The Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) is Mexico's national weather organization. It collects data and issues forecasts, advisories, and warnings for the entire country.
|Servicio Meteorológico Nacional|
|Parent department||Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources|
|Parent agency||National Water Commission|
A presidential decree founded El Observatorio Meteorológico y Astrónomico de México (The Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory of Mexico) on February 6, 1877 as part of the Geographic Exploring of the National Territory commission. By 1880, it became an independent agency located at Chapultepec Castle, then encompassing six observatories. In 1901, the Servicio Meteorologia Nacional was formed with 31 sections for each state and 18 independent observatories which reported back to the central office in Tacubaya via telegraph. It joined the World Meteorological Organization in 1947. By 1980, the organization included 72 observatories, of which eight launched weather balloons and radiosondes, and five radars serviced the country. In 1989, it became a subagency of the General de Administracion del Agua.
The agency issues forecasts out to five days in the future, hydrological bulletins including recent rainfall, agricultural bulletins, and run their own regional forecast model based upon the MM5. They also issue warnings for intense storms, strong northerlies in the Gulf of Mexico, snowfall, and excessive rainfall. Surface analyses for the region are drawn by the Tropical Prediction Center which are incorporated onto the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center analysis and then linked to by SMN on their website. They issue their own tropical cyclone reports that describe the impact of storms on Mexico, which are then relayed to the U.S. National Hurricane Center and the World Meteorological Organization.
The 1998 Pacific hurricane season was a below average Pacific hurricane season. It had six major hurricanes, which was well above average. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific and on June 1 in the central Pacific, and ended on November 30; these dates conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in that region. The first tropical cyclone developed on June 11, about ten days later than the normal start of the season. The final storm of the year, Hurricane Madeline, dissipated on October 20. Storm activity in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's warning zone was low, with just one tropical depression observed in the region. Two tropical cyclones from the eastern Pacific (Darby and Estelle) also entered the central Pacific; the former did so as a hurricane.
The most notable tropical cyclone of the year was Hurricane Isis, which killed fourteen people when it made landfall on southern Baja California Sur and coastal Sinaloa in Mexico. Isis caused considerable damage in the nation while destroying more than 700 homes and damaging dozens of cars. It later produced sporadic rainfall in the southwestern United States, leading to some traffic accidents. In addition to Isis, Tropical Storm Javier moved ashore the coast of Jalisco in Mexico; the nation experienced indirect effects from four other storms, all of which remained offshore. One tropical cyclone, Hurricane Lester, affected Central America, causing two deaths in Guatemala. Three tropical cyclones brought light to moderate rainfall to the southwestern United States, and one hurricane produced rough surf along the coast of California. Hurricane Madeline contributed to a deadly and costly flood in southern Texas.Bureau of Meteorology
The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. It was established in 1906 under the Meteorology Act, and brought together the state meteorological services that existed before then. The states officially transferred their weather recording responsibilities to the Bureau of Meteorology on 1 January 1908.Climate of Mexico
The climate of Mexico is highly varied. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences lower temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. The north of the country generally receives less precipitation than the south.Effects of Hurricane Dean in Mexico
The effects of Hurricane Dean in Mexico were more severe than anywhere else in the storm's path. Hurricane Dean, the most intense storm of the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season, formed in the Atlantic Ocean west of Cape Verde on August 14, 2007. The Cape Verde-type hurricane sped through the Caribbean Sea, rapidly intensifying before making landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. Accurate forecasts of the storm's location and intensity enabled thorough preparations; nevertheless when the massive storm made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula as a catastrophic Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale it damaged thousands of homes.
Weakening as it crossed the peninsula, Dean emerged into the Bay of Campeche and re-strengthened before making a second landfall in Veracruz. Although the second landfall did not bring winds as intense as the first, it brought more rainfall and caused devastating landslides in the states of Veracruz and Tabasco. Between the two landfalls, Dean caused MXN$2 billion (US$184 million; 2007 dollars) of damage and killed 13 people.Hurricane Adrian (2011)
Hurricane Adrian was an intense, albeit short-lived early-season category 4 hurricane that took part during the 2011 Pacific hurricane season. Adrian originated from an area of disturbed weather which had developed during the course of early June, off the Pacific coast of Mexico. On June 7, it acquired a sufficiently organized structure with deep convection to be classified as a tropical cyclone, and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated it as Tropical Depression One-E, the first one of 2011. It further strengthened to be upgraded into a tropical storm later that day. Adrian moved rather slowly; briefly recurving northward after being caught in the steering winds. After steady intensification, it was upgraded into a hurricane on June 9. The storm subsequently entered a phase of rapid intensification, developing a distinct eye with good outflow in all quadrants. Followed by this period of rapid intensification, it obtained sustained winds fast enough to be considered a major hurricane and reached its peak intensity as a category 4 hurricane that evening.
Adrian weakened throughout June 10 to June 12 as increased vertical wind shear persisted around its vicinity. It was downgraded into a tropical storm on June 11 as the once organized structure deteriorated, further so into a tropical depression the following day. Adrian subsequently decayed into a remnant low-pressure area with very little convection, all dislocated to the northeast of the low-level center. Degeneration continued and Adrian disintegrated into a swirl of low clouds, drifting due to the northwest. Since Adrian stayed at sea, its effects along coastlines were limited. Damages, if any, remains unknown, and no fatalities were reported as a result of the Adrian.Hurricane Dolly (2008)
Hurricane Dolly was a strong tropical cyclone that made landfall in Deep South Texas in July 2008. Dolly was the fourth tropical cyclone and second hurricane to form during the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. Dolly developed on July 20 from an area of disturbed weather in association with a strong tropical wave. It was named at the same time it formed—skipping the tropical depression phase entirely as the precursor wave already had tropical storm-force winds. This marked the earliest time a fourth named cyclone formed since the 2005 season, which used to hold the record until it was surpassed by the 2012 season and then by the 2016 season.The tropical storm made landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula near Cancún early on July 21, leaving at least 17 people dead in Guatemala, and one person in the Yucatán. It moved into the Gulf of Mexico and strengthened to become a Category 2 hurricane, before weakening some and making landfall as a Category 1 storm on July 23 in South Padre Island, Texas, with 85 mph (140 km/h) winds. The storm caused 212,000 customers to lose power in Texas as well as 125,000 in Tamaulipas, and dropped estimated amounts of over 16 inches (410 mm) of rain in isolated areas . Rip currents throughout the entire Gulf Coast resulted in one person drowning off the Florida Panhandle. There were no deaths as a result of Hurricane Dolly in Texas; it did, however, cause an estimated $1.3 billion in damage. An additional $300 million in damage occurred in Mexico. The remnants of the storm caused two deaths in New Mexico.Hurricane Gordon (2000)
Hurricane Gordon caused minor damage in the Eastern United States. The seventh named storm and fourth hurricane of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season, Gordon developed in the extreme western Caribbean Sea from a tropical wave on September 14. Shortly thereafter, the depression moved inland over the Yucatán Peninsula and later emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on September 15. The depression began to quickly organize, and by early on September 16, it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Gordon. After becoming a tropical storm, Gordon continued to intensify and was reclassified as a hurricane about 24 hours later; eventually, the storm peaked as an 80 mph (130 km/h) Category 1 hurricane. However, southwesterly upper-level winds caused Gordon to weaken as it approached land, and it was downgraded to a tropical storm by late on September 17. At 0300 UTC on September 18, Gordon made landfall near Cedar Key, Florida as a strong tropical storm. After moving inland, Gordon rapidly weakened and had deteriorated to tropical depression status by nine hours later. Later that day, Gordon merged with a frontal boundary while centered over Georgia.
Prior to becoming a tropical cyclone, the precursor tropical wave caused severe flooding in Guatemala, killing 23 people. While crossing the Yucatán Peninsula, the storm dropped heavy rainfall, with a few areas experiencing more than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation. Similarly, portions of western Cuba reported rainfall totals reaching 10 inches (250 mm). Gordon brought moderate storm surge to the west coast of Florida; one person drowned due to rough seas. Numerous trees and power lines sustained damage, which left 120,000 people without electricity. In the Tampa Bay area and Cedar Key, minor roof damage to houses and street flooding occurred. In addition, two tornadoes caused some damage in Cape Coral and Ponce Inlet. Elsewhere, affects were minimal, though two indirect fatalities occurred in North Carolina, and minor flooding was reported in South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. Overall, Gordon caused $10.8 million (2000 USD) in damage and 26 fatalities.Hurricane Lane (2006)
Hurricane Lane was the thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season. The strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall in Mexico since Hurricane Kenna of 2002, Lane developed on September 13 from a tropical wave to the south of Mexico. It moved northwestward, parallel to the coast of Mexico, and steadily intensified in an area conducive to further strengthening. After turning to the northeast, Lane attained peak winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), and made landfall in the state of Sinaloa at peak strength. It rapidly weakened and dissipated on September 17, and later brought precipitation to southern part of the U.S. state of Texas.
Throughout its path, Lane resulted in four deaths and moderate damage. Damage was heaviest in Sinaloa, where the hurricane made landfall, including reports of severe crop damage. Across Mexico, an estimated 4,320 homes were affected by the hurricane, with about 248,000 people affected. Moderate flooding was reported in Acapulco, resulting in mudslides in some areas. Damage across the country totaled $2.2 billion (2006 MXN), or $206 million (2006 USD, or $218 million in 2010 USD).Hurricane Nora (1997)
Hurricane Nora was only the third tropical cyclone on record to reach Arizona as a tropical storm, and one of the rare cyclones to make landfall in Baja California. Nora was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone and seventh hurricane of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. The September storm formed off the Pacific coast of Mexico, and aided by waters warmed by the 1997–98 El Niño event, eventually peaked at Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale.
Nora took an unusual path, making landfall twice as a hurricane in the Baja California Peninsula. Weakening quickly after landfall, its remnants lashed the Southwestern United States with tropical-storm-force winds, torrential rain and flooding. The storm was blamed for two direct casualties in Mexico, as well as substantial beach erosion on the Mexican coast, flash flooding in Baja California, and record precipitation in Arizona. It persisted far inland and eventually dissipated near the Arizona–Nevada border.Hurricane Nora (2003)
Hurricane Nora was the final of five tropical cyclones to make landfall in the 2003 Pacific hurricane season. The fourteenth named storm and fifth hurricane of the season, Nora developed on October 1 from a tropical wave. It slowly intensified as it moved northwestward, intensifying into a hurricane on October 4. That day, Nora rapidly intensified to its peak of 100 mph (160 km/h), but the larger Hurricane Olaf to its east prevented further strengthening. An approaching trough turned the rapidly weakening system to the east toward Mexico. By October 7, it was downgraded to a tropical depression. Although it no longer met the criteria for being a tropical cyclone, the National Hurricane Center continued issuing advisories due to the cyclone's proximity with land. Nora unexpectedly redeveloped an area of thunderstorms and moved ashore near Mazatlán, Sinaloa on October 9 before dissipating. The depression dropped locally heavy rainfall in western Mexico, but there were no reports of damage. Later, the remnants combined with Olaf and an upper-level low to produce flooding and a tornado in central Texas.Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (Colombia)
The Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies (Spanish: Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales), also known by its acronym in Spanish, IDEAM, is a government agency of the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development of Colombia. It is in charge of producing and managing the scientific and technical information on the environment of Colombia, and its territorial composition. The IDEAM also serves as the Colombian institute of meteorology and studies the climate of Colombia.
The IDEAM is charged with obtaining, analyzing, processing and divulging information pertaining to hydrology, hydrogeology, meteorology, and geography of biophysical, geomorphological aspects, and the vegetation and land area to improve the use and care of the biophysical resources or the country.It was created on December 22, 1993, when Congress passed Law 99 of 1993, replacing the Colombian Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology, and Land Management (Instituto Colombiano de Hidrología, Meteorología y Adecuación de Tierras - HIMAT), and it officially started functioning on March 1, 1995.List of Baja California Peninsula hurricanes
The list of Baja California Peninsula hurricanes includes all of the tropical cyclones that impacted the Baja California Peninsula, which includes the Mexican states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. In the period 1951 to 2000, Baja California had one hurricane and three tropical storms make landfall. During the same period, Baja California Sur witnessed nineteen hurricanes and thirty tropical storms. During the same time period, the region got hit by two major hurricanes (Hurricane Oliva in 1967 and Hurricane Kiko in 1989). The most expensive storm in the area is Hurricane Odile in 2014 and the deadliest is Hurricane Liza in 1976.Meteorological history of Hurricane Wilma
Hurricane Wilma was the most intense tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin on record, with an atmospheric pressure of 882 hPa (mbar, 26.05 inHg). Wilma's destructive journey began in the second week of October 2005. A large area of disturbed weather developed across much of the Caribbean Sea and gradually organized to the southeast of Jamaica. By late on October 15, the system was sufficiently organized for the National Hurricane Center to designate it as Tropical Depression Twenty-Four.
The depression drifted southwestward, and under favorable conditions, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Wilma on October 17. Initially, development was slow due to its large size, though convection steadily organized. From October 18, and through the following day, Wilma underwent explosive deepening over the open waters of the Caribbean; in a 30-hour period, the system's central atmospheric pressure dropped from 982 mbar (29.00 inHg) to the record-low value of 882 mbar (26.05 inHg), while the winds increased to 185 mph (298 km/h). At its peak intensity, the eye of Wilma was about 2.3 miles (3.7 km) in diameter, the smallest known eye in an Atlantic hurricane. After the inner eye dissipated due to an eyewall replacement cycle, Hurricane Wilma weakened to Category 4 status, and on October 21, it made landfall on Cozumel and on the Mexican mainland with winds of about 150 mph (240 km/h).
Wilma weakened over the Yucatán Peninsula, and reached the southern Gulf of Mexico before accelerating northeastward. Despite increasing amounts of vertical wind shear, the hurricane re-strengthened to hit Cape Romano, Florida, as a major hurricane. Wilma weakened as it quickly crossed the state, and entered the Atlantic Ocean near Jupiter, Florida. The hurricane again re-intensified before cold air and wind shear penetrated the inner core of convection. By October 26, it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, and the next day, the remnants of Wilma were absorbed by another extratropical storm over Atlantic Canada.SMN
SMN may refer to:
Lemhi County Airport, IATA airport code of SMN
Netherland Line (Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland)
Seri Maharaja Mangku Negara, a Malaysian honour
S-m-n theorem, a computability theorem regarding programming languages
Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Mexico), Mexico's National Meteorological Service
Servicio Militar Nacional, Mexico's National Military Service
Société Métallurgique de Normandie, a steel mill in Caen, Normandy, France
Satellite Music Networks, a US radio network
Sony Music Nashville, a US record company
Survival of motor neuron protein, a protein complexTropical Depression Two-E (2006)
Tropical Depression Two-E was a short-lived tropical cyclone that brought heavy rainfall to southwestern Mexico. It was the only cyclone during the month in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, forming on June 3 from a tropical wave. The depression initially moved northeastward, threatening the Mexican states of Michoacán and Guerrero with a potential of it attaining tropical storm status. It remained a tropical depression, weakening due to land interaction and wind shear, and on June 5 it dissipated just off the coast. Rainfall from the depression peaked at 19.1 inches (486 mm) in Acapulco, which resulted in mudslides and flooding. A total of 42 houses were flooded, and 72 people were forced to leave their homes due to the storm; no deaths were reported.World Meteorological Organization
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 192 Member States and Territories. Its current Secretary-General is Petteri Taalas and the President of the World Meteorological Congress, its supreme body, is David Grimes. The Organization is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
It followed on from the International Meteorological Organization, founded in 1873, a non-governmental organization. Reforms of status and structure were proposed from the 1930s, culminating in the World Meteorological Convention signed on 11 October 1947 which came into force on 23 March 1950. It formally became the World Meteorological Organization on 17 March 1951, and was designated as a specialized agency of the United Nations.
National meteorological organizations