Sedentary lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle involving little or no physical activity. A person living a sedentary lifestyle is often sitting or lying down while engaged in an activity like reading, socializing, watching television, playing video games, or using a mobile phone/computer for much of the day. A sedentary lifestyle can potentially contribute to ill health and many preventable causes of death.[1]

Screen time is a modern term for the amount of time a person spends looking at a screen such as a television, computer monitor, or mobile device. Excessive screen time is linked to negative health consequences.[2][3][4][5]

Family watching television 1958
Increases in sedentary behaviors such as watching television are characteristic of a sedentary lifestyle


Over the last hundred years, there has been a large shift from manual labor jobs (e.g. farming, manufacturing, building) to office jobs which is due to many contributing factors including globalization, outsourcing of jobs and technological advances (specifically internet and computers). In 1960, there was a decline of jobs requiring moderate physical activity from 50% to 20%, and one in two Americans had a physically demanding job, while in 2011 this ratio was one in five.[6] From 1990 to 2016, there was a decrease of about one third in manual labor jobs/employment.[7] In 2008, the United States American National Health Interview Survey found that 36% of adults were inactive, and 59% of adult respondents never participated in vigorous physical activity lasting more than 10 minutes per week.[8] According to a 2018 study, office based workers typically spend 70-85% sitting.[9] In the US population, prevalence of sitting watching television or videos at least 2 h/d was high in 2015-2016 (ranging from 59% to 65%); the estimated prevalence of computer use outside school or work for at least 1 h/d increased from 2001 to 2016 (from 43% to 56% for children, from 53% to 57% among adolescents, and from 29% to 50% for adults); and estimated total sitting time increased from 2007 to 2016 (from 7.0 to 8.2 h/d among adolescents and from 5.5 to 6.4 h/d among adults).[10]

Health effects

Effects of a sedentary work life or lifestyle can be either direct or indirect. One of the most prominent direct effect of a sedentary lifestyle is an increased BMI leading to obesity. A lack of physical activity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide.[11]

At least 300,000 premature deaths, and $90 billion in direct healthcare costs are caused by obesity and sedentary lifestyle per year in the US alone.[12] The risk is higher among those that sit still more than 5 hours per day. It is shown to be a risk factor on its own independent of hard exercise and BMI. People that sit still more than 4 hours per day have a 40 percent higher risk than those that sit fewer than 4 hours per day. However, those that exercise at least 4 hours per week are as healthy as those that sit fewer than 4 hours per day.[13][14]

Indirectly, an increased BMI due to a sedentary lifestyle can lead to decreased productivity and increased absenteeism from necessary activities like work.[15] Missing work and not being productive results in obvious short term and long term effects like less income and job security.

A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity can contribute to or be a risk factor for:


As a response to concerns over health and environmental issues, some organizations have promoted active travel, which seeks to promote walking and cycling as safe and attractive alternatives to motorized transport.[28] Additionally, some organizations have implemented exercise classes at lunch, walking challenges among co-workers, or allowing employees to stand rather than sit at their desk during the workday. Workplace interventions such as alternative activity workstations, sit-stand desks, promotion of stair use are among measures being implemented to counter the harms of sedentary workplace environments.[29] A Cochrane systematic review published in 2016 concluded that "at present there is very low quality evidence that sit-stand desks can reduce sitting at work at the short term. There is no evidence for other types of interventions." Also, evidence was lacking on the long term health benefits of such interventions.[30] Similarly a recently published review concluded that interventions aimed at reducing sitting outside of work were only modestly effective.[31] Organizations may also offer cholesterol or blood pressure screenings to employees.[32]

Workplace initiatives to address employee health

Workplace initiatives are practices and programs sponsored by employers to promote employee health, and in turn, reduce insurance costs for the employer. Multiple studies have been done on the effectiveness of healthy workplace initiative programs. Programs can be focused on either weight reduction, or prevention of further weight gain and may include a wide variety of methods such as health care screenings, smoking cessation programs, discounted gym/fitness memberships, ergonomic controls (standing desks, ergonomic keyboards), wellness classes, providing healthy food at meetings and employee events, stocking vending machines with healthy options, and surgical intervention. Due to the wide variety of work environments, and inconsistent habits and lifestyles of individuals across different workplaces, these studies have not been conclusive regarding the effectiveness of these type of programs on BMI.[33] However, other associations have been linked between workplace initiatives and outcomes such as increased work productivity or a decrease in the amount of sick days.[34]

See also


  1. ^ "2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report". 18 Feb 2019.
  2. ^ Mark, A. E; Janssen, I (2008). "Relationship between screen time and metabolic syndrome in adolescents". Journal of Public Health. 30 (2): 153–160. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdn022. PMID 18375469.
  3. ^ Wiecha, Jean L; Sobol, Arthur M; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L (2001). "Household Television Access: Associations with Screen Time, Reading, and Homework Among Youth". Ambulatory Pediatrics. 1 (5): 244–251. doi:10.1367/1539-4409(2001)001<0244:HTAAWS>2.0.CO;2.
  4. ^ Laurson, Kelly R; Eisenmann, Joey C; Welk, Gregory J; Wickel, Eric E; Gentile, Douglas A; Walsh, David A (2008). "Combined Influence of Physical Activity and Screen Time Recommendations on Childhood Overweight". The Journal of Pediatrics. 153 (2): 209–214. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.02.042. PMID 18534231.
  5. ^ Olds, T.; Ridley, K.; Dollman, J. (2006). "Screenieboppers and extreme screenies: The place of screen time in the time budgets of 10–13 year-old Australian children". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 30 (2): 137–142. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2006.tb00106.x. PMID 16681334.
  6. ^ Parker-Pope, T. (2011). Less Active at Work, Americans Have Packed on Pounds.
  7. ^ The State of American Jobs (2016).
  8. ^ Pleis, John R.; Lucas, Jacqueline W.; Ward, Brian W. (2008). "Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: National Health Interview Survey" (PDF). Series Reports from the National Health Interview Survey #10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 11.
  9. ^ Edwardson, C. L., Biddle, S. J. H., Clarke-Cornwell, A., Clemes, S., Davies, M. J., Dunstan, D. W., . . . Munir, F. (2018). A three arm cluster randomised controlled trial to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SMART Work & Life intervention for reducing daily sitting time in office workers: study protocol. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1120. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-6017-1
  10. ^ Yang, Lin; Cao, Chao; Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Nguyen, Long H.; Zheng, Xiaobin; Park, Yikyung; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Matthews, Charles E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Cao, Yin (2019-04-23). "Trends in Sedentary Behavior Among the US Population, 2001-2016". JAMA. 321 (16): 1587. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.3636. ISSN 0098-7484.
  11. ^ Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJ (May 2006). "Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data". Lancet. 367 (9524): 1747–57. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68770-9. PMID 16731270.
  12. ^ Manson, JoAnn E., et al. "The escalating pandemics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle: a call to action for clinicians." Archives of internal medicine 164.3 (2004): 249-258.
  13. ^ - Sitting can lead to an early death: study, 2012-03-28
  14. ^ Dunstan David W.; Owen Neville (2012). "New Exercise Prescription: Don't Just Sit There: Stand Up and Move More, More Often". Arch Intern Med. 172 (6): 500–501. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.209. PMID 22450937.
  15. ^ Goettler A, Grosse A, Sonntag D. Productivity loss due to overweight and obesity: a systematic review of indirect costs. BMJ Open 2017; 7: e014632. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014632
  16. ^ Teychenne M, Costigan SA, Parker K (June 2015). "The association between sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: a systematic review". BMC Public Health. 15: 513. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1843-x. PMC 4474345. PMID 26088005.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h "Physical Activity". World Health Organization. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  18. ^ "Physical inactivity a leading cause of disease and disability, warns WHO". World Health Organization. Retrieved January 23, 2010.
  19. ^ Daniel M. Landers. "The Influence of Exercise on Mental Health". President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Retrieved February 5, 2010. The research literature suggests that for many variables there is now ample evidence that a definite relationship exists between exercise and improved mental health. This is particularly evident in the case of a reduction of anxiety and depression.
  20. ^ "Who Is At Risk for High Blood Pressure?". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  21. ^ Biswas, A; Oh, PI; Faulkner, GE; Bajaj, RR; Silver, MA; Mitchell, MS; Alter, DA (20 January 2015). "Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (2): 123–32. doi:10.7326/M14-1651. PMID 25599350.
  22. ^ Stewart RA, Benatar J, Maddison R (2015). "Living longer by sitting less and moving more". Current Opinion in Cardiology (Review). 30 (5): 551–7. doi:10.1097/HCO.0000000000000207. PMID 26204494.
  23. ^ "Obesity and Overweight for Professionals: Causes". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on February 24, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  24. ^ "Overweight and Obesity: What You Can Do". Office of the Surgeon General. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  25. ^ a b "Exercise and Bone Health". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  26. ^ a b "Osteoporosis — Frequently Asked Questions". United States Department of Health and Human Services. 2009. Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2010.
  27. ^ Kraemer J (March 1995). "Natural course and prognosis of intervertebral disc diseases. International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine Seattle, Washington, June 1994". Spine. 20 (6): 635–9. doi:10.1097/00007632-199503150-00001. PMID 7604337.
  28. ^ "KidsWalk-to-School: Barriers and Solutions". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Archived from the original on March 9, 2010. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
  29. ^ Commissaris, DA; Huysmans, MA; Mathiassen, SE; Srinivasan, D; Koppes, LL; Hendriksen, IJ (18 December 2015). "Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity during productive work: a systematic review". Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 42 (3): 181–91. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3544. PMID 26683116.
  30. ^ Shrestha, N; Kukkonen-Harjula, KT; Verbeek, JH; Ijaz, S; Hermans, V; Bhaumik, S (17 March 2016). "Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD010912. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010912.pub3. PMID 26984326.
  31. ^ Shrestha, N; Grgic, J; Weisner, G; Parker, A; Podnar, H; Bennie, J; Biddle, SJH; Pedisic, Zeljko (13 January 2018). "Effectiveness of interventions for reducing non-occupational sedentary behaviour in adults and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis". British Journal of Sports Medicine: bjsports–2017–098270. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-098270. PMID 29331992.
  32. ^ "Employers are increasingly using workplace health screenings". Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  33. ^ Shrestha, Nipun & Pedisic, Zeljko & Neil-Sztramko, Sarah & T. Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina & Hermans, Veerle. (2016). The Impact of Obesity in the Workplace: a Review of Contributing Factors, Consequences and Potential Solutions. Current Obesity Reports. 5. 10.1007/s13679-016-0227-6.
  34. ^ (2017). Paid Sick Leave and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among Adult Workers in the USA. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(10), 1247. doi:10.3390/ijerph14101247

External links

Agriculture in Mesoamerica

Agriculture in Mesoamerica dates to the Archaic period of Mesoamerican chronology (8000–2000 BC). At the beginning of the Archaic period, the Early Hunters of the late Pleistocene era (50,000–10,000 BC) led nomadic lifestyles, relying on hunting and gathering for sustenance. However, the nomadic lifestyle that dominated the late Pleistocene and the early Archaic slowly transitioned into a more sedentary lifestyle as the hunter gatherer micro-bands in the region began to cultivate wild plants. The cultivation of these plants provided security to the Mesoamericans, allowing them to increase surplus of "starvation foods" near seasonal camps; this surplus could be utilized when hunting was bad, during times of drought, and when resources were low. The cultivation of plants could have been started purposefully, or by accident. The former could have been done by bringing a wild plant closer to a camp site, or to a frequented area, so it was easier access and collect. The latter could have happened as certain plant seeds were eaten and not fully digested, causing these plants to grow wherever human habitation would take them.

As the Archaic period progressed, cultivation of plant foods became increasingly important to the people of Mesoamerica. The reliability of cultivated plants allowed hunting and gathering micro-bands to establish permanent settlements and to increase in size. These larger settlements required a greater quantity of food, consequently leading to an even greater reliance on domesticated crops. Eventually, the Mesoamerican people established a sedentary lifestyle based on plant domestication and cultivation, supplemented with small game hunting. This sedentary lifestyle reliant on agriculture allowed permanent settlements to grow into villages and provided the opportunity for division of labor and social stratification.

The most important plant in ancient Mesoamerica, is, unarguably, maize. Squash and beans are also important staples of the ancient Mesoamerican agricultural diet and along with maize, are often referred to as the "Three Sisters."


Aliatypus is a genus of North American folding trapdoor spiders first described by C. P. Smith in 1908. They resemble members of Ctenizidae in morphology and behavior, but this is due to convergent evolution rather than direct relation. They are most closely related to members of Antrodiaetus, which build collar doors. It is likely that the shift from using collar doors to using trapdoors is what allowed them to survive in hot, dry conditions where their closest relatives could not.Often found in roadside banks or ravines, they build a burrow perpendicular to the surface with a wafer-like trapdoor entrance to catch prey. Burrows are often clustered together, sometimes quite densely in more favorable positions.They are native to the western United States, where the complex landscape creates pockets of isolated species limited to small regions. As one of the most abundant genera of trapdoor spiders in California, it is argued that their sedentary lifestyle and limited dispersal could benefit studies in the biogeography of California and the surrounding regions.

Athletics (physical culture)

Athletics is a term encompassing the human competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance. Athletic sports or contests are competitions which are primarily based on human physical competition, demanding the qualities of stamina, fitness, and skill. Athletic sports form the bulk of popular sporting activities, with other major forms including motorsports, precision sports, extreme sports and animal sports.

Athletic contests, as one of the earliest types of sport, are prehistoric and comprised a significant part of the Ancient Olympic Games, along with equestrian events. The word "athletic" is derived from the Ancient Greek: άθλος (athlos) meaning "contest." Athletic sports became organized in the late 19th century with the formation of organizations such as the Amateur Athletic Union in the United States and the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques in France. The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later the National Collegiate Athletic Association) was established in 1906 to oversee athletic sports at college-level in the United States, known as college athletics.

Athletics has gained significant importance at educational institutions; talented athletes may gain entry into higher education through athletic scholarships and represent their institutions in athletic conferences. Since the Industrial Revolution, people in the developed world have adopted an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. As a result athletics now plays a significant part in providing routine physical exercise. Athletic clubs worldwide offer athletic training facilities for multitudes of sports and games.

Behavioral medicine

Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness. These sciences include epidemiology, anthropology, sociology, psychology, physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, neuroanatomy, endocrinology, and immunology. The term is often used interchangeably, but incorrectly, with health psychology.. The practice of behavioral medicine encompasses health psychology, but also includes applied psychophysiological therapies such as biofeedback, hypnosis, and bio-behavioral therapy of physical disorders, aspects of occupational therapy, rehabilitation medicine, and physiatry, as well as preventive medicine. In contrast, health psychology represents a stronger emphasis specifically on psychology's role in both behavioral medicine and behavioral health.Behavioral medicine is especially relevant in recent days, where many of the health problems are primarily viewed as behavioral in nature, as opposed to medical. For example, smoking, leading a sedentary lifestyle, and alcohol abuse or other substance abuse are all factors in the leading causes of death in the modern society. Practitioners of behavioral medicine include appropriately qualified nurses, social workers, psychologists, and physicians (including medical students and residents), and these professionals often act as behavioral change agents, even in their medical roles.

Behavioral medicine uses the biopsychosocial model of illness instead of the medical model. This model incorporates biological, psychological, and social elements into its approach to disease instead of relying only on a biological deviation from the standard or normal functioning.

Chaca (genus)

Chaca is the only genus in the catfish family Chacidae. These fish are commonly known as squarehead catfishes, frogmouth catfishes, or angler catfishes. These unusual fish have a sedentary lifestyle and spend much of their time motionless.

The name Chaca is because, when removed from the water, they will rapidly repeat the sound "chaca". Only C. chaca makes these sounds; the other species do not.

Coronary thrombosis

Coronary thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel of the heart. This blood clot restricts blood flow within the heart. It is associated with narrowing of blood vessels subsequent to clotting. The condition is considered as a type of ischaemic heart disease.

Thrombosis in the heart can lead to a myocardial infarction. Coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction are sometimes used as synonyms, although this is technically inaccurate as the thrombosis refers to the blocking of blood vessels, while the infarction refers to the tissue death due to the consequent loss of blood flow to the heart tissue. The heart contains many connecting blood vessels, and depending upon the location of the thrombosis, the infarction may cause no symptoms. Coronary thrombosis is caused by atherosclerosis. This is when there is buildup of cholesterol and fats in the artery walls. The blood will clot because there is not enough room for it to flow. The main causes of coronary thrombosis are high LDL cholestrol, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension. Symptoms are sharp pains around the chest area, breathing difficulties, dizziness, and fainting. This is treated by taking aspirin, nitrates, or beta blockers.

Coronary thrombosis can be a complication associated with drug-eluting stents.

Couch potato (disambiguation)

A couch potato is a person who leads a sedentary lifestyle.

Couch potato may also refer to:

"Couch Potato" (song), a song by Weird Al Yankovic

Couch Potato (TV series), an Australian children's television series

Couch Potatoes (game show), an American game show

Duke Diet and Fitness Center

Established in 1969, the Duke Diet and Fitness Center is one of America's longest running treatment centers for individuals who struggle with excess weight, a sedentary lifestyle, and associated health problems. The center is designed for adults age 18 and up and dedicated to education about and exploration of major components of successful lifestyle change including nutrition, fitness, behavioral health, medical management, and ongoing support.

Exercise trends

Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work and a more sedentary lifestyle. This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and less active recreational pursuits. At least 31% of the world's population does not get sufficient physical exercise. This is true in almost all developed and developing countries, and among children. Some experts refer to sitting as "the new smoking" because of its negative effects on overall health.These exercise trends are contributing to the rising rates of chronic diseases including: obesity, heart disease, stroke and high cholesterol. Active transport (walking, bicycling, etc.) has been found to be inversely related to obesity in Europe, North America, and Australia. Thus exercise has been associated with a decrease in mortality.

Health at Every Size

Health at Every Size (HAES) is a hypothesis advanced by certain sectors of the fat acceptance movement. It is promoted by the Association for Size Diversity and Health, a tax-exempt nonprofit organization that owns the phrase as a registered trademark. Its main tenet involves rejection of the scientific consensus regarding the health effects of excessive caloric intake, a sedentary lifestyle, improper nutrition, and greater body weight.HAES advocates argue that traditional interventions focused on weight loss, such as dieting, do not reliably produce positive health outcomes. The benefits of lifestyle interventions such as nutritious eating and exercise are presumed to be real, but independent of any weight loss they may cause. At the same time, HAES advocates espouse that sustained, large-scale weight loss is difficult to the point of effective impossibility for the majority of obese people. Evidence to support the view that some obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is limited, and often false, as studies have shown that obese individuals incorrectly self-report calories consumed; on average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their healthy-weight counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass. HAES proponents believe that health is a result of behaviors that are independent of body weight and that favouring being thin discriminates against the overweight and the obese. Efforts towards such weight loss are instead held to cause rapid swings in size that inflict far worse physical and psychological damage than would obesity itself.As part of the wider fat acceptance movement, HAES includes also a significant social and psychological dimension. Proponents view the common wisdom that obesity is unhealthy as part of a general stigmatization of the obese, and especially of obese women; thus, the movement has strong connections with feminism.

King Kaufman

King Kaufman is the current writing program manager at Bleacher Report and former daily sports columnist for Kaufman grew up in Los Angeles, lived for six years in St. Louis, and moved back to San Francisco in the summer of 2007. In January 2011, King left Salon.In addition to covering the major American sports leagues and international events such as the Olympics and the World Cup, Kaufman's columns often deal with issues related to the state of American sports. Some specific concerns of Kaufman include the role of race in sports and American culture, publicly financed stadiums, performance-enhancing substances, the inequalities and hypocrisy in the NCAA, and the poor quality of television sports announcing.His articles feature light-hearted humor, typically with a degree of self-deprecation. A former Angeleno, he enjoys relating stories of his fond memories of the Dodger games he listened to as a child.Annually, he tracks the performance of NFL prognosticators, himself included, along with his son Buster, the "coin-flippinest 4-year-old in North America", who flips coins to randomly predict the outcome of (presumably) closely contested games.Kaufman has proposed changing the rules of nearly every organized sport, including removal of field goals from American football, the elimination of free throws from basketball, and the abolishment of offsides from soccer.Kaufman is a frequent critic of sports announcers who use shoddy statistics or generally do not care about the sport which they are announcing. He has particular distaste for coverage of Major League Baseball on the Fox Network, including the playoffs, World Series and All-Star Game.Kaufman, an admirer of sabermetrician Bill James, made his own contribution to baseball statistics by creating the Neifi Index [1]. Named for infielder Neifi Pérez, this statistic measures a player's ability to contribute to his team's success by not playing. Introduced as an award that "we, the great whiffing, grounder-booting, sedentary lifestyle-leading masses, wouldn't just have a chance of winning if we were allowed to play. We'd be a lock", the Neifi Index is the difference between a player's team's winning percentage when he does not play and when he does play. It is called the Neifi Index because when Kaufman first computed it, the San Francisco Giants winning percentage when Pérez did not play was .929, but was only .542 when he did play, thus giving Neifi an index of .387.Under the stage name the King Teen, Kaufman was the singer for the Smokejumpers, "purveyors of hampster-slappin' punk rockabilly in San Francisco from 1996-2000."

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: central obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In the US about a quarter of the adult population has metabolic syndrome, and the prevalence increases with age, with racial and ethnic minorities being particularly affected.Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and prediabetes are closely related to one another and have overlapping aspects.

The syndrome is thought to be caused by an underlying disorder of energy utilization and storage. The cause of the syndrome is an area of ongoing medical research.

New World Syndrome

New World Syndrome is a set of non-communicable diseases brought on by consumption of junk food and a sedentary lifestyle, especially common to the indigenous peoples of the "New World" (i.e. of the Americas). Indigenous peoples of Oceania and Circumpolar peoples, and perhaps other populations of Asiatic origin are similarly affected and perhaps genetically predisposed. It is characterized by obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and shortened life span.

Nøstvet and Lihult cultures

The Nøstvet culture (ca 6200 BC-3200 BC) and the Lihult culture are two very similar Mesolithic cultures in Scandinavian prehistory derived from the earlier Fosna-Hensbacka cultures. They are so varied and vaguely defined that they are rather a tradition than an archaeological culture.

The Nøstvet culture appeared around the Oslofjord and along the Norwegian coast up to Trøndelag, whereas the Lihult culture is found in western coastal Sweden. Sometimes the Sandarna culture appears as the name of an intermediary form between the Swedish Hensbacka and Lihult cultures. This name comes from a settlement near Gothenburg (approximately 7000 BC–5000 BC).

The Nøstvet people lived on open settlements. They used honed axes and microliths of various rocks, such as quartz, quartzite and flint. They lived primarily of hunting various animals such as seafowl and marine mammals, in addition to fishing and gathering. The size of the settlements grows over time, which reflects an increase in population and a more sedentary lifestyle.

In southern Scandinavia, its neighbours were first the Kongemose culture (roughly 6000 BC–5200 BC) and later on the Ertebølle culture (about 5200 BC–4000 BC).

About 4000 BC, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures are succeeded by the Funnelbeaker culture and disappear from the archaeological record.


The Querandí were one of the Het peoples, indigenous South Americans who lived in the Pampas area of Argentina; specifically, they were the eastern Didiuhet. The name Querandí was given by the Guaraní people, as they would consume animal fat in their daily diet. Thus, Querandí means "men with fat". They were also well known as the Pampas prior to the 19th Century. Mapuche (or araucanos) called them Puelche.

This is today the present Argentine provinces of La Pampa, most of the province of Buenos Aires, the center and the south of the province of Santa Fe (especially to the south of the Tercero-Carcaraña River), a great part of the province of Cordoba (adapted ecologically to the temperate Pampasia, their northern limits were in the region of the Gran Chaco - around 31° lat. South) and the peneplains of the present provinces of San Luis and Mendoza, although these zones were more difficult to inhabit due to its extreme climate and lack of surface water.

Physically, the Querandí Indians had a well-proportioned body. They were tall and extremely warlike. They wore leather clothes, similar to a fur blanket; women would also wear a skirt that covered their bodies down to their knees. With a semi sedentary lifestyle, they grouped their leather tents by their water supply in the winter, and they would go on their raids inland in the summer.

At the time of the arrival of the Europeans they stood out as great runners hunting, or rather capturing by running down Pampan deer, ñandúes, and even guanacos, although to facilitate their activity they had invented two devices (one that would become a classic in Argentina): the bolas, and the more primitive one consisting of a stone tied to a cord made with leather or sinews called by the Spaniards a stone-lost boleadora. They would also hunt tinamous, deer, quail and ñandúes with the help of their bows and arrows and their bolas. They also made pottery.

They believed in a great god whom they called Soychu, who had a contender or evil spirit: Gualichu.

According to the 2010 census there are 3,658 self-identified Querandí in Argentina.

Silver-studded blue

The silver-studded blue (Plebejus argus) is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. This eye-catching butterfly has bright blue wings rimmed in black with white edges and silver spots on its hindwings, lending it the name of the silver-studded blue. P. argus can be found across Europe and Asia, but is most often studied in the United Kingdom in which the species has experienced a severe decline in population due to habitat loss and fragmentation.Importantly, P. argus engages in mutualism with ants that contribute to the butterflies’ reproductive fitness by providing protection from predation and parasitism from the point of egg laying to their emergence as adults. P. argus adults emerge in the end of June and beginning of July and engage in flight into the beginning of August.The butterfly is adaptable to different habitats and is found in heathland, mossland, and limestone grassland. Tending towards a sedentary lifestyle and typically flying less than twenty meters a day, P. argus maintains a small radius home range. Their habitats lend themselves well to both foraging and egg laying as the host plants are ubiquitous in all three environments they occupy.

Southern pochard

The southern pochard (Netta erythrophthalma) is a species of duck, and a member of the genus Netta.

There are two subspecies, the South American (southern) pochard N. e. erythrophthalma (Wied-Neuwied, 1833) and the African (southern) pochard N. e. brunnea (Eyton, 1838).

The South American pochard has a fragmented range and is found from Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina to Chile. Here it occurs in a wide variety of shallow fresh waters with submerged vegetation, from the lowlands up to 3,700 metres.

The African pochard occurs from the Cape to the Ethiopian highlands on water bodies with or without emergent vegetation. They are suspected to have been strong migrants in the past but the construction of numerous farm dams seems to allow them a more sedentary lifestyle. They reach highest concentrations in Africa's central plateaus and in the south-western winter rainfall region.

Treadmill desk

A treadmill desk, walking desk or treadmill workstation is a computer desk that is adapted so that the user walks on a treadmill while performing office tasks. Persons using a treadmill desk seek to change the sedentary lifestyle associated with being an office worker and to integrate gentle exercise into their working day.

Wankarani culture

The Wankarani culture was a formative stage culture that existed from approximately 1500 BC to 400 AD on the altiplano highlands of Bolivia's Oruro Department to the north and northeast of Lake Poopo. It is the earliest known sedentary culture in Bolivia, as after circa 1200 BC camelid hunters of the altiplano became camelid herders and sedentary lifestyle developed. The Wankarani culture was little researched before 1970, when Carlos Ponce Sanginés defined all the mound sites in the area as belonging to one culture that predated Tiwanaku and was contemporary with the Chiripa culture.

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