Serge Haroche

Serge Haroche (born 11 September 1944)[1] is a French physicist who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics jointly with David J. Wineland for "ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems", a study of the particle of light, the photon.[2][3][4] This and his other works developed laser spectroscopy. Since 2001, Haroche is a Professor at the Collège de France and holds the Chair of Quantum Physics. In 1971 he defended his doctoral thesis in physics at the University of Paris VI, his research has been conducted under the direction of Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.[5]

Serge Haroche
Serge Haroche 1 2012
Serge Haroche in Stockholm (2012)
Born11 September 1944 (age 74)
Alma materÉcole normale supérieure
Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University (Ph.D.)
AwardsCNRS Gold medal (2009)
Nobel Prize for Physics (2012)
Scientific career
InstitutionsPierre-and-Marie-Curie University
Yale University
Collège de France
Doctoral advisorClaude Cohen-Tannoudji

Personal life and family

Serge Haroche was born in Casablanca, Morocco, to Albert Haroche (1920–1998), from a Moroccan Jewish family, and Valentine Haroche, née Roubleva (1921–1998) a teacher who was born in Odessa to a Jewish family of physicians who relocated to Morocco in the early 1920s. His father, a lawyer trained in Rabat, was one of seven children born to a family of teachers (Isaac and Esther Haroche) who worked at the École de l’Alliance israélite (AIU).[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Both paternal grandparents of Serge Haroche had been AIU students in their respective hometowns of Marrakesh and Tétouan (the school which Esther Azerad attended in Tétouan had been founded in 1862; it was the first school of the AIU network).[13]

Haroche left Morocco and settled in France in 1956, at the end of the French protectorate treaty.

He currently lives in Paris; he is married to the sociologist Claudine Haroche (née Zeligson), also descending from the Russian Jewish émigrés family, with two children (aged 40 and 43).[14][15][16] He is the uncle of French singer–songwriter and actor Raphaël Haroche (known as Raphaël, his stage name).[17]


Haroche worked in the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) as a research scientist from 1967 to 1975, and spent a year (1972–1973) as a visiting post-doc in Stanford University, in Arthur Leonard Schawlow's team. In 1975 he moved to a professor position at Paris VI University. At the same time he taught in other institutions, in particular at the École polytechnique (1973–1984), MIT (1980)[1], Harvard University (1981), Yale University (1984–1993) and Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (2000). He was head of the Physics department at the École normale supérieure from 1994 to 2000.

Since 2001, Haroche has been a Professor at the Collège de France and holds the Chair of Quantum Physics. He is a member of the Société Française de Physique, the European Physical society and a fellow and member of the American Physical Society.

In September 2012, Serge Haroche was elected by his peers to the position of administrator of the Collège de France.

On 9 October 2012 Haroche was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, together with the American physicist David Wineland, for their work regarding measurement and manipulation of individual quantum systems.


Serge Haroche (Nobel in Physics 2012) in Stockholm, June 2016
Serge Haroche (who won Nobel Prize in Physics in 2012) visited Stockholm, June 2016, as a member of the Wallenberg Foundation Scientific Advisory Board.

Haroche works primarily in atomic physics and quantum optics.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24] He is principally known for proving quantum decoherence by experimental observation, while working with colleagues at the École normale supérieure in Paris in 1996.

After a PhD dissertation on dressed atoms under the supervision of Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (himself a Nobel Prize recipient) from 1967 to 1971, he developed new methods for laser spectroscopy, based on the study of quantum beats and superradiance. He then moved on to Rydberg atoms, giant atomic states particularly sensitive to microwaves, which makes them well adapted for studying the interactions between light and matter. He showed that such atoms, coupled to a superconducting cavity containing a few photons, are well-suited to the testing of quantum decoherence and to the realization of quantum logic operations necessary for the treatment of quantum information.


Serge Haroche after his Nobel Lecture


  • Serge Haroche, Jean-Michel Raimond, Exploring the quantum. Atoms, cavities and photons, Oxford University Press, 2006.


  1. ^ a b "Serge Haroche – Biographical". Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Press release – Particle control in a quantum world". Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  3. ^ Haroche, S. (2012). "The secrets of my prizewinning research". Nature. 490 (7420): 311. Bibcode:2012Natur.490..311H. doi:10.1038/490311a. PMID 23075943.
  4. ^ Phillips, William Daniel (2013). "Profile of David Wineland and Serge Haroche, 2012 Nobel Laureates in Physics". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (18): 7110–1. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.7110P. doi:10.1073/pnas.1221825110. PMC 3645510. PMID 23584018.
  5. ^ "Page non trouvée". (in French). Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  6. ^ "French Jew, American researcher share Nobel Prize in Physics". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  7. ^ Laskier, Michael M. (1983). The Alliance Israélite Universelle and the Jewish Communities of Morocco: 1862–1962. New York: SUNY Press. p. 192.
  8. ^ "MAROC LXXV E 2.25". Europeana. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  9. ^ "French Jew wins 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics along with American colleague". European Jewish Press. 2012-10-09. Archived from the original on 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  10. ^ Jean-Louis Beaucarnot (2012-10-09). "Origines et généalogie de Serge Haroche, prix Nobel de physique". La Revue française de Généalogie. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  11. ^ alexandra j. wall (2004-06-04). "New Jewish Agenda founder Roublev dies at 69". Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  12. ^ Columbia University School of Public Health and Administrative Medicine, class of 1958 (p. 30): Alexander Roublev, M.D. (Serge Haroche's grandfather)
  13. ^ "Genealogy, career and personal life of Serge Haroche". Numericana. 2017-06-14. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  14. ^ Claudine Haroche (Zeligson). Retrieved on 2013-01-27.
  15. ^ "Marriage of Louis Zeligson and Raymonde Sandberg, Serge Haroche's in-laws". Le Figaro. 1936. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  16. ^ " - myplick Resources and Information". Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  17. ^ "Die Nobelpreisträger 2012". Handelsblatt. 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
  18. ^ Haroche, S. (2012). "The secrets of my prizewinning research". Nature. 490 (7420): 311. Bibcode:2012Natur.490..311H. doi:10.1038/490311a. PMID 23075943.
  19. ^ Sayrin, C. M.; Dotsenko, I.; Zhou, X.; Peaudecerf, B.; Rybarczyk, T. O.; Gleyzes, S. B.; Rouchon, P.; Mirrahimi, M.; Amini, H.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S. (2011). "Real-time quantum feedback prepares and stabilizes photon number states". Nature. 477 (7362): 73–77. arXiv:1107.4027. Bibcode:2011Natur.477...73S. doi:10.1038/nature10376. PMID 21886159.
  20. ^ Deléglise, S.; Dotsenko, I.; Sayrin, C. M.; Bernu, J.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S. (2008). "Reconstruction of non-classical cavity field states with snapshots of their decoherence". Nature. 455 (7212): 510–514. arXiv:0809.1064. Bibcode:2008Natur.455..510D. doi:10.1038/nature07288. PMID 18818653.
  21. ^ Guerlin, C.; Bernu, J.; Deléglise, S.; Sayrin, C. M.; Gleyzes, S. B.; Kuhr, S.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S. (2007). "Progressive field-state collapse and quantum non-demolition photon counting". Nature. 448 (7156): 889–893. arXiv:0707.3880. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..889G. doi:10.1038/nature06057. PMID 17713527.
  22. ^ Gleyzes, S. B.; Kuhr, S.; Guerlin, C.; Bernu, J.; Deléglise, S.; Busk Hoff, U.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S. (2007). "Quantum jumps of light recording the birth and death of a photon in a cavity". Nature. 446 (7133): 297–300. arXiv:quant-ph/0612031. Bibcode:2007Natur.446..297G. doi:10.1038/nature05589. PMID 17361178.
  23. ^ Bertet, P.; Osnaghi, S.; Rauschenbeutel, A.; Nogues, G.; Auffeves, A.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S. (2001). "A complementarity experiment with an interferometer at the quantum-classical boundary". Nature. 411 (6834): 166–170. Bibcode:2001Natur.411..166B. doi:10.1038/35075517. PMID 11346787.
  24. ^ Jean-Michel Raimond; Serge Haroche (2006). Exploring the quantum: atoms, cavities and photons. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850914-6.
  25. ^ "Franklin Laureate Database – Albert A. Michelson Medal Laureates". Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on April 6, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
  26. ^ "Charles Hard Townes Award". Optical Society. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
Preceded by
Saul Perlmutter
Adam G. Riess
Brian P. Schmidt
Nobel Prize in Physics laureate
With: David J. Wineland
Succeeded by
François Englert
Peter Higgs
CNRS Gold medal

The CNRS Gold medal is the highest scientific research award in France. It is presented annually by the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and was first awarded in 1954. Moreover, Silver Medals are given to researchers for originality, quality, and importance, while Bronze Medals recognize initial fruitful results.

Cavity quantum electrodynamics

Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) is the study of the interaction between light confined in a reflective cavity and atoms or other particles, under conditions where the quantum nature of light photons is significant. It could in principle be used to construct a quantum computer.

The case of a single 2-level atom in the cavity is mathematically described by the Jaynes-Cummings model, and undergoes vacuum Rabi oscillations , that is between an excited atom and n-1 photons, and a ground state atom and n photons.

If the cavity is in resonance with the atomic transition, a half-cycle of oscillation starting with no photons coherently swaps the atom qubit's state onto the cavity field's, , and can be repeated to swap it back again; this could be used as a single photon source (starting with an excited atom), or as an interface between an atom or trapped ion quantum computer and optical quantum communication.

Other interaction durations create entanglement between the atom and cavity field; for example, a quarter-cycle on resonance starting from gives the maximally entangled state (a Bell state) . This can in principle be used as a quantum computer, mathematically equivalent to a trapped ion quantum computer with cavity photons replacing phonons.

Charles Hard Townes Award

The Charles Hard Townes Award of The Optical Society is a prize for Quantum Electronics — that is to say, the physics of lasers. Awarded annually since 1981, it is named after the Nobel Prize-winning laser pioneer Charles H. Townes.Former winners include Nobel Prize laureates John L. Hall, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Serge Haroche, Arthur Ashkin, and Gérard Mourou.

David J. Wineland

David Jeffrey Wineland (born February 24, 1944) is an American Nobel-laureate physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) physics laboratory. His work has included advances in optics, specifically laser cooling trapped ions and using ions for quantum computing operations. He was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Serge Haroche, for "ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems".

Dirac Medal

The Dirac Medal is the name of four awards in the field of theoretical physics, computational chemistry, and mathematics, awarded by different organizations, named in honour of Professor Paul Dirac, one of the great theoretical physicists of the 20th century.

Einstein Prize for Laser Science

The Einstein Prize for Laser Science was a recognition awarded by the former Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics and sponsored by the Eastman Kodak Company. The prize, awarded in the 1988–1999 period, consisted of a 3-inch brass medal including Einstein's image and a depiction of a two-level transition including the A and B coefficients. Recipients of the prize include:

Serge Haroche, 1988

Herbert Walther, 1988

H. Jeff Kimble, 1989

Richart E. Slusher, 1989

Carlton M. Caves, 1990

Daniel Frank Walls, 1990

S. E. Harris, 1991

L. M. Narducci, 1991

John L. Hall, 1992

Willis E. Lamb, 1992

Raymond Chiao, 1993

Norman F. Ramsey, 1993

G. S. Agarwal, 1994

Theodor W. Hänsch, 1995

Carl E. Wieman, 1995

David J. Wineland, 1996

Peter L. Knight, 1996

Paul Corkum, 1999In retrospect, the prize was mainly awarded for significant contributions in quantum optics. Two recipients of the Einstein Prize for Laser Science were already Nobel laureates in physics (W. E. Lamb and N. F. Ramsey) and five other recipients went on to win the Nobel Prize in Physics (S. Haroche, J. L. Hall, T. W. Hänsch, C. E. Wieman, and D. J. Wineland). Presentation of the prize was done at the Lasers'88 to Lasers'99 conferences.

Note: the official name of these conferences was The International Conference on Lasers and Applications, Lasers 'XX.

Gay-Lussac Humboldt Prize

The Gay-Lussac Humboldt Prize is German - French science prize. It was created in 1981 by French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt based on the recommendation of the German and French research ministries.

The prize is awarded to researchers that have made outstanding contributions in science, especially in cooperation between the two countries. Four to five German and French scientists from all research disciplines are honored with this award every year. The prize was originally named after Alexander von Humboldt and carries since 1997 the double name Gay-Lussac-Humboldt.


Haroche is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Raphaël Haroche (born 1975), French singer-songwriter and actor

Serge Haroche (born 1944), French physicist

IEEE Honorary Membership

IEEE Honorary Membership is an honorary type of membership of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), that is given for life to an individual. It is awarded by the board of directors of IEEE to people 'who have rendered meritorious service to humanity in [the] IEEE's designated fields of interest' while not being members of IEEE.

This membership provides all the rights and privileges of a normal IEEE membership, except the right to hold an IEEE office.

The recipients of this grade will receive a certificate, an 'Honorary Member' pin and a crystal sculpture.In a given year, if the IEEE Medal of Honor recipient is not an IEEE member, he/she will be automatically recommended to the IEEE Board of Directors for IEEE Honorary Membership.

International Conference of Laser Applications

The International Conference on Lasers and Applications, Lasers 'XX was an annual conference organized by

the former Society for Optical and Quantum Electronics. The conference, known in short by Lasers 'XX (where XX refers to the particular year), was held at various locations in The United States from 1978 to 2000.

The emphasis of these conferences was laser development and in particular the development of high-power lasers. The papers delivered at these conferences were published in a series of hard-bound volumes known as Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers 'XX (ISSN 0190-4132) by STS Press. In total, more than 20 book proceedings were published.

A particular feature of these conferences was the organization of high-power panel discussions on timely topics of interest, such as the role of lasers in directed energy and the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), during the presidency of Ronald Reagan. Noted physicists, including Edward Teller and Arthur Kantrowitz, participated in these discussions. Towards the end of the Cold War this conference enjoyed the participation of numerous Soviet laser physicists, including prominent authors such as Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolay Basov.

A partial list of plenary and invited speakers include (in chronological order):

Amnon Yariv,

John Madey,

Charles K. Rhodes,

Kumar Patel,

Robert Alfano,

Marlan Scully,

Colin Webb,

Charles A. Brau,

David C. Hanna,

Serge Haroche,

Julian Schwinger,

William T. Silfvast,

S. E. Harris,

L. M. Narducci,

Willis Lamb,

Norman F. Ramsey,

F. J. Duarte,

Theodor W. Hänsch,

Carl E. Wieman,

David J. Wineland,

Anthony E. Siegman,Besides the emphasis on high-power lasers and panel discussions on this subject, many scientific disclosures made at these conferences went on to contribute to, or to inspire, further research in a variety of fields including:

X-ray laser sources

Tunable solid state lasers

Tm:YAG lasers

Rare gas halide lasers

Solid-state organic lasers

Laser dye photostability

Laser crystals

Lasing without population inversion

Electromagnetically induced transparency

Optics communications

Digital imaging


Faraday filters

Fiber fusesFrom Lasers '88 to Lasers '96, the prestigious Einstein Prize for Laser Science was awarded.

Jean-Michel Raimond

Jean-Michel Raimond (born (1955-12-11)11 December 1955 in Orléans) is a French physicist working in the field of quantum mechanics.

Kastler-Brossel Laboratory

The Kastler–Brossel Laboratory, located in Paris, France, is a research laboratory specializing in fundamental physics of quantum systems. Founded in 1951 by Alfred Kastler and Jean Brossel, it is a joint research unit operated by the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), the École normale supérieure, the Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University and the Collège de France.

List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.

List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation

This list of Nobel laureates by university affiliation shows comprehensively the university affiliations of individual winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences since 1901 (as of 2018, 904 individual laureates in total). This list considers Nobel laureates as equal individuals and does not consider their various prize shares or if they received the prize more than once. It does not include Nobel-winning organizations (as of 2018, 24 such organizations) or any individuals affiliated with those organizations. In this list, universities are presented in descending order starting from those affiliated with most Nobel Prize winners.

The university affiliations in this list are all official academic affiliations such as degree programs and official academic employment, including academic positions at research organizations formally affiliated with or operated by a university. Non-academic affiliations such as advisory committee and administrative staff are generally excluded. The official academic affiliations fall into three categories: 1) Alumni (graduate & attendee), 2) Long-term academic staff, and 3) Short-term academic staff. Graduates are defined as those who hold Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate or equivalent degrees from a university, while attendees are those who formally enrolled in degree programs at a university but did not complete the programs; thus, honorary degrees, posthumous degrees, summer attendees, exchange students and auditing students are excluded. The category of "Long-term academic staff" consists of tenure/tenure-track and equivalent academic positions, while that of "Short-term academic staff" consists of lecturers (without tenure), postdoctoral researchers, visiting professors/scholars (visitors), and equivalent academic positions. At any university, the specific academic title solely determines the type of affiliation, regardless of the actual time the position was held by a laureate.

Further explanations on "visitors" under "Short-term academic staff" are now presented. 1) All informal/personal visits are excluded from the list; 2) all employment-based visiting positions, which carry teaching/research duties, are included as affiliations in the list; 3) as for award/honor-based visiting positions, this list takes a conservative view and includes the positions as affiliations only if the laureates were required to assume employment-level duty (teaching/research) or the laureates specifically classified the visiting positions as "appointment" or similar in reliable sources such as their curriculum vitae. To be specific, some award/honor-based visiting positions such as the "Morris Loeb Short-term Lectureship" at Harvard University and Guggenheim Fellowship are awards/honors/recognition without employment-level duty; attending meetings and giving public lectures, talks or non-curricular seminars are not employment-level duties. On the other hand, positive award/honor-based examples include "Morris Loeb Long-term Lectureship" at Harvard University (teaching duty), "Visiting Miller Professorship" at UC Berkeley (research duty) and Fulbright Scholarship. Finally, summer visitors are generally excluded from the list unless summer work yielded significant end products such as research publications and components of Nobel-winning work, since summer terms are not part of formal academic years; the same rule applies to extension schools of universities.

In this list, the number following a person's name is the year he/she received the prize; in particular, a number with asterisk (*) means the person received the award while he/she was working at the institution (including emeritus staff) containing that asterisk. A name underlined implies that this person has been listed for a same institution previously (i.e., multiple affiliations). If a person had multiple positions under one category, only the position with highest rank is listed.

Different universities adopt different criteria—from generous to conservative—for claiming Nobel affiliates, which may not encompass all types of affiliations in this list. The University Counts (Univ Counts), which are published by the universities themselves, are thus shown as comparison below. Finally, this list, together with the List of Fields Medal winners by university affiliation and the List of Turing Award laureates by university affiliation, presents the university affiliation of people who have won highest honors in fundamental academic disciplines.

Abbreviation: UG (Undergraduate), Grad (Graduate), Med (Medical), Atten (Attendee), Prof (Professor), Assoc (Associate), Asst (Assistant), Adj (Adjunct), PSD (Postdoc), Lect (Lecturer), Inst (Instructor), Res (Research/Researcher), Sci (Scientist), Fel (Fellow), Sch (Scholar), Vis (Visiting/Visitor).

Program ConCiencia

The Program ConCiencia is an initiative of science communication created in 2006 by the Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and the Consorcio de Santiago. It is based on visits to Santiago de Compostela of Nobel Laureates or analogous laureates in mathematics (Fields Medal, Abel Prize) and computer science (Turing Award). Since 2008 this program organizes also the Fonseca Prize of science communication, which so far has been awarded to Stephen W. Hawking, James Lovelock, Sir David Attenborough and Sir Roger Penrose.

Quantum optics

Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels. In other words it is quantum mechanics applied to photons or light.

Ramsey interferometry

Ramsey interferometry, also known as Ramsey–Bordé interferometry or the separated oscillating fields method,

is a form of atom interferometry that uses the phenomenon of magnetic resonance to measure transition frequencies of atoms. It was developed in 1949 by Norman Ramsey, who built upon the ideas of his mentor, Isidor Isaac Rabi, who initially developed a technique for measuring atomic transition frequencies. Ramsey's method is used today in atomic clocks and in the S.I. definition of the second. Most precision atomic measurements, such as modern atom interferometers and quantum logic gates, have a Ramsey-type configuration.

A modern interferometer using a Ramsey configuration was developed by French physicist Christian Bordé and is known as the Ramsey–Bordé interferometer. Bordé's main idea was to use atomic recoil to create a beam splitter of different geometries for an atom-wave. The Ramsey–Bordé interferometer specifically uses two pairs of counter-propagating interaction waves, and another method named the "photon-echo" uses two co-propagating pairs of interaction waves.


Techfest is the annual science and technology festival of Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. It also refers to the independent body of students who organize this event along with many other social initiatives and outreach programs around the year. Techfest is known for hosting a variety of events that include competitions, exhibitions, lectures as well as workshops.

Started in 1998 with the aim of providing a platform for the Indian student community to develop and showcase their technical prowess, it has now grown into Asia's Largest Science and Technology Festival with a footfall of 1.75 lakhs in its latest edition. The activities culminate in a grand three-day festival event in the campus of IIT Bombay which attracts people from all over the World, including students, academia, corporates and the general public.

Tomassoni awards

Tomassoni awards was the overarching name of two prizes for outstanding achievements in physics, the Premio Felice Pietro Chisesi e Caterina Tomassoni and the Premio Caterina Tomassoni e Felice Pietro Chisesi. The two prizes were awarded every one or two years from 2001 to 2011 by the Sapienza University of Rome. The prize values were €80.000 and €40.000, respectively.

In 2013 the awards were unified into a single prize, to be known as the Caterina Tomassoni and Felice Pietro Chisesi Prize. The combined prize will be presented each year on April, at the Sapienza University of Rome with a value of Euro 50,000.

2012 Nobel Prize laureates
Physiology or Medicine
Economic Sciences

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.