Seine fishing

Seine (/seɪn/ SAYN) fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats. Seine nets can be deployed from the shore as a beach seine, or from a boat.

Boats deploying seine nets are known as seiners. Two main types of seine net are deployed from seiners: purse seines and Danish seines.

Seining for wild fish
Seining for fish in a river
Seine (PSF)
A basic seine net

Etymology

The word seine has its origins in the Old English segne[1], which entered the language via Latin sagena, from the original Greek σαγήνη sagēnē (a drag-net).[2]

History

Seines have been used widely in the past, including by stone age societies. For example, the Māori used large canoes to deploy seine nets which could be over a kilometer long. The nets were woven from green flax, with stone weights and light wood or gourd floats, and could require hundreds of men to haul.[3]

Fishermen horse seining for salmon on the Columbia River, nd (COBB 99).jpeg
Haul seining with horses on the Columbia River, undated photo by John Nathan Cobb

Native Americans on the Columbia River wove seine nets from spruce root fibers or wild grass, again using stones as weights. For floats they used sticks made of cedar which moved in a way which frightened the fish and helped keep them together.[4]

Seine nets are also well documented in ancient cultures in the Mediterranean region. They appear in Egyptian tomb paintings from 3000 BC. In ancient Roman literature, the poet Ovid makes many references to seine nets, including the use of cork floats and lead weights.[5][6][7]

Purse seine

Salmon purse seining
Fish swimming near the surface are surrounded by a wall of netting supported by floats.
Salmon purse seining drawing 1
The net is drawn or "pursed" so it is closed at the bottom as well.

A common type of seine is a purse seine, named such because along the bottom are a number of rings. A line (referred to as a purse-line) passes through all the rings, and when pulled, draws the rings close to one another, preventing the fish from "sounding", or swimming down to escape the net. This operation is similar to a traditional style purse, which has a drawstring. The purse seine is a preferred technique for capturing fish species which school, or aggregate, close to the surface: sardines, mackerel, anchovies, herring, and certain species of tuna (schooling); and salmon soon before they swim up rivers and streams to spawn (aggregation). Boats equipped with purse seines are called purse seiners.

Purse seining boat, location unknown, nd (COBB 314).jpeg
Purse seiner on the U.S. Pacific Coast, photo by John Nathan Cobb

Purse seine fishing can be a relatively sustainable [?] way of fishing, as it can result in smaller amounts of by-catch (unintentionally caught fish), especially when used to catch large species of fish (like herring or mackerel) that shoal tightly together.[8] When used to catch fish that shoal together with other species, or when used in parallel with fish aggregating devices, the percentage of by-catch greatly increases.[8]

Use of purse seines is regulated by many countries. In Sri Lanka, using this type of net within 7 kilometers of the shore is illegal.[9] However, they can be used in the deep sea, after obtaining permission from authorities. Purse seine fishing can have negative impacts on fish stocks because it can involve the bycatch of non-target species and it can put too much pressure on fish stocks.[10]

Purse seine illustration, Historic American Engineering Record
Purse seine boat encircling a school of fish
Chilean purse seine
A school of about 400 tons of jack mackerel encircled by a Chilean purse seiner

Power block

Salmon seiner drumming in the net
Salmon seiner with power block 1967
Hauling net with power block on salmon purse seiner
Closeup of the power block

The power block is a mechanized pulley used on some seiners to haul in the nets. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, no single invention has contributed more to the success of purse seine net hauling than the power block.[11]

The Puretic power block line was introduced in the 1950s and was the key factor in the mechanization of purse seining. The combination of these blocks with advances in fluid hydraulics and the new large synthetic nets changed the character of purse seine fishing. The original Puretic power block was driven by an endless rope from the warping head of a winch. Nowadays, power blocks are usually driven by hydraulic pumps powered by the main or auxiliary engine. Their rpm, pull and direction can be controlled remotely.[11]

A minimum of three people are required for power block seining; the skipper, skiff operator, and corkline stacker. In many operations a fourth person stacks the leadline, and often a fifth person stacks the web.

Drum

Drum net seiner
Drum net seiner in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia

In certain parts of the western United States as well as Canada, specifically on the coast of British Columbia, drum seining is a method of seine fishing which was adopted in the late 1950s and is now used exclusively in that region.[12]

The drum seine uses a horizontally mounted drum to haul and store the net instead of a power block. The net is pulled in over a roller, which spans the stern, and then passes through a spooling gear with upright rollers. The spooling gear is moved from side to side across the stern which allows the net to be guided and wound tightly on the drum.[13]

There are several advantages to the drum seine over the power block. The net can be hauled very quickly - at more than twice the speed of using a power block, the net does not require overhead handling, and the process is therefore safer. The most important advantage is that the drum system can be operated with fewer deckhands. However, it is illegal to use a seine drum in the state of Alaska[14].

Danish seine

A Danish seine, also occasionally called an anchor seine, consists of a conical net with two long wings with a bag where the fish collect. Drag lines extend from the wings, and are long so they can surround an area.

A Danish seine is similar to a small trawl net, but the wire warps are much longer and there are no otter boards. The seine boat drags the warps and the net in a circle around the fish. The motion of the warps herds the fish into the central net.

Danish seiner vessels are usually larger than purse seiners, though they are often accompanied by a smaller vessel. The drag lines are often stored on drums or coiled onto the deck by a coiling machine. A brightly coloured buoy, anchored as a "marker", serves as a fixed point when hauling the seine. A power block, usually mounted on a boom or a slewing deck crane, hauls the seine net.

Danish seining works best on demersal fish which are either scattered on or close to the bottom of the sea, or are aggregated (schooling). They are used when there are flat but rough seabeds which are not trawlable. It is especially useful in northern regions, but not much in tropical to sub-tropical areas.

The net is deployed, with one end attached to an anchored dan (marker) buoy, by the main vessel, the seiner, or by a smaller auxiliary boat. A drag line is paid out, followed by a net wing. As the seiner sweeps in a big circle returning to the buoy, the deployment continues with the seine bag and the remaining wing, finishing with the remaining drag line. In this way a large area can be surrounded. Next the drag lines are hauled in using rope-coiling machines until the catch bag can be secured.

The seine netting method developed in Denmark. Scottish seining ("fly dragging") was a later modification. The original procedure is much the same as fly dragging except for the use of an anchored marker buoy when hauling, and closing the net and warps and net by winch.

Other images

Purse seining
French tuna purse seiner
Modern French tuna purse seiner using a power block. The helicopter is used to search for tuna schools.
Skiff tuna purser
Skiff tuna purser
Seine skiff setting the net
Seine skiff setting the net
Brailing salmon
Brailing the salmon on board
Skiff tuna purser
Seine skiff setting the net
Brailing salmon
Seining in the past
Verbena (ship)
Early steam seine netter
Seining salmon
Manually seining salmon on Columbia River, Oregon, 1914
Hauling in beach seine using horse teams
Hauling in a beach seine using horse teams 1938
RV John R. Manning (FWS 1002) purse-seining
R/V John R. Manning starting a purse seine set in the tropical Pacific Ocean, ca. 1950.
Seining salmon
Hauling in beach seine using horse teams
RV John R. Manning (FWS 1002) purse-seining

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Etymonline https://www.etymonline.com/word/seine#etymonline_v_23124
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (1926) 13th edition, volume 23, page 587.
  3. ^ Meredith, Paul "Te hī ika – Māori fishing" Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Updated 2 March 2009.
  4. ^ Smith, Courtland L Seine fishing Oregon Encyclopedia. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  5. ^ Radcliffe W (1926) Fishing from the Earliest Times John Murray, London.
  6. ^ Johnson WM and Lavigne DM (1999) Monk Seals in Antiquity Fisheries, pp. 48–54. Netherlands Commission for International Nature Protection.
  7. ^ Gilroy, Clinton G (1845) "The history of silk, cotton, linen, wool, and other fibrous substances: including observations on spinning, dyeing and weaving" pp. 455–464. Harper & Brothers, Harvard University.
  8. ^ a b Purse-seining: when fishing methods go bad, Greenpeace, 18 May 2010
  9. ^ "Sri Lanka fisheries authorities and navy to act against local fishermen using illegal fishing methods". Colombopage. 21 October 2013.
  10. ^ "Overfishing - emptying our seas - Greenpeace UK". greenpeace.org.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  11. ^ a b FAO Fishing Equipment: Power block
  12. ^ A Paean to Purse Seiners and Seafood Fest Seattle Press Online, 15 July 1999.
  13. ^ FAO: Fishing Techniques: Drum seining Rome. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  14. ^ https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/346/1286/1879084/

References

  • Division of Commercial Fisheries (26 July 2005). "Commercial Purse Seine Fishery". Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Retrieved 20 April 2008.
  • Gabriel O., von Brandt A., Lange K., Dahm E. and Wendt T. (2005) Fish catching methods of the world: Seining in fresh and sea water Wiley-Blackwell, Page 431–448. ISBN 978-0-85238-280-6
  • Seine nets Fishing Gear Types. FAO, Rome. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  • Beach seines Fishing Gear Types. FAO, Rome. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  • Boat seines Fishing Gear Types. FAO, Rome. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  • Two boat purse seining Fishing Techniques. FAO, Rome. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
  • Purse seines Fishing Gear Types. FAO, Rome. Retrieved 13 March 2012.

External links

Buoy

A buoy (, North America more commonly, but not exclusively ) is a floating device that can have many purposes. It can be anchored (stationary) or allowed to drift with ocean currents. The etymology of the word is disputed.

Dragnet

Dragnet may refer to:

Dragnet, a fishing net used in seine fishing

Dragnet (policing), a coordinated search, named for the fishing net

Fibras Industriales S.A.

Fibras Industriales S.A., commercially known as FISA is the largest multi-filament fishing net manufacturer in the western hemisphere. FISA has more than 60 years of experience in the market, developing products for use in purse seine fishing, trawling, long line fishing, gillnet fishing, fish and shellfish farms, among others.

FISAs main plant is located in Lima, Peru and there are commercial offices in Puerto Montt, Chile to attend the local salmon farm industry and in Chimbote, Peru to attend a large sector of the fishing industry in this, Peru's main fishing port.

During 2006, FISA inaugurated a state of the art woven plastic sacks manufacturing plant with the latest machinery from Starlinger, Austria and this plant was subsequently sold to Grupo Fierro during 2011.

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A fishing net is a net used for fishing. Nets are devices made from fibers woven in a grid-like structure. Some fishing nets are also called fish traps, for example fyke nets. Fishing nets are usually meshes formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Early nets were woven from grasses, flaxes and other fibrous plant material. Later cotton was used. Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and are still used.

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Kujūkuri Beach (九十九里浜, Kujūkuri-hama) is a sandy beach that occupies much of the northeast coast of the Bōsō Peninsula in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The beach is approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) long, making it the second longest beach in Japan. Kujūkuri Beach is a popular swimming and surfing destination for inhabitants of Greater Tokyo. The beach is protected as part of Kujūkuri Prefectural Natural Park.

List of shipwrecks in 1914

The list of shipwrecks in 1914 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost in 1914.

Nauru Agreement

The Nauru Agreement Concerning Cooperation in the Management of Fisheries of Common Interest, or The Nauru Agreement is an Oceania subregional agreement between the Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu.

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Phyllis Cormack

The Phyllis Cormack is a 25-meter (82-foot) herring and halibut seine fishing boat, displacing 99 tons and crewed by up to 12 people. The wooden vessel was built in 1941 in Tacoma, Washington, by Marine View Boat Works. It was chartered in (northern hemisphere) autumn 1971 by the Don't Make a Wave Committee to sail to Amchitka to protest against the planned nuclear tests there.

Puretic power block

The Puretic power block is a special kind of mechanised winch used to haul nets on fishing vessels. The power block is a large powered aluminium pulley with a hard rubber-coated sheave. While many men were needed for the back-breaking work of hauling a purse seine manually, the same work could be done by fewer men with a power block.The Puretic power block revolutionized the technology of hauling fishing nets, particularly purse seine nets. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), "no single invention has contributed more to the success of purse seine net hauling" than the power block, which was "the linch-pin in the mechanization of purse seining".

River Feale

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Seine Bight

Seine Bight is a village on the Placencia Peninsula located in the Stann Creek District of Belize. It is located 2 and a half miles south of Maya Beach Village and North of the village of Placencia. This small village has roughly 1,000 inhabitants, mostly Garifuna people who subsist on fishing, hunting, and homegrown vegetables. The early settlers named their village for their favored fishing tackle, Seine fishing and a bight, a bend or curve in a coastline.

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