Senate of the Republic (Mexico)

The Senate of the Republic, (Spanish: Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress. It currently consists of 128 members, who serve six-year terms.

Senate of the Republic

Senado de la República
LXIV Legislature
Seal of the Senate
Type
Type
History
FoundedOctober 4, 1824
Leadership
Martí Batres Guadarrama (MORENA)
since 1 September 2018
Structure
Seats128 members
Senado de México (2018-2024)
Political groups
Government (70)

Opposition (58)

Length of term
6 years
AuthorityChapter II of the Constitution of the United Mexican States
Elections
Limited voting
Last election
July 1, 2018
Motto
La Patria Es Primero
(The Country Is First)
Meeting place
Senado de México 02
Senate Tribune
Senate Palace
Mexico City
Mexico
Website
Official Website of the Mexican Senate

Composition

After a series of reforms during the 1990s, the Senate is made up of 128 senators:[1]

  • Two for each of the 32 states[a] elected under the principle of relative majority;
  • One for each of the 32 states[a] assigned under the principle of first minority (i.e. awarded to the party who had won the second highest number of votes within the state or Federal District);
  • Thirty-two national senators-at-large, divided among the parties in proportion to their share of the national vote.

In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote. The party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District then assigns a senator to occupy the third seat (first minority seat), according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE).

Senators serve six-year terms, running concurrently with the President of Mexico's Sexenio. Special elections are rare, as substitutes are chosen at every election. Until 2018, the Senate was completely renewed every six years since senators were barred from immediate reelection, but Senators can now serve a second term.

Last election

Party Constituency Proportional Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
National Regeneration Movement 21,261,577 37.50 42 13 55 New
National Action Party 9,971,804 17.59 17 6 23 –15
Institutional Revolutionary Party 9,013,658 15.90 7 6 13 –44
Party of the Democratic Revolution 2,984,861 5.27 6 2 8 –15
Citizens' Movement 2,654,452 4.68 5 2 7 +6
Ecologist Green Party 2,528,175 4.46 5 2 7 +3
Labor Party 2,164,442 3.82 5 1 6 +2
Social Encounter Party 1,320,559 2.33 8 0 8 New
New Alliance Party 1,307,015 2.31 1 0 1 0
Independents 1,109,149 1.96 0 0 0
Write-ins 31,820 0.06
Invalid/blank votes 2,344,357 4.14
Total 56,691,869 100 96 100 32 128 0
Registered voters/turnout 89,994,039 63.52 89,994,039
Source: INE

Term

In Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term. The current session (whose term lasts from 2018 to 2021) is known as the LXIV Legislatura (64th Legislature).

Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current senators (who were elected in the general election of July 1, 2018) will serve during the 64th and 65th Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies.

Legislatures

A senator holds office for a period of six years. for which he was elected (from September 1 of the year of its election to the 31 August six years later), divided into two legislatures of three years each.

From 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end its term on 31 August 2018. Senators were elected to office in the 2012 elections for a period of six years and are at their posts from 1 September of that year, therefore they will hold office from the LXII Legislature to LXIII Legislature.

Election of senators

Eligibility requirements

According to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the following requirements:[2]

  • Being a Mexican citizen by birth, in the exercise of their rights.
  • Be twenty-five years old on election day
  • Being from the state in the election, or neighbor of him with an effective residence of more than six months prior to the date of the election, or in the case of candidates is made by proportional representation of any of the states that as the constituency, with the same details.
  • Not being active duty in the military or have control of police or rural gendarmerie at least ninety days before the election.
  • Not be a secretary or undersecretary of state unless it is definitively separated from office at least ninety days before the election.
  • Not be Minister of the Supreme Court unless definitively separated from office three years before the election.
  • Not a minister of some religious cult.

Election process

Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and cannot be reelected for the immediate period, although alternately.

They are elected by direct popular suffrage and secret ballot in every state of the republic. Each political party registers a list with two formulas of candidates, consisting of two owners and their alternates: the number 1 of the formula First Formula is denominated to him, and 2, Second Formula. The formula of candidates obtaining the highest number of votes is elected complete, becoming the first two senators of the entity; the third Senate seat is awarded to the candidate of First Formula of the political party that won second place of votes or first minority.

There are also 32 senators elected by proportional representation. For this election, each political party registers a list of 32 candidates, and these are allocated by proportional representation according to the number of votes obtained by each political party in the national election.

Governing bodies

For their internal government has two main instances, namely:

  • Board: Composed of a Chairman, three Vice-Chairpersons and four Secretaries, elected for each regular session of the House, the chairman is the President of the Senate and is the head and representative of the Chamber.
  • Political Coordination Board: Considered the true governing body of the Chamber consists of a chairman and six members, which always include the Coordinators of the different parliamentary factions of political parties represented in the Senate.[3]

Commissions

For the office of legislative affairs, senators integrate into Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue. The most important committees are those of Interior, Constitutional Issues, Defense, Finance, Justice, among others. Each senator belongs to at least three different commissions, and each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 (according to the Commission) to coordinate their work.

Sessions

The two chambers of the General Congress divided its exercise into two ordinary sessions, the first from September 1 to December 15 and the second from February 1 to April 30, it should be required may convene special sessions to dispatch urgent or pertinent matters.

The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses. There are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. During breaks, the Permanent Commission of the Congress is installed and serves as the depository of the legislature; It is composed of 37 members, of which 19 deputies and 18 senators are appointed by their respective chambers the day before the closing of the regular sessions.

The sessions of the Standing Committee are held in the Senate during the first recess and the House of Representatives in the second recess.

Functions

Among the most important functions of the Senate it is to ratify or reject the president's proposals regarding:[4]

  • Ministers of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation
  • Attorney General of the Republic
  • Heads of Autonomous Bodies
  • Diplomatic Representatives (Ambassadors and Consuls)
  • International deals

Gallery

Mexican Senate

Former Senate tribune.

SenateChamberDF

Former Main Senate Chambers at the corner of Donceles and Xicotencatl Streets in the historic center of Mexico City.

SenadoDoncelesDF

Former Senate offices on Donceles Street

References

  1. ^ "Cámara de senadores". IFE.
  2. ^ "Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos".
  3. ^ "Senado de la República - Junta de Coordinación Política".
  4. ^ "Senado de la República - Función de control".

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b The Federal District counts as a state

External links

Coordinates: 19°26′11.57″N 99°8′19.37″W / 19.4365472°N 99.1387139°W

Ana Lilia Herrera Anzaldo

Ana Lilia Herrera Anzaldo (born 29 August 1971) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing the Mexico state.

Claudia Pavlovich Arellano

Claudia Artemiza Pavlovich Arellano (born 17 June 1969) is a Mexican politician and lawyer affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). She currently serves as Governor of Sonora, the first woman to govern the state. Previously she served as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Sonora.

Diva Hadamira Gastélum

Diva Hadamira Gastélum Bajo (born 30 July 1961) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress. She also served as Deputy during the LXI Legislature.

Graciela Ortiz González

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Iris Vianey Mendoza

Iris Vianey Mendoza Mendoza (born 26 August 1981) is a Mexican politician and lawyer affiliated with the PRD. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress.

Juana Leticia Herrera Ale

Juana Leticia Herrera Ale (born 8 June 1960) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Durango. She also served as Deputy during the LX Legislature.

Laura Angélica Rojas Hernández

Laura Angélica Rojas Hernández (born 26 December 1975) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress. She also served as Deputy during the LX Legislature.

Lisbeth Hernández Lecona

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Maki Esther Ortiz

Maki Esther Ortiz Domínguez (born 23 September 1962) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the National Action Party (PAN). She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Tamaulipas. She also served as Deputy during the LIX Legislature.

Marcela Torres Peimbert

María Marcela Torres Peimbert (born 7 October 1961) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Querétaro. She also served as Deputy during the LXI Legislature.

Martha Elena García Gómez

Martha Elena García Gómez (born 3 May 1945) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Nayarit. She also served as Deputy during the LXI Legislature.

Martha Palafox Gutiérrez

Martha Palafox Gutiérrez (born 23 February 1949) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Labor Party. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Tlaxcala. She also served as deputy of the Chamber of Deputies during the LVII and LIX Legislatures.

María Elena Barrera

Maria Elena Barrera Tapia (born 22 September 1960) is a Mexican politicians affiliated with the PVEM. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing the Mexico State.

María Lucero Saldaña

María Lucero Saldaña Pérez (born 18 January 1957) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Puebla. She also served as Deputy during two periods (1988–91 and 1994–97) and as Senator between 2001 until 2006.

María Verónica Martínez Espinoza

María Verónica Martínez Espinoza (born 20 July 1949) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Jalisco, filling the seat of Arturo Zamora Jiménez since 5 March 2013.

Mely Romero Celis

Mely Romero Celis (born 12 September 1977) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PRI. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Colima.

Rosa Adriana Díaz

Rosa Adriana Díaz Lizama (born 16 November 1973) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Yucatán. She also served as Deputy during the LXI Legislature.

Silvia Guadalupe Garza

Silvia Guadalupe Garza Galván (born 5 July 1962) is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN. She currently serves as Senator of the LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Coahuila.

Teófilo Torres Corzo

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