Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs[1][2] (/ˈsɛldʒʊk/ SEL-juuk; Persian: آل سلجوقAl-e Saljuq),[3] was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition[4][5] in the medieval West and Central Asia. The Seljuqs established both the Seljuk Empire and the Sultanate of Rum, which at their heights stretched from Iran to Anatolia, and were targets of the First Crusade.

Seljuq dynasty
Seljuqs Eagle
Double-headed eagle, used as a symbol by several Seljuq rulers including Kayqubad I
CountrySeljuk Empire
Sultanate of Rum
Founded10th century – Seljuq
1104 – Baqtash was dethroned by Toghtekin

Great Seljuq:
1194 – Toghrul III was killed in battle with Tekish

1307 – Mesud II died

Early history

The Seljuqs originated from the Qynyk branch of the Oghuz Turks,[6][7][8][9][10] who in the 9th century lived on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea in their Yabghu Khaganate of the Oghuz confederacy,[11] in the Kazakh Steppe of Turkestan.[12] During the 10th century, due to various events, the Oghuz had come into close contact with Muslim cities.[13]

When Seljuq, the leader of the Seljuq clan, had a falling out with Yabghu, the supreme chieftain of the Oghuz, he split his clan off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz and set up camp on the west bank of the lower Syr Darya. Around 985, Seljuq converted to Islam.[13] In the 11th century the Seljuqs migrated from their ancestral homelands into mainland Persia, in the province of Khurasan, where they encountered the Ghaznavid empire. In 1025, 40,000 families of Oghuz Turks migrated to the area of Caucasian Albania.[14] The Seljuqs defeated the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Nasa plains in 1035. Tughril, Chaghri, and Yabghu received the insignias of governor, grants of land, and were given the title of dehqan.[15] At the Battle of Dandanaqan they defeated a Ghaznavid army, and after a successful siege of Isfahan by Tughril in 1050/51,[16] they established an empire later called the Great Seljuk Empire. The Seljuqs mixed with the local population and adopted the Persian culture and Persian language in the following decades.[17][18][19][20][21]

Later period

After arriving in Persia, the Seljuqs adopted the Persian culture and used the Persian language as the official language of the government,[17][18][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] and played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition which features "Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers."[29] Today, they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language.[17][18][19] They are regarded as the partial ancestors of the Western Turks – the present-day inhabitants of the Republic of Azerbaijan (historically known as Shirvan and Arran), Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan), Turkmenistan, and Turkey.

Seljuq leaders

Rulers of the Seljuq Dynasty

The "Great Seljuqs" were heads of the family; in theory their authority extended over all the other Seljuq lines, although in practice this often was not the case. Turkish custom called for the senior member of the family to be the Great Seljuq, although usually the position was associated with the ruler of western Persia.

Titular name(s) Personal name Reign
Alp Arslan
الپ ارسلان
Jalāl al-Dawlah
جلال الدولہ
Malik Shah I
ملک شاہ اول
Nasir al-Duniya wa al-Din
ناصر الدنیا والدین
Mahmud bin Malik Shah
محمود بن ملک شاہ
Abul Muzaffar Rukn al-Duniya wa al-Din
أبو المظفر رکن الدنیا والدین
Barkiyaruq bin Malik Shah
برکیاروق بن ملک شاه
Muizz al-Din
معز الدین
Malik Shah II
ملک شاہ الثانی
Ghiyath al-Duniya wa al-Din
غیاث الدنیا والدین
Muhammad Tapar
محمد تپار
Muizz al-Din
معز الدین
*Ahmad Sanjar
احمد سنجر
Khwarazmian dynasty replaces the Seljuq dynasty. From 1157, the Oghuz took control of much of Khurasan, with the remainder in the hands of former Seljuq emirs.
  • Muhammad's son Mahmud II succeeded him in western Persia, but Ahmad Sanjar, who was the governor of Khurasan at the time being the senior member of the family, became the Great Seljuq Sultan.

Seljuq sultans of Hamadan

Seljuk Empire locator map
The Great Seljuq Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I[30]

The rulers of western Persia, who maintained a very loose grip on the Abbasids of Baghdad. Several Turkic emirs gained a strong level of influence in the region, such as the Eldiduzids.

In 1194, Tugrul III was killed in battle with the Khwarezm Shah, who annexed Hamadan.

Seljuq rulers of Kerman

History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turk Shahi 665–850
Türgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
Kimek confederation
Oghuz Yabgu State
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khalji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [31][32][33] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
Bengal Sultanate 1352–1487
  Ilyas Shahi dynasty

Kerman was a province in southern Persia. Between 1053 and 1154, the territory also included Umman.

  • Qawurd 1041–1073
  • Kerman Shah 1073–1074
  • Sultan Shah 1074–1075
  • Hussain Omar 1075–1084
  • Turan Shah I 1084–1096
  • Iran-Shah 1096–1101
  • Arslan Shah I 1101–1142
  • Mehmed I (Muhammad) 1142–1156
  • Toğrül Shah 1156–1169
  • Bahram Shah 1169–1174
  • Arslan Shah II 1174–1176
  • Turan Shah II 1176–1183
  • Muhammad Shah 1183–1187

Muhammad abandoned Kerman, which fell into the hands of the Oghuz chief Malik Dinar. Kerman was eventually annexed by the Khwarezmid Empire in 1196.

Seljuq rulers in Syria

To the Artuqids

Sultans/Emirs of Damascus:

  • Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi 1076–1079
  • Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I 1079–1095
  • Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq 1095–1104
  • Tutush II 1104
  • Muhi ad-Din Baqtash 1104

Damascus seized by the Burid Toghtekin

Seljuq sultans of Rum (Anatolia)

Seljuk Sultanate of Rum 1190 Locator Map
The Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm in 1190, before the Third Crusade

The Seljuq line, already having been deprived of any significant power, effectively ended in the early 14th century.



Toghrol Tower, a 12th-century monument south of Tehran commemorating Toğrül.

Seljuq Ewer

Seljuq-era art: Ewer from Herat, Afghanistan, dated 1180–1210. Brass worked in repousse and inlaid with silver and bitumen. British Museum.

Male royal figure, 12-13th century, from Iran

Head of Seljuq male royal figure, 12–13th century, from Iran. Carved and drilled stone with Iranian craftsmanship. Kept at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.


Shatranj chess set, glazed fritware, 12th-century Iran. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.


The Kharāghān twin towers, built in Iran in 1053 to house the remains of Seljuq princes

See also


  1. ^ Neiberg, Michael S (2002). Warfare in World History. Routledge. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9781134583423.
  2. ^ Harris, Jonathan (2014). Byzantium and the Crusades. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 39–45. ISBN 9781780937366.
  3. ^ Rāvandī, Muḥammad (1385). Rāḥat al-ṣudūr va āyat al-surūr dar tārīkh-i āl-i saljūq. Tihrān: Intishārāt-i Asāṭīr. ISBN 9643313662.
  4. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  5. ^ Nishapuri, Zahir al-Din Nishapuri (2001), "The History of the Seljuq Turks from the Jami’ al-Tawarikh: An Ilkhanid Adaptation of the Saljuq-nama of Zahir al-Din Nishapuri," Partial tr. K.A. Luther, ed. C.E. Bosworth, Richmond, UK. K.A. Luther, p. 9: "[T]he Turks were illiterate and uncultivated when they arrived in Khurasan and had to depend on Iranian scribes, poets, jurists and theologians to man the institution of the Empire")
  6. ^ Concise Britannica Online Seljuq Dynasty Archived 2007-01-14 at the Wayback Machine article
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Definition of Seljuk
  8. ^ The History of the Seljuq Turks: From the Jami Al-Tawarikh (LINK)
  9. ^ Shaw, Stanford. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey (LINK)
  10. ^ Golden, Peter B. (1992). An Introduction to the History of the Turkic People. Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden. p. 209
  11. ^ Wink, Andre, Al Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World Brill Academic Publishers, Jan 1, 1996, ISBN 90-04-09249-8 pg.9
  12. ^ Islam: An Illustrated History, p. 51
  13. ^ a b Michael Adas, Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History, (Temple University Press, 2001), 99.
  14. ^ "The Caucasus & Globalization." Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies. Institute of Strategic Studies of the Caucasus. Volume 5, Issue 1-2. 2011, p.116. CA&CC Press. Sweden.
  15. ^ Bosworth, C.E. The Ghaznavids: 994-1040, Edinburgh University Press, 1963, 242.
  16. ^ Tony Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O, (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), 476.
  17. ^ a b c O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  18. ^ a b c Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  19. ^ a b M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25–6 (2005), pp. 157–69
  20. ^ M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that Turco-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Seljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  21. ^ F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."
  22. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; Hillenbrand, R.; Rogers, J.M.; Blois, F.C. de; Bosworth, C.E.; Darley-Doran, R.E., "Saldjukids," Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online: "Culturally, the constituting of the Seljuq Empire marked a further step in the dethronement of Arabic from being the sole lingua franca of educated and polite society in the Middle East. Coming as they did through a Transoxania which was still substantially Iranian and into Persia proper, the Seljuqs with no high-level Turkish cultural or literary heritage of their own – took over that of Persia, so that the Persian language became the administration and culture in their land of Persia and Anatolia. The Persian culture of the Rum Seljuqs was particularly splendid, and it was only gradually that Turkish emerged there as a parallel language in the field of government and adab; the Persian imprint in Ottoman civilization was to remain strong until the 19th century.
  23. ^ John Perry, THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN in Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193–200. excerpt: "First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids and Seljuks onward were already iranized and patronized Persian literature in their domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia and Central and South Asia."
  24. ^ Ram Rahul. "March of Central Asia", Indus Publishing, pg 124: "The Seljuk conquest of Persia marked the triumph of the Sunni over Shii but without a decline in Persian culture. The Seljuks eventually adopted the Persian culture.
  25. ^ Ehsan Yarshater, "Iran" in Encyclopedia Iranica: "The ascent of the Saljuqids also put an end to a period which Minorsky has called "the Persian intermezzo" (see Minorsky, 1932, p. 21), when Iranian dynasties, consisting mainly of the Saffarids, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids, the Kakuyids, and the Bavandids of Tabarestan and Gilan, ruled most of Iran. By all accounts, weary of the miseries and devastations of never-ending conflicts and wars, Persians seemed to have sighed with relief and to have welcomed the stability of the Saljuqid rule, all the more so since the Saljuqids mitigated the effect of their foreignness, quickly adopting the Persian culture and court customs and procedures and leaving the civil administration in the hand of Persian personnel, headed by such capable and learned viziers as ‘Amid-al-Molk Kondori and Nezam-al-Molk."
  26. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish expansion towards the west", in UNESCO History of Humanity, Volume IV: From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century, UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, 2000. p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Bahā' al-Dīn Walad and his son Mawlānā Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, whose Mathnawī, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian literature."
  27. ^ Stephen P. Blake, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639–1739. Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran, it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were 'Persianized and Islamicized'".
  28. ^ Mehmed Fuad Koprulu, Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff, Routledge, 2006, pg 149: "If we wish to sketch, in broad outline, the civilization created by the Seljuks of Anatolia, we must recognize that the local, i.e. non-Muslim, element was fairly insignificant compared to the Turkish and Arab-Persian elements, and that the Persian element was paramount/The Seljuk rulers, to be sure, who were in contact with not only Muslim Persian civilization, but also with the Arab civilizations in al-jazīra and Syria – indeed, with all Muslim peoples as far as India – also had connections with {various} Byzantine courts. Some of these rulers, like the great 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I himself, who married Byzantine princesses and thus strengthened relations with their neighbors to the west, lived for many years in Byzantium and became very familiar with the customs and ceremonial at the Byzantine court. Still, this close contact with the ancient Greco-Roman and Christian traditions only resulted in their adoption of a policy of tolerance toward art, aesthetic life, painting, music, independent thought – in short, toward those things that were frowned upon by the narrow and piously ascetic views {of their subjects}. The contact of the common people with the Greeks and Armenians had basically the same result. {Before coming to Anatolia}, the Turks had been in contact with many nations and had long shown their ability to synthesize the artistic elements that they had adopted from these nations. When they settled in Anatolia, they encountered peoples with whom they had not yet been in contact and immediately established relations with them as well. 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I established ties with the Genoese and, especially, the Venetians at the ports of Sinop and Antalya, which belonged to him, and granted them commercial and legal concessions. Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee from Turkistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Khwārazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after Ghiyāth al-Dīn Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai-Khusraw, Kai-Kā'ūs, and Kai-Qubād; and that 'Ala' al-Dīn Kai-Qubād I had some passages from the Shāhnāme inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact {i.e. the importance of Persian influence} is undeniable. With regard to the private lives of the rulers, their amusements, and palace ceremonial, the most definite influence was also that of Iran, mixed with the early Turkish traditions, and not that of Byzantium."
  29. ^ Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, pg 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  30. ^ Black, Jeremy (2005). The Atlas of World History. American Edition, New York: Covent Garden Books. pp. 65, 228. ISBN 9780756618612. This map varies from other maps which are slightly different in scope, especially along the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
  31. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.
  32. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.
  33. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.

Further reading

  • Grousset, Rene (1988). The Empire of the Steppes: a History of Central Asia. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. p. 147. ISBN 0813506271.
  • Peacock, A.C.S., Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation; New York, NY; Routledge; 2010
  • Previté-Orton, C. W. (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Baba Ishak

Baba Ishak, also spelled Baba Ishāq, Babaî, or Bābā’ī, a charismatic preacher, led an uprising of the Turkoman of Anatolia against the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm well known as Babai Revolt c. 1239 until he was hanged in 1241.

Beylik of Dilmaç

Beylik of Dilmaç (Dimleç or Demleç) was a small principality (Turkish: beylik) in East Anatolia (part of modern Turkey) founded in the 11th century .

After the battle of Malazgirt in 1071, the victorious Turkoman tribes led by ghazi warriors began to settle in Anatolia. One of these warriors was Dilmaç oğlu Mehmet (son of Dilmaç). After the Great Seljuk Empire conquered the city of Bitlis the city was given to Mehmet as an ikta i.e., nonheritable property in 1085. After conquering nearby town of Erzen (now a hamlet), Mehmet died in 1104. During the reign of his son Togan Aslan, the beylik was no more a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire. In the early years of his reign, Togan Aslan accepted the suzerainty of Artukids and together with Artukids, participated in a number of military operations against Crusaders, the most important being Battle of Ager Sanguinis in 1119 where Roger of Salerno lost his life. After securing independence he also had to fight against other Turkic beyliks like Sökmenli and former suzerain Artukids to defend Bitlis from attacks. After Togan's death (1134 ?) his successors fought against Georgia and Danishmends. As the small principalities were replaced by greater powers the beylik had to accept the suzerainty of Ayyubids, Harzemshah Sultanate, Ilkhanids, and Timur. After the return of Timur, Akkoyunlu Turcomans captured all of their territory probably around the 1410s.

Beylik of Tanrıbermiş

Beylik of Tanrıbermiş was a small and short-lived principality in western Anatolia (modern Turkey) during the late 11th century.After the battle of Malazgirt in 1071, Oghuz Turkmen (Turkoman) tribes led by ghazi warriors began to settle in hitherto Byzantine-controlled Anatolia. A ghazi named Tanrıbermiş was one of them. Beginning by 1074 he founded a beylik (principality) in western Anatolia. His realm included Philadelphia (modern Alaşehir) and Ephesus. However, during the First Crusade in 1098 his territory was recovered by the forces of the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. The Turks weren't able to penetrate as far as western Anatolia for about two centuries, until the Aydinids. Even after that, Philadelphia wasn't captured by the Turks until 1390.

Beylik of Çubukoğulları

Beylik of Çubukoğulları (Turkish: Çubukoğulları Beyliği, literally "sons of Çubuk") was a small and short-lived principality in East Anatolia, Turkey between 1085 and 1112.

Çubuk was a commander in the Seljuk army. After the battle of Malazgirt in 1071, he fought in East Anatolia and was tasked with capturing the important fort of Harput (modern Elazığ). He captured the fort and continued making conquests in the surrounding area. He founded a principality under the suzerainty of the Seljuk Empire that included Palu, Çemişgezek, and Eğin (modern Kemaliye).

Çubuk was succeeded by his son Mehmet after 1092. After Mehmet's death in 1112 or 1113, the beylik was incorporated into the realm of Artuqids.

Chobanids (beylik)

The Chobanids (Turkish: Çobanoğulları or Çobanoğulları Beyliği) were the ruling dynasty of the Anatolian beylik the controlled the city and region of Kastamonu in the 13th century.

Gevher Nesibe

Gevher Nesibe was an early 13th century princess of the Sultanate of Rum, the daughter of Kilij Arslan II and sister of Kaykhusraw I.

Jameh Mosque of Damavand

The Jameh Mosque of Damavand is an historical congregational mosque in the city of Damavand, Iran.

Built in Seljuq dynasty era, the mosque includes traces of Sassanid architecture. An inscription with the name Ismail I Safavi can also be seen there.

Jameh Mosque of Darab

The Jameh Mosque of Darab is related to the Seljuq dynasty and is located in Darab, inside the city.

Jameh Mosque of Gorgan

Jameh Mosque of Gorgan is one of the monuments of Gorgan. This mosque is located next to the Bazaar Nalbandan. The mosque is built in the Seljuq dynasty and has spherical minaret on which are the Kufic line.

Kaykaus I

Kaykaus I or Kayka'us I or Keykavus I (Old Anatolian Turkish: كَیکاوس, Persian: عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو‎ ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwūs ibn Kaykhusraw) was the Sultan of Rum from 1211 until his death in 1220. He was the eldest son of Kaykhusraw I.

Kaykaus II

Kaykaus II or Kayka'us II (Persian: عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو‎, ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwus ibn Kaykhusraw) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1246 until 1257.

Kilij Arslan II

Kilij Arslan II (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان دوم) or ʿIzz ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Masʿūd (Persian: عز الدین قلج ارسلان بن مسعود‎) (Modern Turkish Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was a Seljuk Sultan of Rûm from 1156 until his death in 1192.

Kilij Arslan III

Kilij Arslan III (Old Anatolian Turkish: قِلِج اَرسلان, Persian: قلج ارسلان‎ Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm for a short period between 1204 and 1205.

List of historical structures in Isfahan Province

This is a list of historical structures in Isfahan Province, Iran.

Melike Mama Hatun

Melike Mama Hatun, or simply Mama Hatun, was a female ruler of the Saltukid dynasty, with its capital in Erzurum, for an estimated nine years between 1191 and 1200. During her reign she had a caravanserai, a mosque, a bridge, and a hammam built in the town of Tercan, located midway between Erzincan and Erzurum, which are still standing and are named after her.Her tomb - build by masters from Ahlat - is also in Tercan. The town itself was called Mamahatun until recently, and is still referred to as such locally.

Mama Hatun also remains a vivacious figure in Turkish folk literature to this day.

Mesud I

Mesud I', Masud I or Ma'sud I (Modern Turkish: I. Rükneddin Mesud or Rukn al-Dīn Mas'ūd (Persian: ركن الدین مسعود‎) was the sultan of the Seljuks of Rum from 1116 until his death in 1156.

Rig castle

Rig castle (Persian: قلعه ریگ‎) ig Castle is related to the Seljuq dynasty and is located in the Kashmar County, Quzhd village.


Seljuk may refer to:

Seljuk (warlord) (died c. 1038), founder of the Turko-Persian Seljuk dynasty in the Middle East and central Asia

Seljuq dynasty (c. 950–1307), the dynasty founded by Seljuk

Seljuk Empire (1051-1153), a medieval empire founded and ruled by the dynasty

Seljuq Sultanate of Rum (1060-1307), a medieval empire founded by later members of the dynasty

Suleiman II (Rûm)

Suleiman II, also known as Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah (Persian: رکن الدین سلیمان شاه‎), was the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm between 1196 and 1204.Son of Kilij Arslan II, he overthrew his brother, Sultan Kaykhusraw I, and became sultan in 1196.He fought neighbouring rulers and expanded the territories of the Sultanate. In 1201 he conquered Erzurum, giving it as a fief to Mughith al-Din Tugrulshah in 1202. Successful in the wars with the Byzantines, he was routed by the Georgians in the Battle of Basian of 1203.He was succeeded by Kilij Arslan III in 1204–1205, after which Kaykhusraw I forced his way into Konya, removed Kilij from power and was enthroned for a second time.

Great Seljuq sultans family tree
Duqaq Temür Yalığ
(b. ? – d. ?)
Commander-in-chief of Oghuz army
(b. ? – d. ?)
Commander-in-chief of Oghuz army
Arslan Yabgu
(b. ? – d. 1032)
Chief of Seljuq Dynasty
(b. ? -d. ?)
Musa Yabgu
1.Toghrul I
(r. 1037–1063)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1040–1060)
Governor of Khorasan
Ibrahim Inal
(r. 1048–1073)
Governor of Kirman
Alp Sungur
Governor of Azerbaijan
2.Alp Arslan
(r. 1063–1072)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
married Abbasid caliph Al-Qa'im.
Jawhar Khatun
(r. 1078–1095)
Governor of Damascus
(r. 1066–1083)
Governor of Khorasan
3.Malik-Shah I
(r. 1072–1092)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1083–1092)
Governor of Khorasan
married Kara-Khanid khan Nasr Shams al-Mulk.
(r. 1092–1097)
Governor of Khorasan
Mah-i Mulk
married Abbasid caliph Al-Muqtadi.
(r. 1094–1105)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
4.Mahmud I
(r. 1092–1094)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1105–1118)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1118–1153)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
Gawhar Khatun
married Ghaznavid sultan Mas'ud III.
married Kakuyid atabeg Garshasp II.
6.Malik-Shah II
(r. 1105)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
8.Mahmud II
(r. 1118–1131)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1159–1160)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1135–1152)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
11.Toghrul II
(r. 1132–1135)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
Mu'mine Khatun
wife of Toghrul II
until 1135
wife of Ildeniz
from 1136
(r. 1160–1175)
de facto ruler
Atabeg of Arslan-Shah
14.Muhammad II
(r. 1153–1159)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1131–1132)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
13.Malik-Shah III
(r. 1152–1153)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1160–1176)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
(r. 1175–1186)
de facto ruler
Atabeg of Toghrul III
18.Qizil Arslan
(r. 1191)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
17.Toghrul III
(r. 1176–1191, 1192–1194)
Sultan of Great Seljuq
  • "Family tree of Seljuqs" (PDF).
House of Seljuq
Early Seljuqids
Sultans of the Seljuq Empire (1037–1194)
Governors of Khorasan (1040–1118)
Governors of Kerman (1048–1188)
Governors of Damascus (1078–1105)
Governors of Aleppo (1094–1117)
Sultans of Rum (1092–1307)
Iran Iran topics
Turkey Turkey topics
Royal houses of Europe


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