Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.

Koppen World Map BSh BSk
Regions with semi-arid climates
  BSh
  BSk

Defining attributes of semi-arid climates

A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are usually dominated by either grasses or shrubs.

Les Falaises de Bandiagara
Sahel region of Mali

To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold (in millimeters) involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20, then adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year (April through September in the Northern temperate zone, or October through March in the Southern), or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received. If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS (steppe climate).[1]

Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three widely used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid" (BSh), and a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid" (BSk).

Hot semi-arid climates

Koppen World Map BSh
Regions with hot semi-arid climates

Hot semi-arid climates (type "BSh") tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the (tropics and subtropics), typically in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate. These climates tend to have hot, sometimes extremely hot, summers and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most commonly found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most commonly found in Africa, Australia and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.[2] In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can also be found in Europe (primarily in Southeast Spain[3][4]), parts of North America, such as in Mexico, and areas of the Southwestern United States, and sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, and on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they typically feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with generally rainless summers and wetter winters.

Cold semi-arid climates

Koppen World Map BSk
Regions with cold semi-arid climates

Cold semi-arid climates (type "BSk") tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C (36 °F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers, relatively wet winters, and even wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most commonly found in Asia and North America. However, they can also be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, Europe, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand.

Regions of varying classification

In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month (0°C or −3°C), the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side. As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, California (at its main airport), which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean (so the average annual temperature is below 18°C) but mild winters (average temperature in January, 14°C, and closer to the 18.0°C isotherm that separates tropical and subtropical climates than to the 0°C or −3°C isotherm for the coldest month that separates temperate and continental climates).

Charts of selected cities

Patos, Paraíba, Brazil
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
66
 
 
32
22
 
 
139
 
 
32
22
 
 
213
 
 
31
22
 
 
177
 
 
30
22
 
 
55
 
 
29
21
 
 
28
 
 
27
21
 
 
12
 
 
27
20
 
 
3
 
 
28
20
 
 
1
 
 
30
20
 
 
4
 
 
31
21
 
 
8
 
 
32
21
 
 
22
 
 
32
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [5]
Jaipur (Sanganer), India
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
8
 
 
19
4
 
 
12
 
 
22
7
 
 
6
 
 
29
12
 
 
4
 
 
34
17
 
 
16
 
 
38
21
 
 
66
 
 
38
23
 
 
216
 
 
31
22
 
 
231
 
 
29
20
 
 
80
 
 
30
19
 
 
23
 
 
30
15
 
 
3
 
 
25
9
 
 
3
 
 
20
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: India Weather On Web
Niamey, Niger
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0
 
 
33
16
 
 
0
 
 
36
19
 
 
3.9
 
 
39
23
 
 
5.7
 
 
41
27
 
 
35
 
 
40
28
 
 
69
 
 
37
26
 
 
154
 
 
34
24
 
 
171
 
 
33
23
 
 
92
 
 
34
24
 
 
9.7
 
 
38
24
 
 
0.7
 
 
36
20
 
 
0
 
 
33
17
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[6]
Port Louis, Mauritius
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
131
 
 
32
24
 
 
160
 
 
31
24
 
 
83
 
 
32
24
 
 
87
 
 
31
23
 
 
48
 
 
29
22
 
 
24
 
 
28
20
 
 
18
 
 
27
19
 
 
19
 
 
27
19
 
 
17
 
 
28
19
 
 
15
 
 
29
20
 
 
24
 
 
30
22
 
 
85
 
 
31
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Meteorological Organization.[7]
Murcia, Spain
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
25
 
 
17
5
 
 
28
 
 
18
6
 
 
30
 
 
21
8
 
 
27
 
 
23
10
 
 
32
 
 
27
13
 
 
20
 
 
31
17
 
 
5
 
 
34
20
 
 
10
 
 
34
21
 
 
27
 
 
30
18
 
 
44
 
 
26
14
 
 
32
 
 
20
9
 
 
21
 
 
17
6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[8]
Reno, Nevada
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
26
 
 
8
−4
 
 
26
 
 
11
−2
 
 
19
 
 
14
1
 
 
12
 
 
18
3
 
 
12
 
 
23
8
 
 
13
 
 
29
11
 
 
4.6
 
 
33
14
 
 
5.8
 
 
33
13
 
 
8.9
 
 
28
9
 
 
13
 
 
21
4
 
 
21
 
 
13
−1
 
 
26
 
 
8
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NOAA[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (March 1, 2007). "Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net. University of Melbourne: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. pp. 1633–1644. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  2. ^ Bureau of Meteorology - CDlimate classification maps
  3. ^ "ATLAS CLIMÁTICO IBÉRICO" (PDF). administracion.gob.es/. Instituto de Meteorologia de Portugal. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  4. ^ http://www.aemet.es/documentos/es/conocermas/recursos_en_linea/publicaciones_y_estudios/publicaciones/2Atlas_climatologico/Atlas_Clima_Macaronesia___Baja.pdf
  5. ^ Climate of Patos Access on January 16th, 2016.
  6. ^ "Klimatafel von Niamey (Aéro) / Niger" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  7. ^ World Weather Information Service-Port Louis, World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 29 September 2012. }}
  8. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Murcia - Alcantarilla". Aemet.es. Archived from the original on 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  9. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
Altai montane forest and forest steppe

The Altai montane forest and forest steppe ecoregion (WWF ID:PA0502) covers patches of the subalpine forest belt on the Altai Mountains, crossing the border region where Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China meet. The region has high biodiversity, as it is located in transition zones between different ecoregions, altitudes, and climate zones. It is in the Palearctic ecozone, with a Cold semi-arid climate climate. It covers 35,199,998 km2 (13,590,795 sq mi).

Arid Diagonal

The Arid Diagonal (Spanish: diagonal árida/arreica) is a contiguous zone of arid and semi-arid climate that traverses South America from coastal Peru in the Northwest to Argentine Patagonia in Southeast including large swathes of Bolivia and Chile. The Arid Diagonal encompasses a number of deserts, for example: Sechura, Atacama, Monte and the Patagonian Desert.

The Arid Diagonal acts to isolate the temperate and subtropical forests of Chile and southern Argentina from other forests of South America. Together with the Quaternary glaciations in the Southern Andes, the diagonal has controlled the distribution of vegetation throughout Chile and Argentina.

Aridisol

Aridisols (or desert soils) are a soil order in USA soil taxonomy. Aridisols (from the Latin aridus, for “dry”, and solum) form in an arid or semi-arid climate. Aridisols dominate the deserts and xeric shrublands, which occupy about one third of the Earth's land surface. Aridisols have a very low concentration of organic matter, reflecting the paucity of vegetative production on these dry soils.

Water deficiency is the major defining characteristic of Aridisols. Also required is sufficient age to exhibit subsoil weathering and development. Limited leaching in aridisols often results in one or more subsurface soil horizons in which suspended or dissolved minerals have been deposited: silicate clays, sodium, calcium carbonate, gypsum or soluble salts. These subsoil horizons can also be cemented by carbonates, gypsum or silica. Accumulation of salts on the surface can result in salinization.

In the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), most Aridisols belong to the Calcisols, Gypsisols, Durisols and Solonchaks.

Avshalom Cave

Avshalom Cave (Hebrew: מערת אבשלום‎), also known as Soreq Cave (Arabic: مغارة سوريك‎, Mghar Suriq) or Stalactites Cave (Hebrew: מערת הנטיפים‎, Me'arat HaNetifim), is a 5,000 m2 cave on the western side of Mt. Ye'ela, in the Judean hills in Israel, unique for its dense concentration of stalactites and other cave formations.

The cave has been the focus of paleoclimate research, which allowed reconstruction of the region's semi-arid climate for the past 185,000 years. According to the American geologist James Aronson, the Soreq Cave Nature Reserve is the Rosetta stone of climate history in the Eastern Mediterranean.

Climate of Greece

The climate in Greece is predominantly Mediterranean. However, due to the country's unique geography, Greece has a remarkable range of micro-climates and local variations. To the west of the Pindus mountain range, the climate is generally wetter and has some maritime features. The east of the Pindus mountain range is generally drier and windier in summer. The highest peak is Mount Olympus, 2,918 metres (9,573 ft). The north areas of Greece have a transitional climate between the continental and the Mediterranean climate. There are mountainous areas that have an alpine climate.

Climate of Saudi Arabia

The climate of Saudi Arabia is marked by high temperatures during the day and low temperatures at night. The country follows the pattern of the desert climate, with the exception of the southwest, which features a semi-arid climate.

Columbia Plateau

The Columbia Plateau or Columbia Basin is a geographic region located almost entirely in Eastern Washington and north-central Oregon—with the eastern edge spilling over into Northern Idaho The area is characterized by its mostly semi-arid climate (Bsk under the Köppen classification)—with some areas falling under the desert (BWk) and mediterranean (Csa and Csb) classifications—resulting in a shrub-steppe environment.

Fauna of Sindh

The fauna of Sindh live in an area with a semi arid climate. With its coastal and riverine forests, its huge fresh water lakes, mountains and deserts, Sindh supports a large and varied wildlife population.

Fériana

Fériana (Arabic: فريانة‎) is a town and commune in the Kasserine Governorate, Tunisia. As of 2004 it had a population of 26,504. It is 35 km from Kasserine and 75 from Gafsa.

Located in the southern part of the Tunisian ridge, at 745 meters of altitude, it is one of the highest cities of Tunisia. It has a semi-arid climate in cool winter and receives about 350 millimeters of rain per year. Vegetation is scarce except a few steppes of alfa (spartum lygum) and vestiges of an Aleppo pine forest.

Gambos

Gambos is a municipality in the province of Huíla, Angola.

It is best known (and often confused) for the seat of its municipality, Chiange.

The municipality's semi arid climate and short rainfall levels are the main reason for the draught and famine that seasonly hits the local population, mostly traditional cattle breeders.

Grasslands National Park

Grasslands National Park is a Canadian national park located near the village of Val Marie, Saskatchewan, and one of 44 national parks and park reserves in Canada's national park system (though one of only two in Saskatchewan itself). This national park is north from the American state of Montana and lies adjacent to the international boundary.

The park was established in 1981. Prior to this the province's only national park was Prince Albert National Park.

Grasslands National Park represents the Prairie Grasslands natural region, protecting one of the nation's few remaining areas of undisturbed dry mixed-grass/shortgrass prairie grassland. The park is located in the World Wildlife Fund-defined Northern short grasslands ecoregion, which spans much of southern Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, and the northern Great Plains states in the USA. The unique landscape and harsh, semi-arid climate provide niches for several adapted plants and animals. The park and surrounding area house the country's only black-tailed prairie dog colonies. Rare and endangered fauna found in the park include bison, pronghorns, greater sage-grouses, burrowing owls, grizzly bears, coyotes, ferruginous hawks, swift foxes, elk, wolverines, prairie rattlesnakes, black-footed ferrets and greater short-horned lizards. Flora includes blue grama grass, needlegrass, plains cottonwood and silver sagebrush.Erosion by glacial meltwater formed many of the park's characteristic features. Highlights of the park's geological landscape include the Frenchman River Valley, the Seventy Mile Butte, and the badlands of Rock Creek.

In 1874, Sir George Mercer Dawson discovered western Canada's first dinosaur remains in the Killdeer Badlands during the International Boundary Survey. Later, in 1877, Sitting Bull took refuge in the area with around 5000 Sioux after the defeat of General Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn.

Holhol

Holhol (Arabic: حلحول‎, Somali: Hollholl) is a town in the Ali Sabieh Region of Djibouti. It is located 44 kilometres (27 miles) south-west of the capital Djibouti City, at an altitude of 450m. Holhol enjoys a semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSh). The surrounding district is rich in both livestock and fledgeling agriculture. It is notable for being the birthplace of Cheik Osman Waiss a nationalist and anti-colonial where he began his movement.

Kinkonychelys

Kinkonychelys ("Lac Kinkony Study Area turtle") is an extinct genus of side-necked turtle which existed in Madagascar during the Late Cretaceous period. It contains the single species Kinkonychelys rogersi, named in honor of its discoverer, Raymond R. Rogers. The genus and species are based on UA 9748, a nearly complete skull, which represents the first turtle skull described from the pre-Holocene era in Madagascar. A number of isolated skull and jaw bones have also been assigned to K. rogersi. These specimens were found in rocks of the Maastrichtian-age Maevarano Formation in the Mahajanga Basin of northwestern Madagascar. Another specimen, FMNH PR 2446, is speculated to represent another species, currently known as Kinkonychelys sp., but consensus on its distinction from K. rogersi remains unclear.The Maevarano Formation is a nonmarine rock formation that was deposited under a seasonal, semi-arid climate. A diverse vertebrate assemblage is known from the formation, including fishes, frogs, other turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals. The rocks of the formation can be subdivided into several members. UA 9748 was found in a claystone bed from an unnamed upper member; this member has also produced abundant and well-preserved fossils of ray-finned fish, crocodyliforms, and dinosaurs. The other specimens assigned to Kinkonychelys were found in the older Anembalemba Formation.Kinkonychelys is classified as a member of the Kurmademydini group in the family Bothremydidae, together with the late Cretaceous turtles Sankuchemys and Kurmademys, from India. The classification of Kinkonychelys into this group has helped to support the theory that the island of Madagascar and the subcontinent India were connected to each other prior to the end of the late Cretaceous period.

Lixisol

Lixisols are a Reference Soil Group of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). They are soils with subsurface accumulation of low activity clays and high base saturation. They develop under intensive tropical weathering conditions and subhumid to semi-arid climate.

Okanagan-Westside

Okanagan-Westside was a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, Canada from 2001 to 2009.

It included the small cities of Westbank, Westside, Peachland, and Summerland, and extended from the city limit of Summerland (in the south) to the Okanagan Lake bridge, in Westside (north). Kelowna, the major city in the Okanagan, lies across the Okanagan Lake bridge. Encompassing land in both the South and Central Okanagan, this constituency's lands are well known for their semi-arid climate and high summer temperatures..

Ryn Desert

The Ryn Desert or Ryn-Peski Desert (Kazakh: Нарын-Құм Naryn-Qum), is a desert in western Kazakhstan north of the Caspian Sea and southeast of the Volga Upland. The borders of the desert are very loosely defined. Some maps show the desert almost entirely within the Caspian Depression, stretching almost to the coast of the Caspian Sea, while others show it north of the depression. It lies west of the Ural River between 46° N and 49° N latitude, and 47° E to 52° E longitude. Temperatures can reach extreme highs of 45 to 48 °C (113 to 118 °F) during summer and in winter it can drop to a low of −28 to −36 °C (−18 to −33 °F).

Many small towns are scattered throughout the Ryn Desert, and population density is between 1 and 15 people per square mile. The Ryn lies in a semi-arid climate zone, and receives very little rainfall.

High winds sweep across the desert, and in 2001 a dust storm in the Baltic Sea was determined as originating in the Ryn Desert. A study of long-range dust transportation to the Baltic Sea region—by analyzing dust pollution in Scandinavia, showed that aerosol concentrations there were influenced more by the Ryn Desert region than the Sahara Desert in Africa.

Sahel

The Sahel () is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south. Having a semi-arid climate, it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea. The name is derived from the Arabic word sāḥil (ساحل, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈsaːħil]) meaning "coast" or "shore" in a figurative sense (in reference to the southern edge of the vast Sahara), while the name in Swahili means "coastal [dweller]" in a literal sense.

The Sahel part of Africa includes (from west to east) parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger, the extreme north of Nigeria, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon, Central African Republic and the extreme north of Ethiopia.Historically, the western part of the Sahel was sometimes known as the Sudan region. This belt was roughly located between the Sahara and the coastal areas of West Africa.

Tafresh

Tafresh (Persian: تفرش‎, Tafreš) is a city and the capital of Tafresh County, in Markazi Province, Iran. As of the 2011 census, its population was 25,912 (including 12,884 men and 13,028 women). The inhabitants are Persian-speaking.

Tafresh is located amidst high mountains 222 kilometres (138 mi) southwest of Tehran.

The flight distance between Tehran and Tafresh is 170 km towards southwest. The average altitude of Tafresh is 1912 meters above sea level, with a continental and semi-arid climate with an annual rainfall of 270 mm.

Despite its small size Tafresh is known in Iran for being the cradle of science, literature, culture and art, as well as a land of mountains and plains, springs and waterfalls.

Yuanshi County

Yuanshi County (simplified Chinese: 元氏县; traditional Chinese: 元氏縣; pinyin: Yuánshì Xiàn) is located in the southwest of Hebei province, China, 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the south of Shijiazhuang, the provincial capital. Yuanshi County borders Gaoyi County to the south, Zhao County and Luancheng District to the east, Jingxing County to the west and Luquan District to its north.

The total area of the county is 68 km2 (26 sq mi). The region is dominated by hills and valleys, with flat plains at the base of the Taihang Mountains. The area has a semi-arid climate, marked by continental monsoons and droughts during the Spring.Yuanshi became a county during the Han Dynasty and is the birthplace of Emperor Ming of Han, Li Mu and Li Zuoche.

Yuanshi was the site of the Hebei tractor rampage.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.6
 
 
90
71
 
 
5.5
 
 
89
71
 
 
8.4
 
 
88
71
 
 
7
 
 
86
71
 
 
2.2
 
 
84
71
 
 
1.1
 
 
81
69
 
 
0.5
 
 
81
67
 
 
0.1
 
 
82
67
 
 
0
 
 
85
69
 
 
0.2
 
 
88
69
 
 
0.3
 
 
89
70
 
 
0.9
 
 
90
71
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.3
 
 
66
39
 
 
0.5
 
 
72
45
 
 
0.2
 
 
84
54
 
 
0.2
 
 
93
63
 
 
0.6
 
 
100
70
 
 
2.6
 
 
100
73
 
 
8.5
 
 
88
72
 
 
9.1
 
 
84
68
 
 
3.1
 
 
86
66
 
 
0.9
 
 
86
59
 
 
0.1
 
 
77
48
 
 
0.1
 
 
68
41
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0
 
 
91
61
 
 
0
 
 
96
66
 
 
0.2
 
 
102
73
 
 
0.2
 
 
106
80
 
 
1.4
 
 
104
82
 
 
2.7
 
 
99
78
 
 
6.1
 
 
93
75
 
 
6.7
 
 
91
74
 
 
3.6
 
 
94
74
 
 
0.4
 
 
100
76
 
 
0
 
 
97
67
 
 
0
 
 
92
62
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.2
 
 
89
75
 
 
6.3
 
 
89
75
 
 
3.3
 
 
89
75
 
 
3.4
 
 
87
73
 
 
1.9
 
 
85
71
 
 
0.9
 
 
82
68
 
 
0.7
 
 
80
67
 
 
0.7
 
 
80
66
 
 
0.7
 
 
82
67
 
 
0.6
 
 
84
69
 
 
0.9
 
 
86
71
 
 
3.3
 
 
88
74
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1
 
 
62
40
 
 
1.1
 
 
65
43
 
 
1.2
 
 
70
46
 
 
1.1
 
 
74
49
 
 
1.3
 
 
80
56
 
 
0.8
 
 
88
63
 
 
0.2
 
 
93
69
 
 
0.4
 
 
94
70
 
 
1.1
 
 
87
64
 
 
1.7
 
 
78
57
 
 
1.3
 
 
69
48
 
 
0.8
 
 
63
42
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1
 
 
46
25
 
 
1
 
 
51
29
 
 
0.8
 
 
58
33
 
 
0.5
 
 
64
38
 
 
0.5
 
 
74
46
 
 
0.5
 
 
83
52
 
 
0.2
 
 
92
58
 
 
0.2
 
 
91
56
 
 
0.4
 
 
82
49
 
 
0.5
 
 
69
39
 
 
0.8
 
 
55
31
 
 
1
 
 
46
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

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