Semi-professional sports

Semi-professional sports are sports in which athletes for whom sport is not a full-time occupation. Semi-professionals are not amateur because they receive regular payment from their team (company), but at a much lower rate than a full-time professional athlete. As a result, players may have (or seek) a second full-time job. A semipro player/team could also be one that represents a place of employment that only the employees are allowed to play on. In this case, it is considered semipro because their employer pays them, but for their regular job, not for playing on the company's team.

When applied to vocational tools and equipment, it refers to products that lie between the amateur and professional levels in both quality and cost, though nowadays the term prosumer is often used instead.

Origin

The San Francisco Olympic Club fielded an American football team in 1890.[1] That year, the Olympic Club was accused by a rival club of enticing athletes to jump to its ranks with offers of jobs. An investigation by the Amateur Athletic Union ruled that the Olympics' practice was not actually professionalism but only a "semi" form of it, inventing the term "semi-pro". Although the Amateur Athletic Union did not like the idea very much, it decided that clubs could indeed offer employment without losing their amateur status or compromising the athlete.[2]

North America

In North America, semi-professional athletes and teams were far more common in the early and mid-20th century than they are today. There are many benefits, such as collegiate eligibility and the attendant scholarships, in maintaining amateur status (unlike the Amateur Athletic Union, the NCAA forbids any sort of compensation outside of scholarships, including job offers tied to their playing). Eligibility for participation in the Olympics in some sports is still dependent upon maintaining a purely amateur status (although far less so than was previously the case), and such athletes may be supported by government money, business sponsorships, and other systems. At the same time, professional sports have become such a massive and remunerative business that even many low-level feeder teams can afford to have fully professional athletes.

Semi-professionalism is most prevalent in junior ice hockey, in which the top levels of Canadian (and European as well) junior hockey (most of whom are teenagers still in, or just out of, high school) are paid at a semi-professional level. This is not the case in the United States, where college ice hockey dominates at that age group; the junior leagues in the United States generally operate as fully amateur teams to maintain the players' eligibility to play in college.

Lower-end minor leagues and more obscure sports often operate at a semi-professional level due to cost concerns. Because the cost of running a fully professional American football team is prohibitive, semi-pro football is common at the adult levels, particularly in the indoor variety, providing an outlet for players who have used up their NCAA eligibility and have no further use for maintaining amateur status; as a sport that normally plays only one game per week, football is especially suited for semi-pro play. The National Lacrosse League, whose teams also typically play only one game per week, pays a salary that is enough to be considered fully professional, but players also are able to pursue outside employment to supplement their income. The lowest levels of organized baseball are also effectively semi-professional, as the short summer seasons and low salaries require players to hold jobs in the offseason to make ends meet.[3]

United Kingdom

There are several hundred semi-professional football teams at non-League level. The bottom division of The Football League (the fourth tier of the English football league system) has traditionally been the cut-off point between professional ("full-time") and semi-professional ("part-time") in English football. However, many teams in the top non-League competition, the National League have become "full-time" professional clubs in an effort to achieve League status. Many former League clubs also remain as fully professional teams following relegation to the lower leagues at least for as long as they retain a large enough average attendance to generate the income needed to pay the players.

Women's football in England is semi-professional at the top levels, as finances depend on promotion and relegation both of parent male teams and of the female teams themselves. Full professionalism for women is still in the planning stages; top female players often depend on other sources of income (such as coaching and physical training), and many attend university or college while playing.

In Scottish football, semi-professional teams compete at all levels below the Scottish Premiership, with most teams below the Scottish Championship being semi-professional.

Historically, English rugby league and rugby union have had one full-time professional division, with semi-professional divisions at the next level down. The second tier of union, the RFU Championship, became fully professional beginning with the 2009–10 season.

See also

References

  1. ^ PFRA Research (1987). "When Did they Start?" (PDF). Coffin Corner. Professionl Football Researchers Association. 9: 1–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-11-27.
  2. ^ PFRA Research. "Five Hundred Reasons" (PDF). Coffin Corner. Professional Football Researchers Association: 1–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-29.
  3. ^ Babb, Kent. "Baseball's minor leaguers pursue their dreams below the poverty line". WashingtonPost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
Helena, Montana

Helena () is the state capital of the U.S. state of Montana and the county seat of Lewis and Clark County.

Helena was founded as a gold camp during the Montana gold rush, and was established in 1864. Over $3.6 billion of gold was extracted in the city limits over a duration of two decades, making it one of the wealthiest cities in the United States by the late nineteenth century. The concentration of wealth contributed to the city's prominent, elaborate Victorian architecture.

At the 2010 census Helena's population was 28,190, making it the fifth least populous state capital in the United States and the sixth most populous city in Montana. It is the principal city of the Helena Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Lewis and Clark and Jefferson counties; its population is 77,414 according to the 2015 Census Estimate.The local daily newspaper is the Independent Record. Semi-professional sports teams include the Helena Bighorns Tier III Junior A hockey team. The city is served by Helena Regional Airport (HLN).

Internet fraud

Internet fraud is a type of fraud or deception which makes use of the Internet and could involve hiding of information or providing incorrect information for the purpose tricking victims out of money, property, and inheritance. Internet fraud is not considered a single, distinctive crime but covers a range of illegal and illicit actions that are committed in cyberspace. It is, however, differentiated from theft since, in this case, the victim voluntarily and knowingly provides the information, money or property to the perpetrator. It is also distinguished by the way it involves temporally and spatially separated offenders.According to the FBI's 2017 Internet Crime Report, the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) received about 300,000 complaints victims lost over $1.4 billion in online fraud in 2017. According to a study conducted by the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and McAfee, cybercrime costs global ecomony as much as $600 billion, which translates into 0.8% of global GDP. Online fraud appears in many forms. It ranges from email spam to online scams. Internet fraud can occur even if partly based on the use of Internet services and is mostly or completely based on the use of the Internet.

KBVO (TV)

KBVO, virtual channel 14 (UHF digital channel 27), is a MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station serving Austin, Texas, United States that is licensed to Llano. The station is owned by the Nexstar Media Group, as part of a duopoly with Austin-licensed NBC affiliate KXAN-TV (channel 36); Nexstar also operates CW affiliate KNVA (channel 54) under a local marketing agreement (LMA) with owner Vaughan Media. The three stations share studios on West Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard and San Gabriel Street (between the Old West Austin section of Austin and the University of Texas at Austin campus); KBVO's transmitter is located near the intersection of TX 71 and Llano County Road 307 in unincorporated Llano County (8 miles (13 km) southeast of Llano).

The station's signal is relayed on a low-powered, Class A repeater in Austin, KBVO-CD (virtual channel 51, UHF digital channel 31), from a transmitter at the West Austin Antenna Farm on Mount Larson (near Loop 360 and Westlake Drive, north of West Lake Hills). On cable, the station is available on Charter Spectrum channels 7 (SD) and 1215 (HD), Grande Communications channels 18 (SD) and 818 (HD), Suddenlink channel 12 (SD/HD), Google Fiber channel 8 (SD/HD) and AT&T U-verse channels 7 (SD) and 1007 (HD).

List of New York City metropolitan area sports teams

This is a list of professional and semi-professional sports teams based in the New York metropolitan area, including from New York City, Long Island, Lower Hudson Valley, Northern and Central New Jersey, and parts of Western Connecticut. The collective area has a population of over twenty million people, making it the largest in the United States and among the top ten in the world. It also has the greatest concentration of professional sports teams of any region in the country with teams in all of the major sports and leagues in baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, and soccer.

All of the major pro franchises are found within the five boroughs of New York City or approximately thirty miles of the center of Manhattan, near mass transit and highway access. These teams are part of the global New York City media market. Though some are based in New Jersey or Long Island, in proximity to Manhattan, the teams receive national and international media coverage generally defining them as dually being part of their location of origin (town or city, and state) and primarily the New York City - New York metropolitan area. Having acquired exclusive territorial rights in their respective leagues of the region or up to fifty to seventy-five miles of their base, teams can receive local broadcasting within this range, and have say over sharing rights with other teams. This range theoretically encompasses the bounds of the New York metropolitan area and the recognition of the teams belonging to and representing the entire region.

Other division league franchises, either found within or outside of the thirty mile New York City media market range, are mostly associated by their town or city, and state, rather than the whole metropolitan area, while still belonging to it. Media coverage varies locally. Collegiate teams are similarly identified with their location. Still, they are acknowledged and principally followed by the name of their schools, and receive local and national coverage depending on their division, conference, sport, standing, and popularity.

List of professional sports teams in Michigan

Michigan has a number of professional and semi-professional sports teams in various sports and leagues.

List of professional sports teams in Minnesota

Minnesota has a number of professional and semi-professional sports teams in various sports and leagues. The most are from Minneapolis. Teams from Minnesota are also represented in the university sport. For example, the Golden Gophers of the University of Minnesota are organized in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and are the only ones to be represented in Division I. They compete against other teams in the Big Ten conference. Other universities are in Division II and III. In the ice hockey four teams from Minnesota are represented in the Western Collegiate Hockey Association.

List of professional sports teams in Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania has a number of professional and semi-professional sports teams in various sports and leagues.

List of professional sports teams in Rhode Island

Rhode Island has a number of semi-professional sports teams in various sports and leagues.

List of professional sports teams in Washington (state)

Washington has a number of professional and semi-professional sports teams in various sports and leagues.

New England

New England is a geographical and cultural region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively. The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts. The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts (the second-largest city in New England), Manchester, New Hampshire (the largest city in New Hampshire), and Providence, Rhode Island (the capital and largest city of Rhode Island).

In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years later, more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in America. In 1692, the town of Salem, Massachusetts and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history.In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship which was enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, and residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists. These confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, and was the first region of the U.S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Blackstone and Merrimack river valleys.

The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area. Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south.

Each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries. It maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are often contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, and isolation with immigration.

Pillow Fight League

The Pillow Fight League (PFL) is a Toronto-based semi-professional sports league centred on public pillow fights. The tongue in cheek women's sport is hosted in a fighting arena, much like a boxing or wrestling match. The League was founded by PFL Commissioner Stacey P. Case, and Honorary PFL Commissioner Craig Daniels in February 2004. The formal league launched at a Canadian goth bar called The Vatikan in downtown Toronto. Events since then have been hosted in both Montreal, Quebec and New York City, but the primary seat of the League remains in Toronto, Ontario. Fighter Abbie Roadkill, originally of British descent, recently speculated about a similar event in the United Kingdom.Fights within the League now feature either two or three girls, the latter referred to as a damage à trois, and a codified set of rules. Fighters frequently incur cuts, scrapes and bruises. There have also been more serious injuries, including concussions, black eyes, lost teeth, split lips, torn muscles, and bruised kidneys.

The League grew out of a pair of live events held by performers from Canadian burlesque troupe “Skin Tight Outta Sight” at a performance of Mr. Case's band (named for tijuana bibles) at New Year's Eve 2004 and 2005. The latter featured the first instance of live tryouts for members of the audience. The events that followed in 2006 at the Vatikan launched the new League-sponsored series of events primarily focused around the pillow fighting bouts. A potential moneymaker for its founders, the League saw television rights snapped up in 2007 by reality television and sitcom producers Eddie October (executive producer of Tommy Lee Goes to College and The Roseanne Show) and Al Berman (executive producer of The Biggest Loser and Survivor).

Portland metropolitan area

The Portland metropolitan area or Greater Portland is a metropolitan area in the U.S. states of Oregon and Washington centered on the principal city of Portland, Oregon. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget identifies it as the Portland–Vancouver–Hillsboro, OR–WA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan statistical area used by the United States Census Bureau (USCB) and other entities. The OMB defines the area as comprising Clackamas, Columbia, Multnomah, Washington, and Yamhill Counties in Oregon, and Clark and Skamania Counties in Washington. The area's population is estimated at 2,453,168 in 2017.

The Oregon portion of the metropolitan area is the state's largest urban center, while the Washington portion of the metropolitan area is the state's third largest urban center after Seattle (the Seattle Urban Area includes Tacoma and Everett) and Spokane. Portions of this are under the jurisdiction of Metro, a directly elected regional government which, among other things, is responsible for land-use planning in the region.

Pro–am

Pro–am (or pro/am, pro am, ProAm; a contraction of professional–amateur) refers to an activity, for example a sporting event where both professional career athletes and amateurs compete. It could also refer to a collaboration between professionals and amateurs in a scientific discipline such as astronomy.

Spokane, Washington

Spokane ( (listen) spoh-KAN) is a city in Spokane County in the state of Washington in the northwestern United States. It is located on the Spokane River west of the Rocky Mountain foothills in eastern Washington, 92 miles (148 km) south of the Canada–US border, 18 miles (30 km) from the Washington–Idaho border, and 228 miles (367 km) east of Seattle along Interstate 90.

Known as the birthplace of Father's Day, Spokane's official nickname is the "Lilac City". A pink, double flower lilac variety known as 'Syringa Spokane' is named for the city. It is the seat of Spokane County and the economic and cultural center of the Spokane Metropolitan Area, the Spokane–Coeur d'Alene combined statistical area, and the Inland Northwest. The city, along with the whole Inland Northwest, is served by Spokane International Airport, 5 miles (8 km) west of downtown Spokane. According to the 2010 Census, Spokane had a population of 208,916, making it the second-largest city in Washington, and the 101st-largest city in the United States.

The first people to live in the area, the Spokane tribe (their name meaning "children of the sun" in Salishan), lived off plentiful game. David Thompson explored the area with the westward expansion and establishment of the North West Company's Spokane House in 1810. This trading post was the first long-term European settlement in Washington. Completion of the Northern Pacific Railway in 1881 brought settlers to the Spokane area. The same year it was officially incorporated as a city with the name of Spokane Falls (it was reincorporated under its current name ten years later). In the late 19th century, gold and silver were discovered in the Inland Northwest. The local economy depended on mining, timber, and agriculture until the 1980s. Spokane hosted the first environmentally themed World's Fair at Expo '74.

Many of the downtown area's older Romanesque Revival-style buildings were designed by architect Kirtland Kelsey Cutter after the Great Fire of 1889. The city also features Riverfront and Manito parks, the Smithsonian-affiliated Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture, the Davenport Hotel, and the Fox and Bing Crosby theaters.

The Cathedral of Our Lady of Lourdes is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Spokane, and the city is also the center of the Mormon Spokane Washington Temple District. The Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist represents the Anglican community. Gonzaga University was established in 1887 by the Jesuits, and the private Presbyterian Whitworth University was founded three years later and moved to north Spokane in 1914 In sports, the Gonzaga Bulldogs collegiate basketball team competes at the Division I level. Professional and semi-professional sports teams include the Spokane Chiefs in junior ice hockey, and the Spokane Indians Minor League Baseball team located in nearby Spokane Valley. As of 2010, Spokane's only major daily newspaper, The Spokesman-Review, had a daily circulation of over 76,000.

Sport in Leicester

Sport in Leicester, United Kingdom includes a variety of professional and amateur sports.

Professional and semi professional sports teams include: Leicester Tigers (rugby union), Leicester City (football), Leicester Riders (basketball), Leicester Warriors (basketball), Leicester Lions (speedway), and the Leicestershire County Cricket Club.

Sports clubs include: Leicester Coritanian A.C. (athletics) and Leicester Penguins Swimming Club who were awarded Sports Club of the Year by the Leicester Mercury at their annual sports awards for 2007 and 2008.

Leicester Racecourse is located to the south of the city in Oadby.

A statue was erected in the town centre commemorating Sporting Success in the year (1996) when Leicester City won the Coca-Cola Cup, Leicester Tigers won the Pilkington Cup, and Leicestershire won the County Championship.

Sports in New England

Two popular American sports were invented in New England. Basketball was invented by James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891. Volleyball was invented by William G. Morgan in Holyoke, Massachusetts, in 1895. Also, the first organized ice hockey game in the United States is widely believed to have been played in Concord, New Hampshire in 1883.The region is famous for its passion for baseball and the Boston Red Sox, as well as for the intense rivalry between the Red Sox and the New York Yankees.

On November 1, 1924, the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League became the first NHL franchise to be based in the United States, and the second-oldest surviving major professional sports team in Boston, after the Red Sox. The Bruins' historic rivalry with the Montreal Canadiens for ice hockey fans in the Boston area has, at times, reached the level of intensity of the Yankees – Red Sox rivalry in professional baseball in the region.The New England Patriots football team is based in Foxborough, Massachusetts, halfway between Boston and Providence. In 1999, the Patriots flirted with the idea of moving to Hartford, in what three National Football League (NFL) franchise owners called "the greatest financial deal any NFL owner has ever received". The deal, however, fell through, and the team remained in Foxborough.

Both the oldest Major League Baseball (MLB) professional baseball park still in use, Fenway Park, dating from April 1912, as well as the oldest indoor ice hockey rink still in use worldwide, Matthews Arena, which first opened in 1910 and currently stands on the property of Northeastern University for their collegiate ice hockey teams, are within the Boston city limits.

Sports on the Gold Coast, Queensland

Sport on the Gold Coast has a rich history. As a popular tourist destination leisure sports like Golf, but most particularly sports associated with its famous beaches, have always been popular. A number of surf clubs line Gold Coasts beaches, who host a variety of swimming and athletic events collected into surf carnivals along with competitions evolved from methods of surf life saving.

Motor racing has a strong history on the coast with racing having been held in the region since 1954, but consistently since the late 1960s with only a small break in the late 1980s as well as hosting the region's largest event, the Gold Coast 600.

The region has had a sporadic history with professional club sport. Several national competitions in Australia's different football codes and basketball have attempted to establish clubs in the city since the 1980s, often bankrolled by wealthy private owners including Christopher Skase and Clive Palmer, and most such clubs have folded within only a few years. In 2015, only the Gold Coast Titans in rugby league and the Gold Coast Suns in Australian rules football are competing in fully professional competitions. No Gold Coast based club has yet won a national premiership in its code.

The region was the host of the 2018 Commonwealth Games, building and upgrading various venues all over the Coast. The games were centred on Carrara Stadium.

Tweede Divisie

The Tweede Divisie (English: Second Division) is the only semi-professional (and historically the lowest professional) football league in the Netherlands. It was established in 1956, together with the Eredivisie and the Eerste Divisie. Between 1956 and 1960 and between 1962 and 1966, the league consisted of two divisions, Tweede Divisie A and Tweede Divisie B. The league was disbanded in 1971. Six clubs were promoted to the Eerste Divisie (De Volewijckers, FC Eindhoven, FC VVV, Fortuna Vlaardingen, PEC and Roda JC), while the other eleven teams became amateur clubs.

Plans for a new, semi-professional Tweede Divisie, to be made up of 4 reserve teams and 14 Topklasse clubs, were approved in a KNVB assembly in December 2014. Thus, the Topklasse, renamed the Derde Divisie (English: Third Division), and leagues below decremented by one level, and furthermore, promotion and relegation among the second to fourth divisions were implemented starting in 2016–17.

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