Seneca Lake is the largest of the glacial Finger Lakes of the U.S. state of New York, and the deepest lake entirely within the state. It is promoted as being the lake trout capital of the world, and is host of the National Lake Trout Derby. Because of its depth and relative ease of access, the US Navy uses Seneca Lake to perform test and evaluation of equipment ranging from single element transducers to complex sonar arrays and systems. The lake takes its name from the Seneca nation of Native Americans. At the north end of Seneca Lake is the city of Geneva, New York, home of Hobart and William Smith Colleges and the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, a division of Cornell University. At the south end of the lake is the village of Watkins Glen, New York, famed for auto racing and waterfalls.
Aerial view from the southern part of Seneca Lake.
Location within New York
Seneca Lake (the United States)
|Location||Schuyler, Seneca, Yates, and Ontario counties, New York, United States|
|Primary inflows||Catharine Creek, Keuka Lake Outlet, underwater sources|
|Primary outflows||Seneca River/ Cayuga-Seneca Canal|
|Basin countries||United States|
|Max. length||38 mi (61 km)|
|Surface area||66.9 sq mi (173 km2)|
|Average depth||291 ft (89 m)|
|Max. depth||618 ft (188 m)|
|Water volume||16 km3 (3.8 cu mi)|
|Shore length1||75.4 miles (121.3 km)|
|Surface elevation||445 ft (136 m)|
|Settlements||Watkins Glen, Geneva|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.|
At 38 miles (61 km) long, it is the second longest of the Finger Lakes and has the largest volume, estimated at 3.81 cubic miles (15.9 km3), roughly half of the water in all the Finger Lakes. It has an average depth of 291 feet (89 m), a maximum depth of 618 feet (188 m), and a surface area of 66.9 square miles (173 km2).
For comparison, Scotland's famous Loch Ness is 22.5 miles (36.2 km) long, 1.7 miles (2.7 km) wide, has a surface area of 21.8 square miles (56 km2), an average depth of 433 feet (132 m), a maximum depth of 744.6 feet (227.0 m), and total volume of 1.8 cubic miles (7.5 km3) of water.
Seneca's two main inlets are Catharine Creek at the southern end and the Keuka Lake Outlet. Seneca Lake lets out into the Seneca River/ Cayuga-Seneca Canal, which joins Seneca and Cayuga Lakes at their northern ends.
It is fed by underground springs and replenished at a rate of 328,000 gallons (1240 m³) per minute. These springs keep the water moving in a circular motion, giving it little chance to freeze over. Because of Seneca Lake's great depth its temperature remains a near-constant 39 °F (4 °C). In summer the top 10 to 15 feet (3.0 to 4.6 m) warms to 70–80 °F (21–27 °C).
Seneca lake has a typical aquatic population for large deep lakes in the northeast, with coldwater fish such as lake trout and Atlantic salmon inhabiting the deeper waters, and warmwater fish such as smallmouth bass and yellow perch inhabiting the shallower areas. The lake is also home to a robust population of "sawbellies," the local term for alewife shad.
Seneca Lake was formed at least two million years ago by glacial carving of streams and valleys. Originally it was a part of a series of rivers that flowed northward. Around this time many continental glaciers moved into the area and started the Pleistocene glaciation also known as the Ice Age. It is presumed that the Finger Lakes were created by many advances and retreats of massive glaciers that were up to 2 miles wide.
Over 200 years ago, there were Iroquois villages on Seneca Lake's surrounding hillsides. During the American Revolutionary War, their villages, including Kanadaseaga ("Seneca Castle"), were wiped out during the 1779 Sullivan Expedition by Continental troops under order by General George Washington (in retaliation of the Wyoming Massacre ) to invade their homeland, destroy their dwellings and crops, and end their threat to the patriots. They destroyed nearly 50 Seneca and Cayuga villages. Today roadside signs trace Sullivan's route along the east side of Seneca Lake where the burning of villages and crops occurred.
After the war, the Iroquois were forced to cede their land when Britain was defeated. Their millions of acres were sold and some lands in this area were granted to veterans of the army in payment for their military service. A slow stream of European-American settlers began to arrive circa 1790. Initially the settlers were without a market nearby or a way to get their crops to market. The settlers' isolation ended in 1825 with the opening of the Erie Canal.
The canal linked the Finger Lakes Region to the outside world. Steamships, barges and ferries quickly became Seneca Lake's ambassadors of commerce and trade. The former, short Crooked Lake Canal linked Seneca Lake to Keuka Lake.
Numerous canal barges sank during operations and rest on the bottom of the lake. A collection of barges at the southwest end of the lake, near the village of Watkins Glen, is being preserved and made accessible for scuba diving by the Finger Lakes Underwater Preserve Association.
The lake is a popular fishing destination from all around. Fish species present in the lake include lake trout, rainbow trout, brown trout, landlocked salmon, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, northern pike, pickerel, and yellow perch.
The painted rocks located at the southern end of the lake on the eastern cliff face depict an American flag, Tee-pee, and several Native Americans. The older paintings, located on the bottom of the cliff, were said to have been drawn in 1779 after the Senecas escaped men from John Sullivan's campaign. However, this account is questioned by historian Barbara Bell, arguing that it is unlikely that the Senecas would have returned to paint the paintings having just escaped from Sullivan's men. She suggests instead that these paintings may have been made much later, for tourists on Seneca Lake boat tours.
It is known that the more visible and prominent paintings of the Native Americans, American flag, and Tee-pee were added in 1929 during the Sullivan Sesquicentennial. There are two mistakes in these 1929 additions: firstly the Native Americans in the Seneca Region used longhouses and not Tee-pees, and secondly the flag is displayed pointing to the left which is never to be done on a horizontal surface.
Seneca Lake is also the site of strange and currently unexplained cannon-like booms and shakes that are heard and felt in the surrounding area. They are known locally as the Seneca Guns, Lake Drums, or Lake Guns, and these types of phenomena are known elsewhere as skyquakes. The term Lake Guns originated in the short story "The Lake Gun" by James Fenimore Cooper in 1851. There is no explanation that takes into account sounds the Iroquois heard before Cooper's time; it is possible sonic booms have been mistaken for natural sounds in modern days.
The east side of Seneca Lake was once home to a military training ground called Sampson Naval Base, primarily used during World War II. It became Sampson Air Force Base during the Korean War and was used for basic training. After Sampson AFB closed, the airfield remained as Seneca Army Airfield but was closed in 2000. The training grounds of Sampson have since been converted to a civilian picnic area called Sampson State Park.
There is still a Naval facility at Seneca Lake, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Sonar test facility. A scale model of the sonar section of the nuclear submarine USS Seawolf (SSN 21) was tested during the development of this ship, which was launched in June, 1995.
There is a YSI EMM-2500 Buoy Platform located in the north end of Seneca Lake roughly in the center. Its coordinates are: latitude: 42°41'49.99"N, longitude: 76°55'29.93"W. The buoy has cellular modem communications and measures wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, barometric pressure, light intensity, and the water's depth and temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chlorophyll-a levels.
The buoy was initially deployed in June 2006. The water depth where it is located is about 200 feet (61 m).
Viticulture and winemaking in the area date back to the 19th century, with the foundation of the Seneca Lake Wine Company in 1866 marking the first major winery in the area. The modern era of wine production began in the 1970s with the establishment of several wineries and the passage of the New York Farm Winery Act of 1976. The region was established as an American Viticultural Area in 1988.
Seneca Lake Wine Trail hosts many events on and around the lake, annually. With more than 30 wineries currently located on the shores of Seneca Lake, the winter 'Deck the Halls' event is a great time at the lake with participating wineries showcasing their vintages and pairing these wines with distinctive, tasty treats. Wineries also provide participants with an ornament at each stop to commemorate the event.
The new Cayuga Lake wine region was established inside the existing Fingers Lake wine region and includes parts of Seneca, Tompkins, and Cayuga counties located adjacent to Cayuga Lake between Seneca and Owasco Lakes.
Dexter Horton (1825 – 1904) was the founder of the first bank in the city of Seattle. Before his founding of the Bank of Dexter Horton in 1870 financial transactions were conducted by merchants.
Dexter Horton was born in 1825 in Seneca Lake, New York. He was raised on a farm his family acquired in the state of Illinois. As a young man he traveled to Oregon with others who were living in his area. Having lived in Oregon for a time he relocated to Seattle. After working as a mill hand for Henry Yesler he opened a general store. This business succeeded. A part of the business was making loans and accepting deposits from customers. In 1870 Dexter Horton opened up the first business dedicated to serving as a bank. It was one of the corporate ancestors of Seattle First National Bank, which eventually merged into the Bank of America.
According to Seattle lore, decades after the battle 1856 Battle of Seattle, Seattle's future fire chief Gardner Kellogg was excavating his house and found a shell from the USS Decatur that had buried itself without exploding. He stuck it under a tree stump that he was trying to burn out and went off to lunch; Dexter Horton stopped by to warm the seat of his pants at the fire, and as it exploded, nearly became the last casualty of the battle of Seattle.Horton was married to Hannah Eliza Shoudy, sister of John Alden Shoudy, in 1844, and they had three children but two died early. After her death, he married Caroline E. Parsons (d. 1878) on September 29, 1873, and they had one daughter. He then married Arabella C. Agard (1827-1914) on September 14, 1882.Edward Partridge
Edward Partridge Sr. (August 27, 1793 – May 27, 1840) was one of the earliest converts to the Latter Day Saint movement and served as its first Bishop of the Church.Ganondagan State Historic Site
Ganondagan State Historic Site, (pronounced ga·NON·da·gan) also known as Boughton Hill, is a Native American historic site in Ontario County, New York in the United States. Location of the largest Seneca village of the 17th century, the site is in the present-day Town of Victor, southwest of the Village of Victor. The village was also referred to in various spellings as Gannagaro, Canagora, Gandagora, and Gandagaro.It consists of two areas: the 245-acre (99 ha) Boughton Hill portion, the area of longhouses and burials, has been designated as a National Historic Landmark. It has been identified as the location of the Jesuit Mission of St. Jacques (or St. James), which was mentioned in the Jesuit Relations. The Fort Hill portion was the location of a fortified granary and consists of 33 acres (13 ha); it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The complex is operated by the state of New York.Hector, New York
Hector is a town in the northeastern corner of Schuyler County, New York, United States. The population was 4,854 at the 2000 census. The town is named after Hector Ely, who at the time was the firstborn son of the town founders. Hector is west of Ithaca, New York.Hyrum Smith
Hyrum Smith (February 9, 1800 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the original church of the Latter Day Saint movement. He was the older brother of the movement's founder, Joseph Smith, and was killed with his brother at Carthage Jail where they were being held awaiting trial.Inergy
Inergy, L.P. (NYSE: NRGY) is an American supplier of propane based in Kansas City, Missouri that claims to be the fourth-largest propane retailer in the United States. Serving 800,000 customers in 28 states. It is also a major salt miner via its U.S. Salt LLC subsidiary with its salt caverns later being used for natural gas storage.
It was founded in 1998 by its current president and CEO John J. Sherman after he sold his start up propane marketing company LPG Services Group to Dynegy. As of November 2010, the company had acquired 89 businesses – mostly regional and local propane distributors.It operates 28 states and employs approximately 3,000 associates and has 700,000 customers. .In August 2010 it acquired its parent Inergy Holdings which had also traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol NRGP in a deal valued at $2 billion with the resulting company being reported to be worth $6 billion. Prior to the acquisition both companies shared the same offices in Kansas City.List of largest lakes of the United States by area
The following is a list of the largest 100 lakes of the United States by normal surface area. The top twenty lakes in size are as listed by the National Atlas of the United States, a publication of the United States Department of the Interior. The area given is the normal or average area of the lake. The area of some lakes fluctuates substantially. For those lakes partially in Canada or Mexico the area given for the lake is the total area, not just the part of the lake in the United States. Of the top 100 lakes, 55 are man-made and 45 are natural. Three lakes in the top 100 are primarily salt water.List of place names of Native American origin in New York
This is a list of Native American place names in the U.S. state of New York.
Allegany (town), New York
Apalachin, New York
Asharoken, New York
Canandaigua (city), New York
Cassadaga, New York
Cheektowaga (town), New York
Commack, New York
Conesus, New York
Copake, New York
Copiague, New York
Coxsackie, New York
Coxsackie (village), New York
Cutchogue, New York
Esopus, New York
Hannawa Falls, New York
Kerhonkson, New York
Kesieway Creek - Kah-se-way
Mahopac, New York
Mamaroneck (village), New York
Mamaroneck, New York
Manhasset, New York
Manhattan - probably from
Massapequa, New York
Mattituck, New York
Merrick, New York
Montauk, New York
Napanoch, New York
Napeague, New York
Niskayuna, New York
Noyack, New York
Nyack, New York
Oneida, New York
Onondaga, New York
Oswego County, New York
Oswego River (New York)
Otisco, New York
Patchogue, New York
Peconic, New York
Poughkeepsie, New York
Quogue, New York
Quiogue, New York
Sagaponack, New York
Saratoga Springs, New York
Schodack, New York
Seneca Lake (New York)
Seneca, New York
Setauket-East Setauket, New York
Shandaken, New York
Shekomeko, New York
Skaneateles (village), New York
Taughannock Falls State Park
Ticonderoga, New York
Tuckahoe (village), New York
Tuckahoe, Suffolk County, New York
Waccabuc, New York
Wappinger, New York
Wassaic, New York
Wawarsing, New York
Wyandanch, New York
Wykagyl (New Rochelle)
Wyoming County, New York
Yaphank, New YorkMontour Falls, New York
Montour Falls is a village located in Schuyler County, New York, United States. A population of 1,711 was reported by the US Census of 2010. A waterfall at the end of West Main Street gives the village its name. The name "Montour" is derived from Queen Catharine Montour, a prominent Native American woman of Seneca Indian heritage who lived at the village site in the 18th century.
The boundaries defining the Village of Montour Falls occur mostly within the Town of Montour, but a small part lies within the Town of Dix. The village is located approximately twenty miles north of Elmira, New York and three miles south of Watkins Glen, New York. The New York State Academy of Fire Science is located in the village.Montour family
The Montour family was a family of Native American and French descent which was prominent in colonial New York and Pennsylvania before and during the American Revolution. Because of the Iroquois practice of reckoning descent through the female line the family is known as "Montour" after the matriarch.Ovid (town), New York
Ovid is a town in Seneca County, New York, United States. The population was 2,311 at the 2010 census. The town is named after the Roman poet Ovid, a name assigned by a clerk interested in the classics.
The Town of Ovid contains a village also called Ovid, one of the county seats of Seneca County. The town is in the southern part of the county, extending between Seneca Lake to the west and Cayuga Lake to the east, and southeast of Geneva, New York.Ovid (village), New York
Ovid is a village in and one of the two county seats of Seneca County, New York, United States. The population was 602 at the 2010 census. The town was named by a clerk interested in the classics (see Ovid).
The Village of Ovid is within the Town of Ovid, but a small portion is in the Town of Romulus, and is southeast of Geneva, New York.Recruit training
Recruit training, more commonly known as basic training or colloquially boot camp, refers to the initial instruction of new military personnel. Recruit training is a physically and psychologically intensive process, which resocializes its subjects for the demands of military employment.Romulus, New York
Romulus is a town in Seneca County, New York, United States. The population was 4,316 at the 2010 census. The town is named after the mythical founder of Rome, Romulus, a name assigned by a clerk with an interest in the classics.
The Town of Romulus is in the central part of the county, northwest of Ithaca, New York.
The town has a hamlet (and census-designated place), also called Romulus. Government offices for the town are located in nearby Willard.Romulus is home of the rare Seneca white deer, one of the largest populations of white deer in the world. They are located on the grounds of the former Seneca Army Depot. It is now a private wildlife refuge and conservation center which offers scenic tours.Seneca Lake
Seneca Lake or Lake Seneca may refer to:
Seneca Lake (New York), one of the Finger Lakes in upstate New York
Seneca Lake AVA, New York wine region
Lake Seneca, Ohio, an unincorporated community
Seneca Lake (Ohio), another name for Senecaville LakeZiba Peterson
Ziba Peterson (died 1849) was an early American Latter Day Saint best known as one of the four initial missionaries sent by Joseph Smith in 1830 to preach to Native Americans in Indian Territory. This mission brought in several influential converts and introduced the church to Kirtland, Ohio and Jackson County, Missouri, which would become religiously significant to Mormonism.