Seine

The Seine (/seɪn/ SAYN, French: [sɛːn] (listen)) is a 777-kilometre-long (483 mi) river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre (and Honfleur on the left bank).[1] It is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, and nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating; excursion boats offer sightseeing tours of the river banks in Paris, lined with top monuments including Notre-Dame, the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre Museum and Musée d'Orsay.[2]

There are 37 bridges within Paris and dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur.

Seine
Bercy, Paris 01
The Seine in Paris
Topographic map of the Seine basin (English png)
Topographic map of the Seine basin
Location
CountryFrance
Physical characteristics
Mouth 
 - coordinates
49°26′02″N 0°12′24″E / 49.43389°N 0.20667°ECoordinates: 49°26′02″N 0°12′24″E / 49.43389°N 0.20667°E
 - elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Length777 km (483 mi)
Basin size79,000 km2 (31,000 sq mi)
Discharge 
 - locationLe Havre
 - average560 m3/s (20,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 - leftYonne, Loing, Eure, Risle
 - rightOurce, Aube, Marne, Oise, Epte

Sources

Source Seine
The source of the Seine

The Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864. A number of closely associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source. The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, and a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of the dea Sequana "Seine goddess" and other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archaeological museum.

Course

The Seine can artificially be divided into five parts:

  • the Petite Seine "Small Seine" from the sources to Montereau-Fault-Yonne
  • the Haute Seine "Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris
  • the Traversée de Paris "the Paris waterway"
  • the Basse Seine "Lower Seine" from Paris to Rouen
  • the Seine maritime "Maritime Seine" from Rouen to the English channel.

Navigation

Pont de Normandie from above-edit
The Pont de Normandie over the Seine, between Le Havre and Honfleur, on the Normandy coast

The Seine is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from the sea. Commercial craft (barges and push-tows) can use the river from Marcilly-sur-Seine, 516 kilometres (321 mi) to its mouth.[3]

At Paris, there are 37 bridges. The river is only 24 metres (79 ft) above sea level 446 kilometres (277 mi) from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus easily navigable.

The Seine Maritime, 123 kilometres (76 mi) from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.[4] The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section (Basse Seine) with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine (170 km). Smaller locks at Bougival and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the junction with the Canal Saint-Martin is located. The distance from the mouth of the Oise is 72 km.[5]

The Haute Seine, from Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne, is 98 km long and has 8 locks.[6] At Charenton-le-Pont is the mouth of the Marne. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine (48 km, 7 locks).[7] From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft to Marcilly-sur-Seine (19 km, 4 locks).[8] At Marcilly-sur-Seine the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes. This canal has been abandoned since 1957.[9]

The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres (31 ft). Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, and consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks (depicted in many illustrations of the period). Today the depth is tightly controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is normally filled with water. The average flow of the river is very low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur.

Flooding

A very severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city. The Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, and January 2018.[10][11] After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms that would have been flooded.[12] A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas.[13]

2018 Paris flood

In January 2018 the Seine again flooded, reaching a flood level of 5.84 metres (19 ft 2 ins) on 29 January.[14] An official warning was issued on January 24 that heavy rainfall was likely to cause the river to flood.[15] By January 27, the river was rising.[16] The Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by climate change, and that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality."[17]

Watershed

The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres (30,470 sq mi),[18] 2 percent of which is forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen in the Seine valley and Reims at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent.[18] The population density is 201 per square kilometer.

Water quality

Periodically the sewerage systems of Paris experience a failure known as sanitary sewer overflow, often in periods of high rainfall. Under these conditions untreated sewage is discharged into the Seine.[19] The resulting oxygen deficit is principally caused by allochthonous bacteria larger than one micrometre in size. The specific activity of these sewage bacteria is typically three to four times greater than that of the autochthonous (background) bacterial population. Heavy metal concentrations in the Seine are relatively high.[20] The pH level of the Seine at Pont Neuf has been measured to be 8.46. Despite this, the water quality has improved significantly over what several historians at various times in the past called an "open sewer".[21]

In 2009, it was announced that Atlantic salmon had returned to the Seine.[22]

History

Seine by Eiffel
The Seine and Eiffel Tower

Name

The name Seine comes from the Latin Sēquana, the Gallo-Roman goddess of the river.

Events

On 28 or 29 March 845 an army of Vikings led by a chieftain named Reginherus, which is possibly another name for Ragnar Lothbrok, sailed up the River Seine with siege towers and sacked Paris.

On 25 November 885 another Viking expedition led by Rollo was sent up the River Seine to attack Paris again.

In March 1314, King Philip IV of France had Jacques de Molay, last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, burned on a scaffold on an island in the River Seine in front of Notre Dame de Paris.[23]

After the burning at the stake of Joan of Arc in 1431, her ashes were thrown into the Seine from the medieval stone Mathilde Bridge at Rouen, though unserious counter-claims persist.[24]

According to his will, Napoleon, who died in 1821, wished to be buried on the banks of the Seine. His request was not granted.

At the 1900 Summer Olympics, the river hosted the rowing, swimming, and water polo events.[25] Twenty-four years later, it hosted the rowing events again at Bassin d'Argenteuil, along the Seine north of Paris.[26]

Until the 1930s, a towing system using a chain on the bed of the river existed to facilitate movement of barges upriver. World Canals by Charles Hadfield, David and Charles 1986

The Seine was one of the original objectives of Operation Overlord in 1944. The Allies' intention was to reach the Seine by 90 days after D-Day. That objective was met. An anticipated assault crossing of the river never materialized as German resistance in France crumbled by early September 1944. However, the First Canadian Army did encounter resistance immediately west of the Seine and fighting occurred in the Forêt de la Londe as Allied troops attempted to cut off the escape across the river of parts of the German 7th Army in the closing phases of the Battle of Normandy.

Some of the Algerian victims of the Paris massacre of 1961 drowned in the Seine after being thrown by French policemen from the Pont Saint-Michel and other locations in Paris.

Dredging in the 1960s mostly eliminated tidal bores on the lower river, known in French as "le mascaret."

In 1991 UNESCO added the banks of the Seine in Paris—the Rive Gauche and Rive Droite—to its list of World Heritage Sites in Europe.[27]

Since 2002 Paris-Plages has been held every summer on the Paris banks of the Seine: a transformation of the paved banks into a beach with sand and facilities for sunbathing and entertainment.

The river is a popular site for disposal of bodies of murder victims.[28] In 2007, 55 bodies were retrieved from its waters; in February 2008, the body of supermodel-turned-activist Katoucha Niane was found there.[28]

In fiction

The Seine was the river that Javert, the primary antagonist of Victor Hugo's 1862 novel Les Misérables drowned himself in.

In art

During the 19th and the 20th centuries in particular the Seine inspired many artists, including:

A song 'La Seine' by Flavien Monod and Guy Lafarge was written in 1948.

Josephine Baker recorded a song 'La Seine' [29]

A song 'La seine' by Vanessa Paradis feat. Matthieu Chedid was originally written as a soundtrack for the movie 'A Monster in Paris'

A Sunday on La Grande Jatte, Georges Seurat, 1884

Georges Seurat's Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884–1886) is set on an island in the Seine.

Carl Fredrik Hill 002

Carl Fredrik Hill, Seine-Landschaft bei Bois-Le-Roi (Seine Landscape in Bois-Le-Roi) (1877).

Alfred Sisley - The Terrace at Saint-Germain, Spring - Walters 37992

Alfred Sisley, The Terrace at Saint-Germain, Spring (1875) in the Walters Art Museum gives a panoramic view of the Seine river valley.

TKM 1082M, Pesumajad Seine'il, Andrus Johani

"Washhouses on Seine" (1937) by Andrus Johani

See also

References

  1. ^ A hand book up the Seine. G.F. Cruchley, 81, Fleet Street, 1840. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  2. ^ "River in Paris". Paris Digest. 2018. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  3. ^ Edwards-May, David (2010). Inland Waterways of France. St Ives, Cambs., UK: Imray. pp. 90–94. ISBN 978-1-846230-14-1.
  4. ^ Fluviacarte, Seine maritime
  5. ^ Fluviacarte, Basse Seine
  6. ^ Fluviacarte, Haute Seine
  7. ^ Fluviacarte, Petite Seine (aval)
  8. ^ Fluviacarte, Petite Seine (amont)
  9. ^ "La construction du canal de la Haute-Seine" (PDF).
  10. ^ Seine river Basin Archived 8 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine, United Nations Environment Programme Department of Early Warning and Assessment (accessed 5 June 2007).
  11. ^ Willsher, Kim (24 January 2018). "Paris on flooding alert as rising Seine causes travel disruption". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  12. ^ Riding, Alan (19 February 2003). "Fearing a Big Flood, Paris Moves Art". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009.
  13. ^ Mulholland,, Rory (25 January 2002). "Paris flood warning". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008.
  14. ^ Garriga, Nicolas; Schaeffer, Jeffrey (29 January 2018). "France sees worst rains in 50 years, floods peak in Paris". Deseret News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018.
  15. ^ Willsher, Kim (24 January 2018). "Paris on flooding alert as rising Seine causes travel disruption". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  16. ^ Held, Amy (27 January 2018). "Déjà Vu Flooding In Paris As Officials Say Seine Will Crest Soon". The Two-Way. National Public Radio. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018.
  17. ^ Vandoorne, Saskya; Said-Moorhouse, Lauren (26 January 2018). "Paris is still on flood alert even though the rain has stopped". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018.
  18. ^ a b "World Resources Institute". Earthtrends.wri.org. 22 February 1999. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  19. ^ Martin Seidl, The fate of organic matter in river Seine after a combined sewer overflow, ENPC – University Paris Val de Marne Paris XII (France), 1997, 181 pp.
  20. ^ J.F.Chiffoleau. 2007. Metal contamination. the Seine-Aval scientific programme. Quae. 40 pages
  21. ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2006). Water quality of fresh water bodies in France. Aberdeen: Luminna Press.
  22. ^ "Radio France Internationale – Atlantic salmon return to river Seine". Rfi.fr. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
  23. ^ A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol. III by Henry Charles Lea, NY: Hamper & Bros, Franklin Sq. 1888, p. 325. Not in copyright.
  24. ^ In February 2006 a team of forensic scientists announced the beginning of a six-month study to assess relics from a museum at Chinon reputed to be the remains of Jeanne d'Arc. In 2007, the investigators reported their conclusion that the relics from Chinon came from an Egyptian mummy and a cat, see Butler, Declan (2007). "Joan of Arc's relics exposed as forgery". Nature. 446 (7136): 593. doi:10.1038/446593a. PMID 17410145.
  25. ^ 1900 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 28 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine pp. 17–18. (in French)
  26. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 10 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine pp. 165–6.
  27. ^ Paris, Banks of the Seine Archived 21 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine, the World Heritage Site entry from the UNESCO website
  28. ^ a b Supermodel Katoucha Niane found dead Archived 29 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine from The Daily Telegraph
  29. ^ Avenger88 (26 January 2013). "La Seine". Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2018 – via YouTube.

External links

Boulogne-Billancourt

Boulogne-Billancourt (French pronunciation: ​[bulɔɲ bijɑ̃kuʁ]; often colloquially called simply Boulogne, until 1924 Boulogne-sur-Seine) is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 8.2 km (5.1 mi) from the centre of Paris. Boulogne-Billancourt is a subprefecture of the Hauts-de-Seine department and the seat of the Arrondissement of Boulogne-Billancourt.

Châtillon-sur-Seine

Châtillon-sur-Seine is a commune of the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France.

The Musée du Pays Châtillonnais is housed in old abbey of Notre-Dame de Châtillon, within the town, known for its collection of pre-Roman and Roman relics (especially the famous Vix Grave).

Communes of the Seine-Maritime department

The following is a list of the 711 communes of the French department of Seine-Maritime.

The communes cooperate in the following intercommunalities (as of 2017):

Métropole Rouen Normandie

Communauté d'agglomération Caux vallée de Seine

Communauté d'agglomération de Fécamp Caux Littoral

Communauté d'agglomération Havraise (Le Havre)

Communauté d'agglomération de la Région Dieppoise

Communauté de communes des 4 rivières (partly)

Communauté de communes interrégionale Aumale - Blangy-sur-Bresle (partly)

Communauté de communes Bray-Eawy

Communauté de communes Campagne de Caux

Communauté de Communes du Canton de Criquetot-l'Esneval

Communauté de communes Caux - Austreberthe

Communauté de communes Caux Estuaire

Communauté de communes de la Côte d'Albâtre

Communauté de communes Falaises du Talou

Communauté de communes Inter-Caux-Vexin

Communauté de communes de Londinières

Communauté de communes Plateau de Caux-Doudeville-Yerville

Communauté de communes de la Région d'Yvetot

Communauté de communes Roumois Seine (partly)

Communauté de communes Terroir de Caux

Communauté de communes des Villes Sœurs (partly)

Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department

The following is a list of the 510 communes of the Seine-et-Marne department of France.

The communes cooperate in the following intercommunalities (as of 2017):

Communauté d'agglomération Coulommiers Pays de Brie

Communauté d'agglomération Grand Paris Sud Seine-Essonne-Sénart (partly)

Communauté d'agglomération de Marne et Gondoire

Communauté d'agglomération Melun Val de Seine

Communauté d'agglomération Paris - Vallée de la Marne

Communauté d'agglomération du Pays de Fontainebleau

Communauté d'agglomération du Pays de Meaux

Communauté d'agglomération Roissy Pays de France (partly)

Val d'Europe Agglomération

Communauté de communes de la Bassée - Montois

Communauté de communes de la Brie des Rivières et Châteaux

Communauté de communes La Brie Nangissienne

Communauté de communes des Deux Morin

Communauté de communes Gâtinais-Val de Loing

Communauté de communes Moret Seine et Loing

Communauté de communes de l'Orée de la Brie (partly)

Communauté de communes du Pays Créçois

Communauté de communes du Pays de l'Ourcq

Communauté de communes du Pays de Montereau

Communauté de communes Pays de Nemours

Communauté de communes Plaines et Monts de France

Communauté de communes Les Portes Briardes Entre Villes et Forêts

Communauté de communes du Provinois

Communauté de communes du Val Briard

Dieppe

Dieppe (French pronunciation: ​[djɛp]) is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France. The population stood at 34,670 in 2006.

A port on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Arques river, famous for its scallops, and with a regular ferry service to Newhaven in England, Dieppe also has a popular pebbled beach, a 15th-century castle and the churches of Saint-Jacques and Saint-Remi. The mouth of the Scie river lies in the Canton of Dieppe-Ouest at Hautot-sur-Mer.

The inhabitants of the town of Dieppe are called Dieppois (m) and Dieppoise (f) in French.

Eu, Seine-Maritime

Eu (IPA: [ø] (listen)) is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in northern France.

Eu is located near the coast in the eastern part of the department, near the border with Picardy.

Its inhabitants are known in French as the Eudois.

Fontainebleau

Fontainebleau (; French pronunciation: ​[fɔ̃tɛnblo]) is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres (34.5 mi) south-southeast of the centre of Paris. Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, and it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region; it is the only one to cover a larger area than Paris itself.

Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants (according to the 2001 census). This urban area is a satellite of Paris.

Fontainebleau is renowned for the large and scenic forest of Fontainebleau, a favourite weekend getaway for Parisians, as well as for the historic Château de Fontainebleau, which once belonged to the kings of France. It is also the home of INSEAD, one of the world's most elite business schools.

Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are sometimes called Bellifontains.

Hauts-de-Seine

Hauts-de-Seine (French: [o d(ə) sɛn]; literally Seine Heights) is a department of France. It is part of the Métropole du Grand Paris and of the Île-de-France region, and covers the western inner suburbs of Paris. It is small and densely populated and contains the modern office, theatre, and shopping complex known as La Défense.

Mantes-la-Jolie

Mantes-la-Jolie (French pronunciation: ​[mɑ̃t.la.ʒɔ.li], often informally called Mantes) is a commune based in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is located to the west of Paris, 48.4 km (30.1 mi) from the centre of the capital. Mantes-la-Jolie is a subprefecture of the department.

Melun

Melun (French pronunciation: ​[məlœ̃], local pronunciation: [mølɛ̃] (listen)) is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France. It is a southeastern suburb of Paris 41.4 km (25.7 miles) from the centre of Paris. Melun is the prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne, and the seat of an arrondissement. Its inhabitants are called Melunais.

Neuilly-sur-Seine

Neuilly-sur-Seine (French pronunciation: ​[nøji syʁ sɛn]) is a French commune just west of Paris, in the department of Hauts-de-Seine. A suburb of Paris, Neuilly is immediately adjacent to the city and directly extends it. The area is composed of mostly wealthy, select residential neighbourhoods, and many corporate headquarters are located there. It is the wealthiest and most expensive suburb of Paris. It is also often recognised as one of the safest and most child-friendly Parisian suburbs.

Paris

Paris (French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The larger Paris metropolitan area had a population of 12,532,901 in 2015. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion (US$850 billion) in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, and was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second-most expensive city in the world, behind Singapore and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva.The city is a major rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport in Europe) and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, with 262 million passengers in 2015.Paris is especially known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, and the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. The historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité; the Eiffel Tower, constructed for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889; the Grand Palais and Petit Palais, built for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900; the Arc de Triomphe on the Champs-Élysées, and the Basilica of Sacré-Coeur on the hill of Montmartre. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China. It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London.The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris hosted the Olympic Games in 1900, 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, and the 1960, 1984, and 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there.

Rouen

Rouen (Rouen in French ; (French pronunciation: ​[ʁwɑ̃]) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France. It is the capital of the region of Normandy. Formerly one of the largest and most prosperous cities of medieval Europe, Rouen was the seat of the Exchequer of Normandy during the Middle Ages. It was one of the capitals of the Anglo-Norman dynasties, which ruled both England and large parts of modern France from the 11th to the 15th centuries.

The population of the metropolitan area (in French: agglomération) at the 2011 census was 655,013, with the city proper having an estimated population of 111,557. People from Rouen are known as Rouennais.

Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis

Saint-Denis (French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃d(ə)ni]) is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km (5.8 mi) from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture (French: sous-préfecture) of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis.

Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint Denis and was also the location of the associated abbey. It is also home to France's national football and rugby stadium, the Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup.

Saint-Denis is a formerly industrial suburb currently changing its economic base.

Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens.

Seine-Maritime

Seine-Maritime (French pronunciation: ​[sɛn maʁitim]) is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France. It is situated on the northern coast of France, at the mouth of the Seine, and includes the cities of Rouen and Le Havre. Until 1955 it was named Seine-Inférieure.

Seine-Saint-Denis

Seine-Saint-Denis (French pronunciation: ​[sɛnsɛ̃d(ə)ni]) is a French department located in the Île-de-France region. Locally, it is often referred to colloquially as quatre-vingt treize or neuf trois (i.e. "ninety-three" or "nine three"), after its official administrative number, 93.

The learned and rarely used demonym for the inhabitants is Séquano-Dionysiens; more common is Dionysiens.

Seine-et-Marne

Seine-et-Marne (pronounced [sɛn e maʁn]) is a French department, named after the Seine and Marne rivers, and located in the Île-de-France region.

Seine fishing

Seine ( SAYN) fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats. Seine nets can be deployed from the shore as a beach seine, or from a boat.

Boats deploying seine nets are known as seiners. Two main types of seine net are deployed from seiners: purse seines and Danish seines.

Île-de-France

Île-de-France (; French: [il də fʁɑ̃s] (listen), literally "Island of France"), often called the région parisienne ("Paris Region"), contains the city of Paris, and is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres (4,638 square miles), or two percent of the national territory, and has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Essonne, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961, then renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to as Franciliens, an administrative word created in the 1980s.

The GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion (or $850 billion USD at market exchange rates). It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018, almost all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris.

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