The Mexican Secretariat of the Navy (Spanish: Secretaría de la Marina, SEMAR) is a member of the federal executive cabinet with responsibility for managing the country's navy and marine forces. The secretary is appointed by the President of the Republic and heads the Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaría de Marina or SEMAR).
Secretariat of the Navy
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Based on article 30 of the Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration:
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Bhakta B. Rath is an India-born American material physicist and Head of the Materials Science and Component Technology of the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. He is the chief administrative officer for program planning, interdisciplinary coordination, supervision and control of research and is the associate director of research for Materials Science and Component Technology at NRL.He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, an elected fellow of The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, ASM International, Washington Academy of Sciences, Materials Research Society of India, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, UK and a recipient of several awards and honors including Presidential Rank Award three times. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 2009, for his contributions to science and technology.Council of the Indies
The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies (Spanish: Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias, pronounced [reˈal i suˈpɾemo konˈsexo ðe las ˈindjas]), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire for the Americas and the Philippines. The crown held absolute power over the Indies and the Council of the Indies was the administrative and advisory body for those overseas realms. It was established in 1524 by Charles V to administer "the Indies," Spain's name for its territories. Such an administrative entity, on the conciliar model of the Council of Castile, was created following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire in 1521, which demonstrated the importance of the Americas. Originally an itinerary council that followed Charles V, it was subsequently established as an autonomous body with legislative, executive and judicial functions by Philip II of Spain and placed in Madrid in 1561. The Council of the Indies was abolished in 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, briefly restored in 1814 by Ferdinand VII of Spain, and definitively abolished in 1834 by the regency, acting on behalf of the four-year-old Isabella II of Spain.DGRCN Tonatiuh MX-1
The Tonatiuh MX-1 was a lightweight, high-wing monoplane built by the Secretariat of the Navy of Mexico in collaboration with the Instituto Politécnico Nacional (National Polytechnic Institute).Embassy of Mexico, Ottawa
The Embassy of Mexico in Canada, based out of Ottawa, is the primary diplomatic mission from the United Mexican States to Canada.
Relations between the two nations were formally established on 30 January 1944, with Mexico opening eventually opening a consulate in Montreal in 1952. This consulate was later upgraded to an embassy and moved to Ottawa.F.C. Marina
The Fútbol Club Marina Central de Reservas, commonly known as Cañoneros Marina, is a Mexican football club based in Mexico City. The club was founded on 2012, and currently plays in Serie B.Guadalupe Island
Guadalupe Island or Isla Guadalupe is a volcanic island 250 km² and located 241 kilometres (150 mi) off the west coast of Mexico's Baja California Peninsula and some 400 kilometres (250 mi) southwest of the city of Ensenada in the state of Baja California, in the Pacific Ocean. The two other Mexican island groups in the Pacific Ocean that are not on the continental shelf are Revillagigedo Islands and Rocas Alijos. Guadalupe Island and its islets are the westernmost region of Mexico.Heroica Escuela Naval Militar
The Heroica Escuela Naval Militar is the officer training academy of the Mexican Navy.
It began operations on 1 June 1897 with a group of cadets from the Army's Colegio Militar who had expressed an interest in training as naval officers.
It was originally located on the premises of the military garrison in Veracruz. Its original staff comprised one commandant (Captain Juan Antonio Bernal of the Navy), two officers, six teachers, and 26 cadets.
It was given the appellation Heroica ("Heroic") for its efforts in defending the port during the 1914 United States occupation of Veracruz.
On 11 November 1952 the Academy relocated to new premises in Antón Lizardo, Veracruz
Before graduating, last year cadets take an instructional journey on the ARM Cuauhtémoc. Since 2008, the school accepts lady cadets of the services branches.
Currently, all graduates earn a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in Engineering. There are six available concentrations: Naval Systems (General Corps), Hydraulic Engineering (Marine Infantry), Naval Mechanical Engineering, Engineering in Electronics and Naval Communications, Aeronaval Engineering, and Logistics Engineering.Isla de Sacrificios
Isla de Sacrificios ("Island of Sacrifices") is an island in the Gulf of Mexico, situated off the Gulf coastline near the port of Veracruz, in Mexico. The waters surrounding the island are part of the Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano National Marine Park. It is currently closed to the public and is under the protection of the Secretariat of the Navy.Islas Marías
The Islas Marías ("Mary Islands") are an archipelago of four islands that belong to Mexico. They are located in the Pacific Ocean, some 100 km (62 mi) off the coast of the state of Nayarit and about 370 km (230 mi) southeast of the tip of Baja California. They are part of the municipality (municipio) of San Blas, Nayarit. As of 2011, the islands were used as a penal colony until February 18th of 2019 when Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador (then Mexico's President) ordered the closure of its operation as Islas Marías Federal Prison.
The first European to discover the islands was Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, a cousin of Hernán Cortés in 1532, who gave them the name Islas Magdalenas. He found no evidence of prior habitation by the Native Americans.
In 2010 the archipelago was designated the Islas Marías Biosphere Reserve by UNESCOIslas Marías Federal Prison
The Islas Marías Federal Penal Colony is a penitentiary establishment of the Federal Government of Mexico, administered through the Federal Secretariat of Public Security. It is located on Isla María Madre, the northernmost and largest island in the Marías Islands archipelago off the Pacific coast of Mexico.
Built in 1905, under the government of Porfirio Díaz, the prison of las Islas Marías was "the pride of the government" becoming the most modern prison model of its time, "escape proof", which operated as an alternative to house the delinquents, who due to their profile and background, could not be held in the prison of Lecumberri.
Until 1950 this prison colony was known as a feared detention center, due to violence, disease, and forced labor. It is calculated that the total number of prisoners to be housed there is above 29,000 .
During the government of Ernesto Zedillo the government decided to modernize the prison system and Islas Marias was deactivated. On 27 November 2003 it was declared a biosphere reserve but with the prison system still existing.
The prison situation in Mexico became so critical that the government announced in 2004 that they were reactivating the Islas Marias prison to transfer 2,500 prisoners from prisons all over the country.On 18 February 2019, Mexican president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, signed a declaration closing the federal prison on the Islas Marías, saying he wanted to promote "more schools and fewer prisons".Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán
Joaquín Archivaldo Guzmán Loera (; Spanish: [xoaˈkin aɾtʃiˈβaldo ɣusˈman loˈeɾa]; born 4 April 1957), known as "El Chapo" ("Shorty", pronounced [el ˈtʃapo]) because of his 168 cm (5 ft 6 in) stature, is a Mexican drug lord and former leader of the Sinaloa Cartel, an international crime syndicate. He is considered to have been the most powerful drug trafficker in the world.Guzmán was born in Sinaloa and raised in a poor farming family. He endured physical abuse at the hands of his father, and he entered the drug trade through his father, helping him grow marijuana for local dealers during his early adulthood. He began working with Héctor Luis Palma Salazar by the late 1970s, one of the nation's rising drug lords. He helped Salazar map routes to move drugs through Sinaloa and into the United States. He later supervised logistics for Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo, one of the nation's leading kingpins in the mid 1980s, but Guzmán founded his own cartel in 1988 after Gallardo's arrest.
Guzmán oversaw operations whereby mass cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, and heroin were produced, smuggled into, and distributed throughout the United States and Europe, the world's largest users. He achieved this by pioneering the use of distribution cells and long-range tunnels near borders, which enabled him to export more drugs to the United States than any other trafficker in history. Guzmán's leadership of the cartel also brought immense wealth and power; Forbes ranked him as one of the most powerful people in the world between 2009 and 2013, while the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) estimated that he matched the influence and wealth of Pablo Escobar.Guzmán was first captured in 1993 in Guatemala and was extradited and sentenced to 20 years in prison in Mexico for murder and drug trafficking. He bribed prison guards and escaped from a federal maximum-security prison in 2001. His status as a fugitive resulted in an $8.8 million combined reward from Mexico and the U.S. for information leading to his capture, and he was arrested in Mexico in 2014. He escaped prior to formal sentencing in 2015, through a tunnel under his jail cell. Mexican authorities recaptured him following a shoot-out in 2016 and extradited him to the U.S. a year later, where he was found guilty of a number of criminal charges related to his leadership of the Sinaloa Cartel. On July 17, 2019, he was sentenced to "life plus 30 years" in prison and within days, had started to serve his term at the Federal Correctional Complex, Florence, Colorado.Mexican Armed Forces
The Mexican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de México) are composed of two independent entities: the Mexican Army and the Mexican Navy. The Mexican Army includes the Mexican Air Force (FAM). The Presidential Guard, Military Police, and Special Forces are part of the Army, but have their own chain of command. The Mexican Navy includes the Naval Infantry Force (Marine Corps) and the Naval Aviation (FAN).
The Army and Navy are controlled by two separate government departments, the National Defense Secretariat and the Naval Secretariat, and maintain two independent chains of command, with no joint command except the President of Mexico.Mexican Navy
The Mexican Navy is one of the two independent armed forces of Mexico. The actual naval forces are called the Armada de México. The Secretaría de Marina (SEMAR) (English: Naval Secretariat) includes both the Armada itself and the attached ministerial and civil service. The commander of the Navy is the Secretary of the Navy, who is both a cabinet minister and a career naval officer.
The Mexican Navy's stated mission is "to use the naval force of the federation for external defense, and to help with internal order". The Navy consists of about 64,000 (2019) men and women plus reserves, over 189 ships, and about 130 aircraft. The Navy attempts to maintain a constant modernization program in order to upgrade its response capability.
Given Mexico's large area of water (3,149,920 km2 (1,216,190 sq mi)) and extensive coastline (11,122 km (6,911 mi)), the Navy's duties are of great importance. Perhaps its most important on-going missions are the war on drugs and protecting PEMEX's oil wells in Campeche in the Gulf of Mexico. Another important task of the Mexican Navy is to help people in hurricane relief operations and other natural disasters.Ministry of Defence (Spain)
The Ministry of Defence (MINISDEF) is the department of the Government of Spain responsible for planning, developing and carrying out the general guidelines of the Government about the defence policy and the managing of the military administration. It is the administrative and executive body of the Spanish Armed Forces.According to the Constitution of 1978, the Monarch is the Commander in Chief of the Spanish military. He can declare war or conclude peace with authorization of the Cortes Generales, provided this act is countersigned by the Prime Minister.The Ministry of Defense is headed by the Minister of Defence, a Cabinet member who depends directly from the Prime Minister. Beneath the Ministry of Defense are five subordinate principal departments: the Armed Forces headed by the Chief of the Defence Staff which is divided in three military departments leaded by the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of Staff of the Navy and the Chief of Staff of the Air Force; the Secretariat of State for Defence headed by the Secretary of State of Defence; the Undersecretariat of Defence headed by the Under Secretary of Defence and the General Secretariat for Defence Policy head by the Secretary General for Defence Policy. In addition, the National Intelligence Center is subordinated to the Ministry of Defence.
The current holder of the Ministry is Margarita Robles.Operation Michoacán
Operation Michoacán was a joint operation by Federal Police and the Mexican military to eliminate drug plantations and to combat drug trafficking. Initiated on December 11, 2006, the operation was supervised by The Secretary of Public Safety, Attorney General of Mexico (PGR), Secretary of the Interior, Mexican Navy and Mexican Army.
On some occasions, state and municipal police have participated despite not being part of it. The joint operation has distinguished itself as one of the operations against organized crime, drug trafficking in this case, which has employed the largest number of military and police elements, as well as most state forces.Representative Music Band of the Mexican Armed Forces
The Representative Music Band of the Mexican Armed Forces (Banda Representativa de Música de las Fuerzas Armadas Mexicanas in Spanish) is a Mexican military band which is currently led by Agripino Centeno Blanco, who serves as bandleader and director of music. As the more senior band of the Mexican Armed Forces personnel are qualified musicians from all branches of the Armed Forces, and thus the band is under the command of both the Secretariat of National Defense and the Secretariat of the Navy.Symphonic Band and Chorus of the Secretariat of the Navy of Mexico
The Symphonic Band and Chorus of the Secretariat of the Navy of Mexico (Banda Sinfónica y Coro de la Secretaría de Marina Armada) is an ensemble of 120 musicians and singers whose members are professional musicians in the Mexican Navy. The band was founded by in 1941 and the chorus in 1993 to play music appropriate to the military mostly in Mexican venues but the ensemble has also played in various countries in North America and Europe. It gained international recognition in the late 1960s and early 1970s and participates in events for military bands.Veracruz (city)
Veracruz (Spanish pronunciation: [beɾaˈkɾus] (listen)), officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located along the coast in the central part of the state, 90 km (56 mi) southeast of the state capital Xalapa along Federal Highway 140.
It is the state's most populous city, with a population that is greater than the municipality's population, as part of the city of Veracruz extends into the neighboring Boca del Río Municipality. At the 2010 census, the city had 554,830 inhabitants, 428,323 in Veracruz Municipality and 126,507 in Boca del Río Municipality. Developed during Spanish colonization, Veracruz has been Mexico’s oldest, largest, and historically most significant port.When the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés arrived in Mexico on April 22, 1519, he founded a city here, which he named Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, referring to the area’s gold and dedicated to the "True Cross", because he landed on the Christian holy day of Good Friday, the day of the Crucifixion. It was the first Spanish settlement on the mainland of the Americas to receive a coat-of-arms. During the colonial period, this city had the largest mercantile class and was at times wealthier than the capital of Mexico City. Its wealth attracted the raids of 17th-century pirates, against which fortifications such as Fort San Juan de Ulúa were built. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Veracruz was invaded on different occasions by France and the United States; during the 1914 Tampico Affair, US troops occupied the city for seven months. For much of the 20th century, the production of petroleum was most important for the state's economy but, in the latter 20th century and into the 21st, the port has re-emerged as the main economic engine. It has become the principal port for most of Mexico’s imports and exports, especially for the automotive industry.Veracruz has a blend of cultures, mostly indigenous, ethnic Spanish and Afro-Cuban. The influence of these three is best seen in the food and music of the area, which has strong Hispanic, Caribbean and African influences.Vidal Francisco Soberón Sanz
Admiral Vidal Francisco Soberón Sanz (born 1953) is a Mexican Navy officer who served as the Secretary of the Navy.
Chiefs of defense by country