Sequel

A sequel is a literature, film, theatre, television, music or video game that continues the story of, or expands upon, some earlier work. In the common context of a narrative work of fiction, a sequel portrays events set in the same fictional universe as an earlier work, usually chronologically following the events of that work.[1]

In many cases, the sequel continues elements of the original story, often with the same characters and settings. A sequel can lead to a series, in which key elements appear repeatedly. Although the difference between more than one sequel and a series is somewhat arbitrary, it is clear that some media franchises have enough sequels to become a series, whether originally planned as such or not.

Sequels are attractive to creators and to publishers because there is less risk involved in returning to a story with known popularity rather than developing new and untested characters and settings. Audiences are sometimes eager for more stories about popular characters or settings, making the production of sequels financially appealing.[2]

In movies, sequels are very common. There are many name formats for sequels. Sometimes, they either have unrelated titles or have a letter added on the end. More commonly, they have numbers at the end or have added words on the end. It is also common for a sequel to have a variation of the original title or have a subtitle. In the 1930s, many musical sequels had the year included in the title. Sometimes sequels are released with different titles in different countries, because of the perceived brand recognition. There are several ways that subsequent works can be related to the chronology of the original. Various neologisms have been coined to describe them.

Classifications

The most common approach is for the events of the second work to directly follow the events of the first one, either resolving remaining plot threads or introducing a new conflict to drive the events of the second story. This is often called a direct sequel.

A legacy sequel is a work which follows the continuity of the original work(s), but takes place further along the timeline, often focusing on new characters with the original ones still present in the plot.[3][4][5] Legacy sequels are sometimes also direct sequels that ignore previous installments entirely, effectively retconning preceding events. An example of this is Halloween (2018) which is a direct sequel to Halloween (1978). When a work is set in the same universe, yet has very little if any narrative connection to its predecessor, and can stand on its own without a thorough understanding of the franchise, the work can be referred to as a standalone sequel. 2 Fast 2 Furious, Mad Max: Fury Road, Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle, Son of the Mask and Cars 3 are examples of stand-alone movie sequels.[6][7] A sequel to the first sequel might be referred to as a "third installment", a threequel, or a second sequel.[8][9]

An installment that is made following the original product, that portrays events prior those of the original work is called a prequel.[10] Parallels or paraquels are stories that run at the same point in time within the timeline of the story.[11][12][13]

Midquel is a term used to refer to works which take place between events. There are different types of "midquels",[14] such as interquels. Interquels are stories that take place in between two preceding stories and serve as a sequel to one, and a prequel to another simultaneously. For example, if 'movie C' is an interquel of 'movies A' and 'B', the events of 'movie C' take place after the events of 'movie A', but before the events of 'movie B'. Rogue One of the Star Wars Saga is an "interquel" since it takes place between Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith and Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope. Intraquels on the other hand are works which focus on events between the events of the same film. Beauty and the Beast: The Enchanted Christmas which takes place during Christmas, between the beginning and the end of Beauty and the Beast. This is an example "intraquel".[15][16][17]

History

In The Afterlife of a Character, David Brewer describes a reader's desire to "see more", or to know what happens next in the narrative after it has ended.[18] This capacity for expansive curiosity is certainly not restricted to a particular era in human history. Indeed, we can point to Homer's Odyssey as a sequel to the Iliad in the sense that it expands upon plot and character elements established in the first text. That both the Odyssey and the Iliad were written in the 8th century B.C.E. and are traditionally held to represent the first extant works of western literature lends credence to the ubiquity of sequels in literary history. The Judeo-Christian Bible is also a common referent in that sense; many of the works included in the Hebrew Scriptures can be classified as sequels in that they continue and expand on a very general narrative that is pre-established by previous books in the same collection. In addition, the development of an official canon allows for the distinction between official and unofficial sequels; in this context, apocrypha might be considered an early form of informal sequel literature. Sequels, then, become an important facet of Western literature throughout history. The medieval genre of Romance, in particular, contains massive networks of prequel and sequel literature.

Sequels of the novel

The origin of the sequel as we think of in the 21st century developed from the novella and romance traditions in a slow process that culminated towards the end of the 17th century.

The substantial shift towards a rapidly growing print culture and the rise of the market system by the early 18th-century meant that an author's merit and livelihood became increasingly linked to the number of copies of a work he or she could sell. This shift from a text-based to an author-centered reading culture[19] led to the "professionalization" of the author — that is, the development of a "sense of identity based on a marketable skill and on supplying to a defined public a specialized service it was demanding".[20] In one sense, then, sequels became a means to profit further from previous work that had already obtained some measure of commercial success.[21] As the establishment of a readership became increasingly important to the economic viability of authorship, sequels offered a means to establish a recurring economic outlet.

In addition to serving economic profit, the sequel was also used as a method to strengthen an author's claim to his literary property. With weak copyright laws and unscrupulous booksellers willing to sell whatever they could, in some cases the only way to prove ownership of a text was to produce another like it. Sequels in this sense are rather limited in scope, as the authors are focused on producing "more of the same" to defend their "literary paternity".[22] As is true throughout history, sequels to novels provided an opportunity for authors to interact with a readership. This became especially important in the economy of the 18th century novel, in which authors often maintained readership by drawing readers back with the promise of more of what they liked from the original. With sequels, therefore, came the implicit division of readers by authors into the categories of "desirable" and "undesirable"—that is, those that interpret the text in a way unsanctioned by the author. Only after having achieved a significant reader base would an author feel free to alienate or ignore the "undesirable" readers.[22]

This concept of "undesirable" readers extends to unofficial sequels with the 18th century novel. While in certain historical contexts unofficial sequels were actually the norm (for an example, see Arthurian literature), with the emphasis on the author function that arises in conjunction with the novel many authors began to see these kinds of unauthorized extensions as being in direct conflict with authorial authority. In the matter of Don Quixote (an early novel, perhaps better classified as a satirical romance), for example, Cervantes disapproved of Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda's use of his characters in Second Volume of the Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha, an unauthorized sequel. In response, Cervantes very firmly kills the protagonist at the end of the Second Part to discourage any more such creative liberties.[23] Another example is Samuel Richardson, an 18th-century author who responded particularly strongly against the appropriation of his material by unauthorized third parties. Richardson was extremely vocal in his disapproval of the way the protagonist of his novel Pamela was repeatedly incorporated into unauthorized sequels featuring particularly lewd plots. The most famous of these is Henry Fielding's parody, entitled Shamela.[24]

In To Renew Their Former Acquaintance: Print, Gender, and Some Eighteenth Century Sequels, Betty Schellenberg theorizes that whereas for male writers in the 18th century sequels often served as "models of paternity and property", for women writers these models were more likely to be seen as transgressive. Instead, the recurring readership created by sequels let female writers function within the model of "familiar acquaintances reunited to enjoy the mutual pleasures of conversation", and made their writing an "activity within a private, non-economic sphere." Ironically, through this created perception women writers were able to break into the economic sphere and "enhance their professional status" through authorship.[22]

Dissociated from the motives of profit and therefore unrestrained by the need for continuity felt by male writers, Schellenberg argues that female-authored sequel fiction tended to have a much broader scope. He says that women writers showed an "innovative freedom" that male writers rejected to "protect their patrimony." For example, Sarah Fielding's Adventures of David Simple and its sequels Familiar Letters between the Principal Characters in David Simple and David Simple, Volume the Last are extremely innovative and cover almost the entire range of popular narrative styles of the 18th century.[25]

Video games

As software-development costs increased,[26][27] sequels have become increasingly important for the video-game industry, as they provide a way to resell a product, reusing code and graphics.

Media franchises

In some cases, the characters or the settings of an original film or video game become so valuable that they develop into a media franchise. Generally, a whole series of sequels is made, along with merchandising. Multiple sequels are often planned well in advance and actors and directors may sign extended contracts to ensure their participation. This can extend into a franchise's initial production's plot to provide story material to develop for sequels called sequel hooks.

Box office

Movie sequels do not always do as well at the box office as the original, but they tend to do better than non-sequels, according to a study in the July 2008 issue of the Journal of Business Research. The shorter the period between releases, the better the sequel does at the box office. Sequels also show a faster drop in weekly revenues relative to non-sequels.[28]

Media shifting

Sequels are most often produced in the same medium as the previous work (e.g. a film sequel is usually a sequel to another film). Producing sequels to a work in another medium has recently become common, especially when the new medium is less costly or time-consuming to produce.

A sequel to a popular but discontinued television series may be produced in another medium, thereby bypassing whatever factors led to the series cancellation.

Some highly popular movies and television series have inspired the production of multiple novel sequels, sometimes rivaling or even dwarfing the volume of works in the original medium.

For example, the 1956 novel The Hundred and One Dalmatians, its 1961 animated adaptation and that film's 1996 live-action remake each have a sequel unrelated to the other sequels: respectively The Starlight Barking (1967), 101 Dalmatians II: Patch's London Adventure (2003, direct to video) and 102 Dalmatians (2000).

Unofficial sequels

Sometimes sequels are produced without the consent of the creator of the original work. These may be dubbed unofficial, informal, unauthorized, or illegitimate sequels. In some cases, the work is in the public domain, and there is no legal obstacle to producing sequels. An example would are books and films serving as sequels to the book The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, which is in the public domain (as opposed to its 1939 film adaptation). In other cases, the original creator or their heirs may assert copyrights and challenge the creators of the sequels.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (March 12, 1991). "Sequels of Hit Films Now Often Loser". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-08-09.
  2. ^ Rosen, David (June 15, 2011). "Creative Bankruptcy". Call It Like I See It.
  3. ^ https://filmschoolrejects.com/6-films-that-are-waiting-for-their-legacy-sequels-5851c0912005/
  4. ^ https://www.flickeringmyth.com/2016/12/do-legacy-sequels-fail-if-they-pander-to-the-fans/
  5. ^ https://www.denofgeek.com/us/movies/creed/251731/creed-2-loses-sylvester-stallone-as-director
  6. ^ Michael Andre-Driussi (1 August 2008). Lexicon Urthus, Second Edition. Sirius Fiction. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-9642795-1-3. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  7. ^ "Five Films Show How 2008 Redefined the Movies". Cinematic Slant. 14 August 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  8. ^ John Kenneth Muir (2013). Horror Films of the 1980s. McFarland. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-7864-5501-0. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  9. ^ Soanes, Stevenson (2008). Concise Oxford English dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 1501. ISBN 0199548412.
  10. ^ Silverblatt, Art (2007). Genre Studies in Mass Media: A Handbook. M. E. Sharpe. p. 211. ISBN 9780765616708. Prequels focus on the action that took place before the original narrative. For instance, in Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith the audience learns about how Darth Vader originally became a villain. A prequel assumes that the audience is familiar with the original—the audience must rework the narrative so that they can understand how the prequel leads up to the beginning of the original.
  11. ^ Oxford English Dictionary "parallel".
  12. ^ "What is a Paraquel?", The Storyteller's Scroll; Sunday, March 27, 2011
  13. ^ Mark J.P. Wolf, Building Imaginary Worlds: The Theory and History of Subcreation; 210
  14. ^ Mark J.P. Wolf; The Routledge Companion to Imaginary Worlds
  15. ^ William D. Crump, How the Movies Saved Christmas: 228 Rescues from Clausnappers, Sleigh Crashes, Lost Presents and Holiday Disasters; 19
  16. ^ Jack Zipes; The Enchanted Screen: The Unknown History of Fairy-Tale Films
  17. ^ Mark J.P. Wolf; The Routledge Companion to Imaginary Worlds
  18. ^ Brewer, David A. The Afterlife of Character, 1726-1825. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Print.
  19. ^ Schellenberg, Betty A. (2007). "The Measured Lines of the Copyist: Sequels, Reviews, and the Discourse of Authorship in England, 1749-1800". In Taylor Bourdeau, Debra; Kraft, Elizabeth (eds.). On Second Thought: Updating the Eighteenth-century Text. University of Delaware Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780874139754. Retrieved 2014-11-14. Of particular interest to me in this essay is the shift from a text-based to an author-based culture, accompanied by a developing elevation of the original author over the imitative one.
  20. ^ To Renew Their Former Acquaintance': Print, Gender, and Some Eighteenth-Century Sequels by Betty A. Schellenberg from Part Two: Reflections on the Sequel
  21. ^ Budra, Paul, and Betty Schellenberg. "Introduction." Part Two Reflections on the Sequel (Theory / Culture). New York: University of Toronto, 1998. Print.
  22. ^ a b c Schellenberg, Betty A. "To Renew Their Former Acquaintance': Print, Gender, and Some Eighteenth-Century Sequels." Part Two Reflections on the Sequel (Theory / Culture). Ed. Paul Budra and Betty A. Schellenberg. New York: University of Toronto, 1998. Print.
  23. ^ Riley, E.C. "Three Versions of Don Quixote". The Modern Language Review 68.4 (173). JSTOR. Web.
  24. ^ Brewer, David A. The Afterlife of Character, 1726-1825. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2005. Print.
  25. ^ Michie, Allen. "Far From Simple: Sarah Fielding's Familiar Letters and the Limits of the Eighteenth-Century Sequel" On Second Thought, Edited by Bourdeau and Kraft. Cranbury, NJ: Rosemont, 2007. Print.
  26. ^ Takatsuki, Yo (December 27, 2007). "Cost headache for game developers". BBC News.
  27. ^ Mattas, Jeff. "Video Game Development Costs Continue to Rise in Face of Nearly 12K Layoffs Since '08". Shacknews.
  28. ^ Newswise: Researchers Investigate Box Office Impact Vs. Original Movie Retrieved on June 19, 2008.

Further reading

  • Carolyn Jess-Cooke, Constantine Verevis (2010), Second takes: critical approaches to the film sequel, SUNY Press, ISBN 9781438430294

External links

Blade Runner 2049

Blade Runner 2049 is a 2017 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Denis Villeneuve and written by Hampton Fancher and Michael Green. A sequel to the 1982 film Blade Runner, the film stars Ryan Gosling and Harrison Ford, with Ana de Armas, Sylvia Hoeks, Robin Wright, Mackenzie Davis, Carla Juri, Lennie James, Dave Bautista and Jared Leto in supporting roles. Ford and Edward James Olmos reprise their roles from the original film. Set thirty years after the first film, Gosling plays K, a Nexus-9 replicant "blade runner" who uncovers a secret that threatens to destabilize society and the course of civilization.

Principal photography took place between July and November 2016, mainly in Budapest, Hungary. Blade Runner 2049 premiered in Los Angeles on October 3, 2017 and was released in the United States in 2D, 3D and IMAX on October 6, 2017. The film was praised by critics for its performances, direction, cinematography, musical score, production design, visual effects, and faithfulness to the original film. It is considered by many critics and audiences to be one of the best films of 2017. Despite positive reviews, the film was a box office disappointment, grossing $259 million worldwide.Blade Runner 2049 received five nominations at the 90th Academy Awards, winning Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects. It received eight nominations at the 71st British Academy Film Awards, including Best Director, winning Best Cinematography and Best Special Visual Effects.

Deadpool 2

Deadpool 2 is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Deadpool. It is the eleventh installment in the X-Men film series, and is the sequel to 2016's Deadpool. The film was directed by David Leitch from a screenplay by Rhett Reese, Paul Wernick, and Ryan Reynolds, who stars in the title role alongside Josh Brolin, Morena Baccarin, Julian Dennison, Zazie Beetz, T.J. Miller, Brianna Hildebrand, and Jack Kesy. In the film, Deadpool forms the X-Force to protect a young mutant from the time-traveling soldier Cable.

Plans for a sequel to Deadpool began before the original film's release, and were confirmed in February 2016. Though the original creative team of Reynolds, Reese, Wernick, and director Tim Miller were quickly set to return for the second film, Miller left the project in October 2016 due to creative differences with Reynolds and was soon replaced by Leitch. An extensive casting search took place to fill the role of Cable, with Brolin ultimately cast. Filming took place in British Columbia from June to October 2017. The film is dedicated to stuntwoman Joi "SJ" Harris, who died in a motorcycle accident during filming.

Deadpool 2 was released in the United States on May 18, 2018 by 20th Century Fox. It grossed over $785 million worldwide, becoming the ninth-highest-grossing film of 2018, as well as the highest-grossing R-rated film of all time and the highest-grossing X-Men film of all time. The film received positive reviews from critics, who praised its humor, acting (particularly Reynolds, Brolin, and Beetz's performances), story, and action sequences. Some critics considered it better than the first film, although others criticized its tone and script. A PG-13 rated version of the film, titled Once Upon a Deadpool, released on December 12, 2018, to mixed reviews.

Frozen 2

Frozen 2 (stylized as Frozen II) is an upcoming American computer-animated musical fantasy film in production by Walt Disney Animation Studios, and is the sequel to Frozen (2013). The film features the returning voices of Idina Menzel, Kristen Bell, Jonathan Groff, Josh Gad, and Santino Fontana along with the new voices of Evan Rachel Wood and Sterling K. Brown. It is scheduled to be released by Walt Disney Pictures on November 22, 2019, in 2D, 3D, and IMAX 3D formats.

Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2

Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 is a 2017 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team Guardians of the Galaxy, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is the sequel to 2014's Guardians of the Galaxy and the fifteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). Written and directed by James Gunn, the film stars an ensemble cast featuring Chris Pratt, Zoe Saldana, Dave Bautista, Vin Diesel, Bradley Cooper, Michael Rooker, Karen Gillan, Pom Klementieff, Elizabeth Debicki, Chris Sullivan, Sean Gunn, Sylvester Stallone, and Kurt Russell. In Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, the Guardians travel throughout the cosmos as they help Peter Quill learn more about his mysterious parentage.

The film was officially announced at the 2014 San Diego Comic-Con International before the theatrical release of the first film, along with James Gunn's return from the first film, with the title of the sequel revealed a year later in June 2015. Principal photography began in February 2016 at Pinewood Atlanta Studios in Fayette County, Georgia, with many crew changes from the first film due to other commitments. Filming concluded in June 2016. James Gunn chose to set the sequel shortly after the first film to explore the characters' new roles as the Guardians, and to follow the storyline of Quill's father established throughout that previous film. Russell was confirmed as Quill's father in July 2016, portraying Ego, a departure from Quill's comic father.

Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 premiered in Tokyo on April 10, 2017, and was released in the United States on May 5, 2017, in 3D and IMAX 3D. It grossed more than $863 million worldwide, making it the eighth-highest-grossing film of 2017, while also outgrossing its predecessor. The film received praise for its visuals, direction, soundtrack, humor, and performances (particularly those of Rooker and Russell), though some critics deemed it inferior to the original. It received a nomination for Best Visual Effects at the 90th Academy Awards. A sequel, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3 is in development, with Gunn returning as writer and director.

It Chapter Two

It Chapter Two is an upcoming American supernatural horror film and the sequel to the 2017 film It. Both films are based on the 1986 novel It by Stephen King. The sequel film is based on the second half of the novel and is directed by Andy Muschietti and written by Gary Dauberman. Set in 2016, 27 years after the events of 1989 depicted in the first film, it stars Bill Skarsgård, who reprises his role as Pennywise. It also stars James McAvoy, Jessica Chastain, Bill Hader, Isaiah Mustafa, Jay Ryan, James Ransone, and Andy Bean, who portray the adult versions of The Losers Club, while Jaeden Martell, Sophia Lillis, Finn Wolfhard, Chosen Jacobs, Jeremy Ray Taylor, Jack Dylan Grazer, and Wyatt Oleff return from the first film as the younger Losers, respectively. The film is produced by New Line Cinema, Vertigo Entertainment, and Rideback, and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures.

Talks for an It sequel began in February 2016, when Muschietti revealed the plan to get production underway. By September 2017, New Line Cinema announced that the sequel would be released in September 2019, with Dauberman writing the script, and Muschietti expected to direct the film. Principal photography on the film began on June 19, 2018, at Pinewood Toronto Studios and on locations in and around Port Hope, Oshawa, and Toronto, Ontario, and wrapped on October 31, 2018.

The film is scheduled to be theatrically released in the United States on September 6, 2019.

Mary Poppins Returns

Mary Poppins Returns is a 2018 American musical fantasy film directed by Rob Marshall, with a screenplay written by David Magee and a story by Magee, Marshall, and John DeLuca. Based on the book series Mary Poppins by P. L. Travers, the film is a sequel to the 1964 film Mary Poppins, and stars Emily Blunt as Mary Poppins, with Lin-Manuel Miranda, Ben Whishaw, Emily Mortimer, Julie Walters, Dick Van Dyke, Angela Lansbury, Colin Firth, and Meryl Streep in supporting roles. Set in 1930s London, twenty-four years after the events of the original film, the film sees Mary Poppins, the former nanny of Jane and Michael Banks, returning one year after a family tragedy.

Walt Disney Pictures announced the film in September 2015. Marshall was hired later that month, and Blunt and Miranda were cast in February 2016. Principal photography lasted from February to July 2017, and took place at Shepperton Studios in Surrey, England. Mary Poppins Returns held its world premiere at the Dolby Theatre in Los Angeles on November 29, 2018, and was released in the United States on December 19, 2018, making it one of the longest intervals between film sequels in cinematic history, at 54 years.The film has grossed over $349 million worldwide and received generally positive reviews from critics, who praised its acting (particularly Blunt), direction, musical score, musical numbers, costume design, production values, visuals, and sense of nostalgia, although some critics found it derivative of its predecessor. It was chosen by both the National Board of Review and American Film Institute as one of the top ten films of 2018 and received numerous award nominations, including four at the 76th Golden Globe Awards (including for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy), nine at the 24th Critics' Choice Awards, three at the 72nd British Academy Film Awards, and a SAG Award nomination for Blunt at the 25th Screen Actors Guild Awards. It also received four Academy Award nominations for Best Original Score, Best Original Song ("The Place Where Lost Things Go"), Best Production Design, and Best Costume Design at the 91st Academy Awards.

Star Wars

Star Wars is an American epic space-opera media franchise created by George Lucas. The franchise began with the eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide pop-culture phenomenon.

The first film, later subtitled Episode IV – A New Hope, was followed by the sequels Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Episode VI – Return of the Jedi (1983), forming what is collectively referred to as the original trilogy. A prequel trilogy was later released, consisting of Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999), Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002) and Episode III – Revenge of the Sith (2005). Finally, a sequel trilogy began with Episode VII – The Force Awakens (2015), continued with Episode VIII – The Last Jedi (2017), and will conclude with Episode IX – The Rise of Skywalker (2019). The first eight films were nominated for Academy Awards (with wins going to the first two released) and were commercially successful. Together with the theatrical anthology films Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2016) and Solo: A Star Wars Story (2018), the films combined box office revenue equates to over US$9 billion, and is currently the second-highest-grossing film franchise.The film series expanded into other media, including television series, video games, novels, comic books, theme park attractions and themed areas, resulting in an all encompassing fictional universe. Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, and it is currently the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise of all-time.

Star Wars sequel trilogy

The Star Wars sequel trilogy is the third and final saga of the Star Wars franchise, an American space opera created by George Lucas. It is being produced by Lucasfilm Ltd. and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. The trilogy is to consist of episodes VII through IX, chronologically following the prequel trilogy (Episodes I–III; 1999–2005) and the original trilogy (Episodes IV–VI; 1977–1983). Lucas had planned a sequel trilogy as early as 1976, but had canceled it by 1981 and produced only the first six episodes. The Walt Disney Company acquired Lucasfilm in late 2012 and announced plans to produce the sequel films. It serves as the final act of the "Skywalker saga".

The first installment, Star Wars: The Force Awakens, was released in December 2015. It was directed by J. J. Abrams who co-wrote the screenplay with Lawrence Kasdan and Michael Arndt. Harrison Ford, Mark Hamill, Carrie Fisher, and other cast members from the original trilogy returned to reprise their roles and co-star alongside Daisy Ridley, John Boyega, Adam Driver, and Oscar Isaac. The second installment, The Last Jedi, was released in December 2017, with Rian Johnson as screenwriter and director, and most of the cast returning. The first two films have grossed a combined $3.4 billion worldwide. The third and final installment, The Rise of Skywalker, is being directed by Abrams, who co-wrote it with Chris Terrio. It is scheduled to be released on December 20, 2019.

The trilogy follows the training of a 19-year-old orphan, Rey, by Luke Skywalker, the last living Jedi, and the plight of the Resistance against a ruthless military faction led by Luke's nephew, Kylo Ren.

Superman Returns

Superman Returns is a 2006 American superhero film directed and co-produced by Bryan Singer and written by Michael Dougherty and Dan Harris, from a story by Singer, Dougherty and Harris. It is based on the DC Comics character Superman and serves as a homage sequel to the motion pictures Superman (1978) and Superman II (1980), while ignoring the events of Superman III (1983) and Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1987), including its spin-off Supergirl (1984). The film stars Brandon Routh as Clark Kent/Superman, Kate Bosworth as Lois Lane, Kevin Spacey as Lex Luthor, with James Marsden, Frank Langella, and Parker Posey. The film tells the story of the title character returning to Earth after a five-year absence. He finds that his love interest Lois Lane has moved on with her life, and that his archenemy Lex Luthor is plotting a scheme that will destroy both Superman and America.

After a series of unsuccessful projects to resurrect Superman on screen following the critical failure and box office disappointment of Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Warner Bros. hired Bryan Singer to direct and develop Superman Returns in July 2004. The majority of principal photography took place at Fox Studios Australia, Sydney, while the visual effects sequences were created by a number of studios, including Sony Pictures Imageworks, Rhythm & Hues, Framestore, Rising Sun Pictures, and The Orphanage; filming ended in November 2005.

Upon release, Superman Returns received generally positive reviews, with critics praising its visual effects, story, musical score, the performances of Routh and Spacey. However, it received criticism focusing on its runtime and lack of action sequences. While it was a box office success, Warner Bros. was disappointed with the worldwide box office return. A sequel was planned for a summer 2009 release, but the project was later canceled. The Superman film series was completely rebooted in 2013 with the film Man of Steel, directed by Zack Snyder and starring Henry Cavill as Superman.

Toy Story 2

Toy Story 2 is a 1999 American computer-animated comedy film directed by John Lasseter and produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It is the sequel to 1995's Toy Story and the second film in the Toy Story franchise. In the film, Woody is stolen by a toy collector, prompting Buzz Lightyear and his friends to vow to rescue him, but Woody is then tempted by the idea of immortality in a museum. Tom Hanks, Tim Allen, Don Rickles, Wallace Shawn, John Ratzenberger, Jim Varney, Annie Potts, R. Lee Ermey, John Morris and Laurie Metcalf all reprise their character roles from the original film. They are joined by Joan Cusack, Jodi Benson, Kelsey Grammer, Estelle Harris, and Wayne Knight, who voice some of the new characters introduced.

Disney initially envisioned Toy Story 2 as a direct-to-video sequel. The film began production in a building separated from Pixar, on a small scale, as most of the main Pixar staff were busy working on A Bug's Life (1998). When story reels proved promising, Disney upgraded the film to theatrical release, but Pixar was unhappy with the film's quality. Lasseter and the story team redeveloped the entire plot in one weekend. Although most Pixar features take years to develop, the established release date could not be moved and the production schedule for Toy Story 2 was compressed into nine months.Despite production struggles, Toy Story 2 opened on November 24, 1999 to wildly successful box office numbers, eventually grossing over $497 million. It received critical acclaim, with a rare 100% rating on the website Rotten Tomatoes. It is considered by critics to be one of few sequel films superior to the original and is frequently featured on lists of the greatest animated films ever made. The film has seen multiple home media releases and a theatrical 3-D re-release in 2009, 10 years after its initial release. Toy Story 3 was released in 2010, also a critical and commercial success. Toy Story 4 is scheduled to be released on June 21, 2019, directed by Josh Cooley.

Toy Story 4

Toy Story 4 is an upcoming American 3D computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It is the fourth installment in Pixar's Toy Story series, and the sequel to 2010's Toy Story 3. It is directed by Josh Cooley (in his feature directorial debut), with the script written by Stephany Folsom and Andrew Stanton, while John Lasseter, Rashida Jones, Will McCormack, Cooley, Valerie LaPointe, Martin Hynes, Folsom, and Stanton conceived the film's story.The film continues from Toy Story 3, where Sheriff Woody (Tom Hanks) and Buzz Lightyear (Tim Allen), among their other toy friends, have found new appreciation after being given by Andy Davis to Bonnie Anderson. They are introduced to Forky (Tony Hale), a spork that has been made into a toy, and they soon embark on a road trip adventure alongside old and new friends. In addition to Hanks and Allen, the film will feature returning cast members, including Annie Potts reprising her role as Bo Peep, as well as Don Rickles in a posthumous performance as Mr. Potato Head. New additions include Tony Hale, Keegan-Michael Key, Jordan Peele, Keanu Reeves, and Christina Hendricks.

The film is set to be released in theaters on June 21, 2019, in RealD 3D, Dolby Cinema, and IMAX 3D.

Tron

Tron (stylized as TRON) is a 1982 American science fiction action-adventure film written and directed by Steven Lisberger from a story by Lisberger and Bonnie MacBird. The film stars Jeff Bridges as a computer programmer who is transported inside the software world of a mainframe computer where he interacts with programs in his attempt to escape. Bruce Boxleitner, David Warner, Cindy Morgan, and Barnard Hughes star in supporting roles.

Development of Tron began in 1976 when Lisberger became intrigued with the early video game Pong. He and producer Donald Kushner set up an animation studio to develop Tron with the intention of making it an animated film. Indeed, to promote the studio itself, Lisberger and his team created a 30-second animation featuring the first appearance of the title character. Eventually, Lisberger decided to include live-action elements with both backlit and computer animation for the actual feature-length film. Various film studios had rejected the storyboards for the film before Walt Disney Productions agreed to finance and distribute Tron. There, backlit animation was finally combined with the computer animation and live action.

Tron was released on July 9, 1982 in 1,091 theaters in the United States. The film was a moderate success at the box office, and received positive reviews from critics who praised the groundbreaking visuals and acting. However, the storyline was criticized at the time for being incoherent. Tron received nominations for Best Costume Design and Best Sound at the 55th Academy Awards, and received the Academy Award for Technical Achievement fourteen years later. Tron was not nominated in the category of visual effects because the academy saw it as cheating to use computers to generate environments and effects. Over time, Tron developed into a cult film and eventually spawned a franchise, which consists of multiple video games, comic books and an animated television series. A sequel titled Tron: Legacy directed by Joseph Kosinski was released on December 17, 2010, with Bridges and Boxleitner reprising their roles, and Lisberger acting as producer, followed by the animated series Tron: Uprising set between the two films.

Wonder Woman 1984

Wonder Woman 1984 is an upcoming American superhero film based on the DC Comics character Wonder Woman, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. It is intended to be a sequel to the 2017's Wonder Woman and is the ninth installment in the DC Extended Universe (DCEU). It is directed by Patty Jenkins; the film is written by Jenkins, Geoff Johns and David Callaham, from a story written by Johns and Jenkins. It stars Gal Gadot in the title role, with Chris Pine, Kristen Wiig, Pedro Pascal, Connie Nielsen and Robin Wright in supporting roles. It is the fourth live-action theatrical film featuring the titular character, following Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016), Wonder Woman and Justice League (2017); it will be the second full-length feature film centered around the character.

Discussion of a sequel began shortly after the release of the first film in June 2017, and the decision to proceed was confirmed the following month. Principal photography began on June 13, 2018 – with filming taking place at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden in England, as well as the District of Columbia and Northern Virginia in the United States, London and Duxford in England, Tenerife and Fuerteventura in the Canary Islands, and Almería in Andalusia, Spain – and finished on December 22, 2018, after a six-month shoot.

Wonder Woman 1984 is scheduled to be released in the United States by Warner Bros. Pictures in RealD 3D, Dolby Cinema and IMAX 3D on June 5, 2020.

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