The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (/ˈsɛldʒʊk/ SEL-juuk; Persian: آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, and were targets of the First Crusade.
Sultanate of Rum
|Founded||10th century – Seljuq|
1104 – Baqtash was dethroned by Toghtekin
1307 – Mesud II died
The Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks, who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy, in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan. During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities.
When Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam. In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania. The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril, Chaghri, and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, and were given the title of dehqan. At the Battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, and after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51, they established an empire later called the Great Seljuk Empire. The Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades.
After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government, and played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language. They are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Shirvan and Arran), Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Turkmenistan, and Turkey.
The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family; in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuq lines, although in practice this often was not the case. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia.
|Titular name(s)||Personal name||Reign|
|Malik Shah I
ملک شاہ اول
Nasir al-Duniya wa al-Din
ناصر الدنیا والدین
|Mahmud bin Malik Shah
محمود بن ملک شاہ
Abul Muzaffar Rukn al-Duniya wa al-Din
أبو المظفر رکن الدنیا والدین
|Barkiyaruq bin Malik Shah
برکیاروق بن ملک شاه
|Malik Shah II
ملک شاہ الثانی
Ghiyath al-Duniya wa al-Din
غیاث الدنیا والدین
|Khwarazmian dynasty replaces the Seljuq dynasty. From 1157, the Oghuz took control of much of Khurasan, with the remainder in the hands of former Seljuq emirs.|
In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan.
History of the Turkic peoples
|Turkic Khaganate 552–744|
|Khazar Khaganate 618–1048|
|Great Bulgaria 632–668|
|Kangar union 659–750|
|Turk Shahi 665–850|
|Türgesh Khaganate 699–766|
|Uyghur Khaganate 744–840|
|Karluk Yabgu State 756–940|
|Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212|
|Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036|
|Oghuz Yabgu State|
|Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186|
|Seljuk Empire 1037–1194|
|Sultanate of Rum|
|Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century|
|Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231|
|Naiman Khanate –1204|
|Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266|
|Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526|
|Golden Horde |  1240s–1502|
|Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517|
|Bengal Sultanate 1352–1487|
|Ilyas Shahi dynasty|
To the Artuqids
The Seljuq line, already having been deprived of any significant power, effectively ended in the early 14th century.
Baba Ishak, also spelled Baba Ishāq, Babaî, or Bābā’ī, a charismatic preacher, led an uprising of the Turkoman of Anatolia against the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm well known as Babai Revolt c. 1239 until he was hanged in 1241.Beylik of Dilmaç
Beylik of Dilmaç (Dimleç or Demleç) was a small principality (Turkish: beylik) in East Anatolia (part of modern Turkey) founded in the 11th century .
After the battle of Malazgirt in 1071, the victorious Turkoman tribes led by ghazi warriors began to settle in Anatolia. One of these warriors was Dilmaç oğlu Mehmet (son of Dilmaç). After the Great Seljuk Empire conquered the city of Bitlis the city was given to Mehmet as an ikta i.e., nonheritable property in 1085. After conquering nearby town of Erzen (now a hamlet), Mehmet died in 1104. During the reign of his son Togan Aslan, the beylik was no more a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire. In the early years of his reign, Togan Aslan accepted the suzerainty of Artukids and together with Artukids, participated in a number of military operations against Crusaders, the most important being Battle of Ager Sanguinis in 1119 where Roger of Salerno lost his life. After securing independence he also had to fight against other Turkic beyliks like Sökmenli and former suzerain Artukids to defend Bitlis from attacks. After Togan's death (1134 ?) his successors fought against Georgia and Danishmends. As the small principalities were replaced by greater powers the beylik had to accept the suzerainty of Ayyubids, Harzemshah Sultanate, Ilkhanids, and Timur. After the return of Timur, Akkoyunlu Turcomans captured all of their territory probably around the 1410s.Beylik of Tanrıbermiş
Beylik of Tanrıbermiş was a small and short-lived principality in western Anatolia (modern Turkey) during the late 11th century.After the battle of Malazgirt in 1071, Oghuz Turkmen (Turkoman) tribes led by ghazi warriors began to settle in hitherto Byzantine-controlled Anatolia. A ghazi named Tanrıbermiş was one of them. Beginning by 1074 he founded a beylik (principality) in western Anatolia. His realm included Philadelphia (modern Alaşehir) and Ephesus. However, during the First Crusade in 1098 his territory was recovered by the forces of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. The Turks weren't able to penetrate as far as western Anatolia for about two centuries, until the Aydinids. Even after that, Philadelphia wasn't captured by the Turks until 1390.Beylik of Çubukoğulları
Beylik of Çubukoğulları (Turkish: Çubukoğulları Beyliği, literally "sons of Çubuk") was a small and short-lived principality in East Anatolia, Turkey between 1085 and 1112.
Çubuk was a commander in the Seljuk army. After the battle of Malazgirt in 1071, he fought in East Anatolia and was tasked with capturing the important fort of Harput (modern Elazığ). He captured the fort and continued making conquests in the surrounding area. He founded a principality under the suzerainty of the Seljuk Empire that included Palu, Çemişgezek, and Eğin (modern Kemaliye).
Çubuk was succeeded by his son Mehmet after 1092. After Mehmet's death in 1112 or 1113, the beylik was incorporated into the realm of Artuqids.Chobanids (beylik)
The Chobanids (Turkish: Çobanoğulları or Çobanoğulları Beyliği) were the ruling dynasty of the Anatolian beylik the controlled the city and region of Kastamonu in the 13th century.Gevher Nesibe
Gevher Nesibe was an early 13th century princess of the Sultanate of Rum, the daughter of Kilij Arslan II and sister of Kaykhusraw I.Jameh Mosque of Damavand
The Jameh Mosque of Damavand is an historical congregational mosque in the city of Damavand, Iran.
Built in Seljuq dynasty era, the mosque includes traces of Sassanid architecture. An inscription with the name Ismail I Safavi can also be seen there.Jameh Mosque of Darab
The Jameh Mosque of Darab is related to the Seljuq dynasty and is located in Darab, inside the city.Jameh Mosque of Gorgan
Jameh Mosque of Gorgan is one of the monuments of Gorgan. This mosque is located next to the Bazaar Nalbandan. The mosque is built in the Seljuq dynasty and has spherical minaret on which are the Kufic line.Kaykaus I
Kaykaus I or Kayka'us I or Keykavus I (Old Anatolian Turkish: كَیکاوس, Persian: عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwūs ibn Kaykhusraw) was the Sultan of Rum from 1211 until his death in 1220. He was the eldest son of Kaykhusraw I.Kaykaus II
Kaykaus II or Kayka'us II (Persian: عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو, ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwus ibn Kaykhusraw) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1246 until 1257.Kilij Arslan II
Kilij Arslan II (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان دوم) or ʿIzz ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Masʿūd (Persian: عز الدین قلج ارسلان بن مسعود) (Modern Turkish Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was a Seljuk Sultan of Rûm from 1156 until his death in 1192.Kilij Arslan III
Kilij Arslan III (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان, Persian: قلج ارسلان Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm for a short period between 1204 and 1205.List of historical structures in Isfahan Province
This is a list of historical structures in Isfahan Province, Iran.Melike Mama Hatun
Melike Mama Hatun, or simply Mama Hatun, was a female ruler of the Saltukid dynasty, with its capital in Erzurum, for an estimated nine years between 1191 and 1200. During her reign she had a caravanserai, a mosque, a bridge, and a hammam built in the town of Tercan, located midway between Erzincan and Erzurum, which are still standing and are named after her.Her tomb - build by masters from Ahlat - is also in Tercan. The town itself was called Mamahatun until recently, and is still referred to as such locally.
Mama Hatun also remains a vivacious figure in Turkish folk literature to this day.Mesud I
Mesud I', Masud I or Ma'sud I (Modern Turkish: I. Rükneddin Mesud or Rukn al-Dīn Mas'ūd (Persian: ركن الدین مسعود) was the sultan of the Seljuks of Rum from 1116 until his death in 1156.Rig castle
Rig castle (Persian: قلعه ریگ) ig Castle is related to the Seljuq dynasty and is located in the Kashmar County, Quzhd village.Seljuk
Seljuk may refer to:
Seljuk (warlord) (died c. 1038), founder of the Turko-Persian Seljuk dynasty in the Middle East and central Asia
Seljuq dynasty (c. 950–1307), the dynasty founded by Seljuk
Seljuk Empire (1051-1153), a medieval empire founded and ruled by the dynasty
Seljuq Sultanate of Rum (1060-1307), a medieval empire founded by later members of the dynastySuleiman II (Rûm)
Suleiman II, also known as Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah (Persian: رکن الدین سلیمان شاه), was the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm between 1196 and 1204.Son of Kilij Arslan II, he overthrew his brother, Sultan Kaykhusraw I, and became sultan in 1196.He fought neighbouring rulers and expanded the territories of the Sultanate. In 1201 he conquered Erzurum, giving it as a fief to Mughith al-Din Tugrulshah in 1202. Successful in the wars with the Byzantines, he was routed by the Georgians in the Battle of Basian of 1203.He was succeeded by Kilij Arslan III in 1204–1205, after which Kaykhusraw I forced his way into Konya, removed Kilij from power and was enthroned for a second time.
Great Seljuq sultans family tree
House of Seljuq
|Sultans of the Seljuq Empire (1037–1194)|
|Governors of Khorasan (1040–1118)|
|Governors of Kerman (1048–1188)|
|Governors of Damascus (1078–1105)|
|Governors of Aleppo (1094–1117)|
|Sultans of Rum (1092–1307)|
Royal houses of Europe