital at el-Amarna in Middle Egypt. Recent scholarship, however, indicates that the empire was not lost at this time, except for its northern border provinces of Kadesh and Amurru in Syria and Lebanon. While evidence for the military activities of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun and Horemheb is fragmentary or ambiguous, Seti I has left us an impressive war monument that glorifies his achievement, along with a number of texts, all of which tend to magnify his personal achievements on the battlefield.

Burial

Pharaoh Seti I - His mummy - by Emil Brugsch (1842-1930)
Head of the mummy of Seti I

Seti's well preserved tomb (KV17) was found in 1817 by Giovanni Battista Belzoni, in the Valley of the Kings; it proved to be the longest at 446 feet (136 meters)[16] and deepest of all the New Kingdom royal tombs. It was also the first tomb to feature decorations (including The Legend of the destruction of mankind[17]) on every passageway and chamber with highly refined bas-reliefs and colorful paintings – fragments of which, including a large column depicting Seti I with the goddess Hathor, can be seen in the Museo Archeologico, Florence. This decorative style set a precedent which was followed in full or in part in the tombs of later New Kingdom kings. Seti's mummy itself was discovered by Émil Brugsch on June 6, 1881 in the mummy cache (tomb DB320) at Deir el-Bahri, and has since been kept at the Cairo Museum.[18]

His huge sarcophagus, carved in one piece and intricately decorated on every surface (including the goddess Nut on the interior base), is in Sir John Soane's Museum,[19] Soane bought it for exhibition in his open collection in 1824, when the British Museum refused to pay the £2,000 demanded. On its arrival at the museum, the alabaster was pure white and inlaid with blue copper sulphate. Years of the London climate and pollution have darkened the alabaster to a buff colour and absorbed moisture has caused the hygroscopic inlay material to fall out and disappear completely. A small watercolour nearby records the appearance, as it was.

The tomb also had an entrance to a secret tunnel hidden behind the sarcophagus, which Belzoni's team estimated to be 100 meters (328 feet) long.[20] However, the tunnel was not truly excavated until 1961, when a team led by Sheikh Ali Abdel-Rasoul began digging in hopes of discovering a secret burial chamber containing hidden treasures.[20] The team failed to follow the original passage in their excavations, and had to call a halt due to instabilities in the tunnel;[21] further issues with permits and finances eventually ended Sheikh Ali's dreams of treasure[20], though they were at least able to establish that the passage was over 30 meters (98 feet) longer than the original estimate. In June 2010, a team from Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities led by Dr. Zahi Hawass completed excavation of the tunnel, which had begun again after the discovery in 2007 of a downward-sloping passage beginning approximately 136 meters (446 feet) into the previously excavated tunnel. After uncovering two separate staircases, they found that the tunnel ran for 174 meters (571 feet) in total; unfortunately, the last step seemed to have been abandoned prior to completion and no secret burial chamber was found.[21]

From an examination of Seti's extremely well-preserved mummy, Seti I appears to have been less than forty years old when he died unexpectedly. This is in stark contrast to the situation with Horemheb, Ramesses I and Ramesses II who all lived to an advanced age. The reasons for his relatively early death are uncertain, but there is no evidence of violence on his mummy. His mummy was found decapitated, but this was likely caused after his death by tomb robbers. The Amun priest carefully reattached his head to his body with the use of linen cloths. It has been suggested that he died from a disease which had affected him for years, possibly related to his heart. The latter was found placed in the right part of the body, while the usual practice of the day was to place it in the left part during the mummification process. Opinions vary whether this was a mistake or an attempt to have Seti's heart work better in his afterlife. Seti I's mummy is about 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) tall.[22]

Alleged co-regency of Seti I

Around Year 9 of his reign, Seti appointed his son Ramesses II as the crown prince and his chosen successor, but the evidence for a coregency between the two kings is likely illusory. Peter J. Brand who has published an extensive biography on this pharaoh and his numerous works, stresses in his thesis[23] that relief decorations at various temple sites at Karnak, Qurna and Abydos, which associate Ramesses II with Seti I, were actually carved after Seti's death by Ramesses II himself and, hence, cannot be used as source material to support a co-regency between the two monarchs. In addition, the late William Murnane, who first endorsed the theory of a co-regency between Seti I and Ramesses II,[24] later revised his view of the proposed co-regency and rejected the idea that Ramesses II had begun to count his own regnal years while Seti I was still alive.[25] Finally, Kenneth Kitchen rejects the term co-regency to describe the relationship between Seti I and Ramesses II; he describes the earliest phase of Ramesses II's career as a "prince regency" where the young Ramesses enjoyed all the trappings of royalty including the use of a royal titulary and harem but did not count his regnal years until after his father's death.[26] This is due to the fact that the evidence for a co-regency between the two kings is vague and highly ambiguous. Two important inscriptions from the first decade of Ramesses' reign, namely the Abydos Dedicatory Inscription and the Kuban Stela of Ramesses II, consistently give the latter titles associated with those of a crown prince only, namely the "king's eldest son and hereditary prince" or "child-heir" to the throne "along with some military titles."[27]

Hence, no clear evidence supports the hypothesis that Ramesses II was a co-regent under his father. Brand stresses that:

Ramesses' claim that he was crowned king by Seti, even as a child in his arms [in the Dedicatory Inscription], is highly self-serving and open to question although his description of his role as crown prince is more accurate...The most reliable and concrete portion of this statement is the enumeration of Ramesses' titles as eldest king's son and heir apparent, well attested in sources contemporary with Seti's reign."[28]

In popular culture

  • Seti I was portrayed as the father of Rameses II and adopted uncle of Moses by actor Sir Cedric Hardwicke in the 1956 film The Ten Commandments. In the film, Seti I banishes Moses from Egypt, putting Moses on the path that eventually leads to his return to Egypt and liberation of the slaves after Rameses II ascends the throne. The film establishes the Biblical figure of Bithia (adopted mother of Moses) as Seti's sister.
  • Seti I was portrayed by actor Aharon Ipalé in the films The Mummy and its sequel The Mummy Returns as a pharaoh who is murdered by his high priest Imhotep and his mistress Anck-su-namun. In 2006, Ipalé reprised the role in The Ten Commandments: The Musical.[29] The Mummy also mentions him as the richest of all pharaohs. In "The Mummy Returns", Seti is revealed to be Nefertiri's father.
  • In the 1998 film The Prince of Egypt, Seti (voiced by Patrick Stewart) is Moses' adoptive father and is depicted as having been the pharaoh who in the Biblical Book of Exodus ordered the massacre of the Hebrew boys, in order to prevent a feared rebellion. He is also the main antagonist of the film due to his negative influence on his son, Rameses II.
  • Seti I is portrayed by actor John Turturro in the 2014 film Exodus: Gods and Kings.
  • Seti was produced in Germany as a board game with that title in 1979 by the game company Bütehorn Spiele and won an award for the most attractive game of that year. It was republished in 1986 by the German publisher Hexagames, this time with rules also in French and English.

Though an abstract game, its backstory included the playing of Seti in ancient Egypt; the rules for the 20th century version have been surmised.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1994. p.140
  2. ^ "Sety I Menmaatre (Sethos I) King Sety I". Digital Egypt. UCL. Retrieved 2007-02-15.
  3. ^ "Ancient Egyptian Royalty". Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  4. ^ Michael Rice (1999). Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. Routledge.
  5. ^ J. von Beckerath (1997). Chronologie des Äegyptischen Pharaonischen (in German). Phillip von Zabern. p. 190.
  6. ^ Peter J. Brand, "The 'Lost' Obelisks and Colossi of Seti I", JARCE, 34 (1997), pp. 101-114
  7. ^ Brand, "The 'Lost' Obelisks", pp. 106-107
  8. ^ Brand, "The 'Lost' Obelisks", p. 114
  9. ^ Brand, "The 'Lost' Obelisks", p.107
  10. ^ Brand, "The 'Lost' Obelisks", p.104
  11. ^ a b Peter J. Brand (2000). The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical and Art Historical Analysis. Brill. p. 308.
  12. ^ von Beckerath, Chronologie, p.190
  13. ^ Brand, The Monuments of Seti I, pp. 301-302
  14. ^ J. van Dijk, "The date of the Gebel Barkal Stela of Seti I", in D. Aston, B. Bader, C. Gallorini, P. Nicholson & S. Buckingham (eds), Under the Potter's tree. Studies on Ancient Egypt presented to Janine Bourriau on the Occasion of her 70th Birthday (= Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 204), Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, Leuven - Paris - Walpole, MA 2011, pp. 325–32.
  15. ^ D. A. Aston, "Radiocarbon, Wine Jars and New Kingdom Chronology", Ägypten und Levante 22-23 (2012-13), pp. 289–315.
  16. ^ "Pharaoh Seti I's Tomb Bigger Than Thought". Retrieved 2008-04-19.
  17. ^ "Legend of the Gods". Kegan Paul. 1912. Archived from the original on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2011-10-16. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  18. ^ Rohl 1995, pp. 71-73.
  19. ^ "Egyptian Collection at the Sir John Soane's Museum". Archived from the original on 2010-10-03. Retrieved 2007-02-15.
  20. ^ a b c El-Aref, Nevine (Oct 29, 2009). "Secret Tunnels And Ancient Mysteries". Al-Ahram Weekly (970). Retrieved Jan 31, 2019.
  21. ^ a b Williams, Sean (June 30, 2010). "No Secret Burial At End Of Seti I Tunnel". The Independent. Retrieved Jan 30, 2019.
  22. ^ Christine Hobson, Exploring the World of the Pharaohs: A Complete Guide to Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, (1993), p. 97
  23. ^ Peter J. Brand (1998). "The Monuments of Seti I and their Historical Significance" (PDF). Chapter 4. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2011-02-26. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  24. ^ William Murnane (1977). Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Seminal book on the Egyptian coregency system
  25. ^ W. Murnane (1990). The road to Kadesh: A Historical interpretation of the battle reliefs of King Seti I at Karnak. SAOC. pp. 93 footnote 90.
  26. ^ K.A. Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt, Benben Publication, (1982), pp. 27-30
  27. ^ Brand, The Monuments of Seti I, pp. 315–316
  28. ^ Brand, The Monuments of Seti I, p. 316
  29. ^ "The Ten Commandments: The Musical". IMDB. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
  30. ^ Marks, Toby (Banco de Gaia). Igizeh (album liner notes). Six Degrees Records, 2000.

Bibliography

  • Epigraphic Survey, The Battle Reliefs of King Sety I. Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak vol. 4. (Chicago, 1985).
  • Caverley, Amice "The Temple of King Sethos I at Abydos", (London, Chicago, 1933–58), 4 volumes.
  • Gaballa, Gaballa A. Narrative in Egyptian Art. (Mainz, 1976)
  • Hasel, Michael G., Domination & Resistance: Egyptian Military Activity in the Southern Levant, 1300-1185 BC, (Leiden, 1998). ISBN 90-04-10984-6
  • Kitchen, Kenneth, Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II (Warminster, 1982). ISBN 0-85668-215-2
  • Liverani, Mario Three Amarna Essays, Monographs on the Ancient Near East 1/5 (Malibu, 1979).
  • Murnane, William J. (1990) The Road to Kadesh, Chicago.
  • Rohl, David M. (1995). Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest (illustrated, reprint ed.). Crown Publishers. ISBN 9780517703151.
  • Schulman, Alan R. "Hittites, Helmets & Amarna: Akhenaten’s First Hittite War," Akhenaten Temple Project volume II, (Toronto, 1988), 53-79.
  • Spalinger, Anthony J. "The Northern Wars of Seti I: An Integrative Study." Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 16 (1979). 29–46.
  • Spalinger, Anthony J. "Egyptian-Hittite Relations at the Close of the Amarna Age and Some Notes on Hittite Military Strategy in North Syria," Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar 1 (1979):55-89.

External links

Abydos, Egypt

Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس‎; Sahidic Coptic: Ⲉⲃⲱⲧ Ebōt) is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt. It is located about 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N, near the modern Egyptian towns of el-'Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju (ꜣbḏw or AbDw). The English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers from the unrelated city of Abydos on the Hellespont.

Considered one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt, the sacred city of Abydos was the site of many ancient temples, including Umm el-Qa'ab, a royal necropolis where early pharaohs were entombed. These tombs began to be seen as extremely significant burials and in later times it became desirable to be buried in the area, leading to the growth of the town's importance as a cult site.

Today, Abydos is notable for the memorial temple of Seti I, which contains an inscription from the nineteenth dynasty known to the modern world as the Abydos King List. It is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti I's father, Ramesses I.The Great Temple and most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. Many of the original structures and the artifacts within them are considered irretrievable and lost; many may have been destroyed by the new construction.

Aqen

Aqen was a rarely mentioned Ancient Egyptian deity of the underworld. He is first mentioned in the famous Book of the Dead from Middle Kingdom period. There, he guided the sun god Ra as the "protector of Ra's celestial bark" by "bringing the shenw-ring to his majesty". He was also described as the "mouth of the time", from which the gods and demons pulled the "rope of time", as described in the tomb of king Seti I.

Flaminio Obelisk

The Flaminio Obelisk (Italian: Obelisco Flaminio) is one of the thirteen ancient obelisks in Rome, Italy. It is located in the Piazza del Popolo.

It is 24 m (67 ft) high and with the base and the cross reaches 36.50 m (100 ft).

Great Hypostyle Hall

The Great Hypostyle Hall is located within the Karnak temple complex, in the Precinct of Amon-Re. It is one of the most visited monuments of Ancient Egypt. The structure was built around the 19th Egyptian Dynasty (c. 1290–1224 BC). Its design was initially instituted by Hatshepsut, at the North-west chapel to Amun in the upper terrace of Deir el-Bahri. The name refers to hypostyle architectural pattern.

Helicopter hieroglyphs

Helicopter hieroglyphs refer to an Egyptian hieroglyph carving from the Temple of Seti I at Abydos.

The "helicopter" image is the result of carved stone being re-used over time. The initial carving was made during the reign of Seti I and translates to "He who repulses the nine [enemies of Egypt]". This carving was later filled in with plaster and re-carved during the reign of Ramesses II with the title "He who protects Egypt and overthrows the foreign countries". Over time, the plaster has eroded away, leaving both inscriptions partially visible and creating a palimpsest-like effect of overlapping hieroglyphs.In paleocontact hypothesis circles the hieroglyphics have been interpreted as an out-of-place artifact depicting a helicopter as well as other examples of modern technology. This claim is dismissed by Egyptologists who highlight this pareidolia is partly based on widely distributed retouched images that removed key details from the actual carvings.

KV17

Tomb KV17, located in Egypt's Valley of the Kings and also known by the names "Belzoni's tomb", "the Tomb of Apis", and "the Tomb of Psammis, son of Nechois", is the tomb of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty. It is one of the best decorated tombs in the valley, but now is almost always closed to the public due to damage. As per November 2017 holders of a 1200 EGP entry ticket or of a Luxor Pass can visit this tomb. It was first discovered by Giovanni Battista Belzoni on 16 October 1817. When he first entered the tomb he found the wall paintings in excellent condition with the paint on the walls still looking fresh and some of the artists paints and brushes still on the floor.The longest tomb in the valley, at 137.19 meters (450.10 feet), it contains very well preserved reliefs in all but two of its eleven chambers and side rooms. One of the back chambers is decorated with the Ritual of the Opening of the Mouth, which stated that the mummy's eating and drinking organs were properly functioning. Believing in the need for these functions in the afterlife, this was a very important ritual. A very long tunnel (corridor K) leads away deep into the mountainside from beneath the location where the sarcophagus stood in the burial chamber. Recently, the excavation of this corridor was completed. It turned out that there was no 'secret burial chamber' or any other kind of chamber at the end. Work on the corridor was just abandoned upon the burial of Seti.

The sarcophagus removed on behalf of the British consul Henry Salt is since 1824 in the Sir John Soane's Museum in London. KV17 was damaged when Jean-François Champollion, translator of the Rosetta Stone, removed a wall panel of 2.26 x 1.05 m (7.41 x 3.44 ft) in a corridor with mirror-image scenes during his 1828-29 expedition. Other elements were removed by his companion Rossellini or the German expedition of 1845. The scenes are now in the collections of the Louvre, the museums of Florence and Berlin.

The tomb became known as the "Apis tomb" because when Giovanni Belzoni found the tomb a mummified bull was found in a side room off the burial hall.

A number of walls in the tomb have collapsed or cracked due to excavations in the late 1950s and early 1960s causing significant changes in the moisture levels in the surrounding rocks.

Kadesh (Syria)

Kadesh (also Qadesh) was an ancient city of the Levant, located on or near the headwaters or a ford of the Orontes River. It was of some importance during the Late Bronze Age, and is mentioned in the Amarna letters. It was the site of the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittite and Egyptian empires in the 13th century BC.

Litany of Re

The Litany of Re (or more fully "Book of Praying to Re in the West, Praying to the United One in the West") is an important Ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom. Like many funerary texts, it was written on the inside of the tomb for reference by the deceased. Unlike other funerary texts, however, it was reserved only for pharaohs or very favored nobility.

It is a two-part composition that in the first part invokes the sun, Ra, in 75 different forms. The second part is a series of prayers in which the pharaoh assumes parts of nature and deities, but mostly of the sun god. Developed in the Eighteenth Dynasty, it also praises the king for his union with the sun god, as well as other deities. The text was used in the entrance of most tombs from the time of Seti I, though we first know of it from the burial chamber of Thutmose III and the tomb of his vizier Useramun.

Litany of the Eye of Horus

The Litany of the Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian text in the style of a funerary text, (offering formula). A small portion of the text is contained in a limestone wall relief fragment of painted hieroglyphs located in the British Museum. (no. EA 5610)

The painted hieroglyphs for the relief segment in the tomb of the 19th dynasty pharaoh Seti I are also carved in low raised relief.

Luxor Obelisk

The Luxor Obelisk (French: Obélisque de Louxor) is a 23 metres (75 ft) high Ancient Egyptian obelisk standing at the centre of the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France. It was originally located at the entrance to Luxor Temple, in Egypt. The Luxor Obelisk was classified as a historical monument in 1936.

This site was the location of the metro station, Concorde.

Mortuary Temple of Seti I

The Mortuary Temple of Seti I is the memorial temple (or mortuary temple) of the New Kingdom Pharaoh Seti I. It is located in the Theban Necropolis in Upper Egypt, across the River Nile from the modern city of Luxor (Thebes). The edifice is situated near the town of Qurna.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX, alternatively 19th Dynasty or Dynasty 19) is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Osireion

The Osirion or Osireon is an ancient Egyptian temple. It is located at Abydos, to the rear of the temple of Seti I.

It is an integral part of Seti I's funeral complex and is built to resemble an 18th Dynasty Valley of the Kings tomb. It was discovered by archaeologists Flinders Petrie and Margaret Murray who were excavating the site in 1902–3. The Osirion was originally built at a considerably lower level than the foundations of the temple of Seti, who ruled from 1294–1279 BC. While there is disagreement as to its true age, Peter Brand says it "can be dated confidently to Seti's reign".Strabo, who visited the Osireion in the first century BC, said that it was constructed by Ismandes, or Mandes (Amenemhet III), the same builder as the Labyrinth at Hawara.

Above this city [Ptolemaïs] lies Abydus, where is the Memnonium, a royal building, which is a remarkable structure built of solid stone, and of the same workmanship as that which I ascribed to the Labyrinth, though not multiplex; and also a fountain which lies at a great depth, so that one descends to it down vaulted galleries made of monoliths of surprising size and workmanship.

Ramesses I

Menpehtyre Ramesses I (or Ramses) was the founding pharaoh of ancient Egypt's 19th dynasty. The dates for his short reign are not completely known but the time-line of late 1292–1290 BC is frequently cited as well as 1295–1294 BC. While Ramesses I was the founder of the 19th dynasty, in reality his brief reign marked the transition between the reign of Horemheb who had stabilized Egypt in the late 18th dynasty and the rule of the powerful pharaohs of this dynasty, in particular his son Seti I and grandson Ramesses II, who would bring Egypt up to new heights of imperial power.

Ramesses II

Ramesses II (variously also spelt Rameses or Ramses (Ancient Egyptian: rꜥ-ms-sw "Ra is the one who bore him" > Koinē Greek: Ῥαμέσσης, romanized: Rhaméssēs); c. 1303 BC – July or August 1213; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom. His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor".

He is known as Ozymandias in Greek sources (Koinē Greek: Οσυμανδύας Osymandýas), from the first part of Ramesses' regnal name, Usermaatre Setepenre, "The Maat of Ra is powerful, Chosen of Ra".Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples, and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. At fourteen, he was appointed prince regent by his father, Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 66 years and 2 months; most Egyptologists today believe he assumed the throne on May 31, 1279 BC, based on his known accession date of III Season of the Harvest, day 27. Estimates of his age at death vary; 90 or 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented thirteen or fourteen Sed festivals (the first held after 30 years of a pharaoh's reign, and then, every three years) during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings; his body was later moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881, and is now on display in the Egyptian Museum.

The Mummy (1999 film)

The Mummy is a 1999 American action horror film written and directed by Stephen Sommers. It is a remake loosely based on the 1932 film of the same name and stars Brendan Fraser, Rachel Weisz, John Hannah, and Kevin J. O'Connor, with Arnold Vosloo in the titular role as the reanimated mummy. The film follows adventurer Rick O'Connell as he travels to Hamunaptra, the city of the dead, with a librarian and her brother, where they accidentally awaken Imhotep, a cursed high priest from the reign of the pharaoh Seti I.

Filming began in Marrakech, Morocco, on May 4, 1998, and lasted seventeen weeks. The crew endured dehydration, sandstorms, and snakes during work in the Sahara desert. The film was the first to use the natural crater formation Gara Medouar, which was later used in the Bond movie Spectre (2015) and others. Industrial Light & Magic provided visual effects and blended film and computer-generated imagery to create the mummy. Jerry Goldsmith provided the orchestral score.

The Mummy opened on May 7, 1999, and grossed $43 million in 3,210 theaters during its opening weekend in the United States. The film went on to gross $416 million worldwide. The great success at the box office led to two sequels—The Mummy Returns (2001) and The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor (2008)—as well as an animated series and the prequel/spin-off film The Scorpion King (2002).

The Mummy Returns

The Mummy Returns is a 2001 American action adventure film written and directed by Stephen Sommers, starring Brendan Fraser, Rachel Weisz, John Hannah, Arnold Vosloo, Oded Fehr, Patricia Velásquez, and Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson. The film is a sequel to the 1999 film The Mummy. It was distributed by Universal Pictures.

The Mummy Returns inspired the 2002 prequel/spin-off film The Scorpion King which is set 5,000 years prior and whose eponymous character, played by Dwayne Johnson (The Rock), was introduced in this film. The film was a commercial success despite mixed reviews. It was followed by the 2008 sequel The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor.

Tuya (queen)

Tuya (also called Tuy or Mut-Tuya) was the wife of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt and mother of Tia, Ramesses II, Nebchasetnebet, and perhaps Henutmire.

She was the daughter of Raia who was a military officer based on his title of Lieutenant of the chariotry. Tuya's daughter Tia was married to a high-ranking civil servant who was also called Tia.As the mother of Ramesses II, she enjoyed a privileged existence of a respected king's mother and was allowed the opportunity to correspond with the Hittite royal court after the Year 21 peace treaty between Egypt and Hatti put in place by Ramesses II.

Valley of the Queens

The Valley of the Queens (Arabic: وادي الملكات‎ Wādī al Malekāt) is a site in Egypt, where the wives of pharaohs were buried in ancient times. It was known then as Ta-Set-Neferu, meaning "the place of beauty".

Using the limits described by Christian Leblanc, the Valley of the Queens consists of the main wadi, which contains most of the tombs, along with the Valley of Prince Ahmose, the Valley of the Rope, the Valley of the Three Pits, and the Valley of the Dolmen. The main wadi contains 91 tombs and the subsidiary valleys add another 19 tombs. The burials in the subsidiary valleys all date to the 18th Dynasty.The reason for choosing the Valley of the Queens as a burial site is not known. The close proximity to the workers' village of Deir el-Medina and the Valley of the Kings may have been a factor. Another consideration could have been the existence of a sacred grotto dedicated to Hathor at the entrance of the Valley. This grotto may have been associated with rejuvenation of the dead.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.