Secondary school

A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education (levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale), but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle school- high school system.

Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16. The organisations, buildings, and terminology are more or less unique in each country.[1][2]

Tóth Árpád Gimnázium
Tóth Árpád Gimnázium, a secondary school in Debrecen, Hungary

Levels of education

First 'Early levels' of the ISCED 2011 levels of education and comparison with ISCED 1997[3]
Level ISCED 2011 Description Corresponding ISCED 1997 level
0 Early childhood Education (01 Early childhood educational development) Education designed to support early development in preparation for participation in school and society. Programmes designed for children below the age of 3. None
0 Early childhood Education (02 Pre-primary education) Education designed to support early development in preparation for participation in school and society. Programmes designed for children from age 3 to the start of primary education. Level 0: Pre-primary education.
1 Primary education Programmes typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning. Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education.
2 Lower secondary education First stage of secondary education building on primary education, typically with a more subject-oriented curriculum. Level 2: Lower secondary education or second stage of basic education
3 Upper secondary education Second/final stage of secondary education preparing for tertiary education or providing skills relevant to employment. Usually with an increased range of subject options and streams. Level 3: Upper secondary education
4 Post-secondary non-tertiary education Programmes providing learning experiences that build on secondary education and prepare for labour market entry or tertiary education. The content is broader than secondary but not as complex as tertiary education. Level 4: Post-secondary non-tertiary education
5 Short-cycle tertiary education Short first tertiary programmes that are typically practically based, occupationally specific and prepare for labour market entry. These programmes may also provide a pathway to other tertiary programmes. Level 5B: First stage of tertiary education: typically shorter, more practical/technical/occupationally specific programmes leading to professional qualifications.

Terminology: descriptions of cohorts

Within the English speaking world, there are three widely used systems to describe the age of the child. The first is the 'equivalent ages', then countries that base their education systems on the 'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the 'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as 'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison [4]

Equivalent ages 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11
U.S. (grades) Pre-K K 1 2 3 4 5
England (forms) Reception Infants Top infants Junior 1 Junior 2 Junior 3 Junior 4
England (year) R 1 2 3 4 5 6
ISCED level 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 [4]
Equivalent ages 11-12 12-13 13-14 14-15 15-16 16-17 17-18
U.S. (grades) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
U.S. (nicknames) Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior
England (forms) First Second Third Fourth Fifth Lower Sixth Upper Sixth
England (year) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
ISCED level 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 [4]

Theoretical framework

Gymnázium Grösslingová
High school in Bratislava, Slovakia (Gamča)

School building design does not happen in isolation. The building (or school campus) needs to accommodate:

  • Curriculum content
  • Teaching methods
  • Costs
  • Education within the political framework
  • Use of school building (also in the community setting)
  • Constraints imposed by the site
  • Design philosophy

Each country will have a different education system and priorities. [5] Schools need to accommodate students, staff, storage, mechanical and electrical systems, storage, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed.

According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m², but 104 m² for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary (practical specialism).[6] and 1,850 place secondary school.[7]

Building design specifications

First school
The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham.

The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community. It has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms, toilets and showers, electricity and services, preparation and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids. [8] An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have:

  • adequately sized classrooms;
  • specialised teaching spaces;
  • a staff preparation room;
  • an administration block;
  • multipurpose classrooms;
  • a general purpose school hall;
  • laboratories for science, technology, mathematics and life sciences, as may be required;
  • adequate equipment;
  • a library or library stocks that are regularly renewed; and
  • computer rooms or media centres.[8]

Government accountants having read the advice then publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure that these standards are met but not exceeded. Government ministries continue to press for the 'minimum' space and cost standards to be reduced.

The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² (+ 350m² if there is a sixth form) + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². [9]

Secondary schools by country

A secondary school locally may be called high school or senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education (ISCED 2) and (ISCED 3), here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school (ISCED 1) and high school.

Names for secondary schools by country
  • Argentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria
  • Australia: high school, secondary college
  • Austria: Gymnasium (Ober- & Unterstufe), Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt (HBLA), Höhere Technische Lehranstalt (HTL)
  • Azerbaijan: orta məktəb
  • Bahamas, The: junior high (grades 7–9), senior high (grades 10–12)
  • Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités
  • Bolivia: educación primaria superior (grades 6–8) and educación secundaria, (grades 9–12)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
  • Brazil: ensino médio (officially), segundo grau (formerly)
  • Brunei: mostly sekolah menengah (English translation: secondary school), a few maktab (English translation: college)
  • Bulgaria: cредно образование (grades 8–12)
  • Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente
  • Chile: enseñanza media
  • China: zhong xue (中学; literally, middle school), consisting of chu zhong (初中; 初级中学; literally low-level middle school) from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong (高中; 高级中学; literally high-level middle school) from grades 10 to 12
  • Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza (literally second learning)
  • Croatia: srednja škola (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium)
  • Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο (gymnasium), Ενιαίο Λύκειο (Lyceum)
  • Czech Republic: střední škola (literally middle school), gymnázium (gymnasium), střední odborné učiliště
  • Denmark: gymnasium
  • Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato
  • Egypt: Thanawya Amma (ثانوية عامة), (public secondary certificate)
  • Estonia: upper secondary school, gymnasium, Lyceum
  • Finland: lukio (Finn.) gymnasium (Swed.)
  • France: collège (junior), lycée (senior)
  • Germany: Gymnasium, Gesamtschule, Realschule, Hauptschule, Fachoberschule
  • Greece: Γυμνάσιο (3 years) (gymnasium), Γενικό Λύκειο (3 years) (~1996, 2006~present), Ενιαίο Λύκειο (3 years), (1997~2006) (lyceum)
  • Hong Kong: Secondary school (中學)
  • Hungary: gimnázium (grammar school), középiskola (comprehensive school, lit. "middle-school"), szakközépiskola (vocational secondary school, lit. "specified middle-school")
  • Iceland: framhaldsskóli (menntaskóli, iðnskóli, fjölbrautaskóli) from 11-13 Grade. You go first in 1 - 10 Grade then you change the school to Menntaskóla and take 3 years (11-13 Grade). But you can also take it 4 years.
  • India: secondary school, higher secondary school
  • Indonesia: sekolah menengah atas (SMA) (lit. "upper middle school"), sekolah menengah pertama (SMP) (lit. "first middle school"), sekolah menengah kejuruan (SMK) (vocational school, lit. "middle vocational school")
  • Ireland: Meánscoil or Secondary School
  • Iran: Madrese Rahnamaie (مدرسه راهنمایی), (public secondary certificate)
  • Israel: Bet Sefer Tichon (בית ספר תיכון) (literally middle school, but in reality grades 9-12)
  • Italy: scuola secondaria di primo grado (3 years) + scuola secondaria di secondo grado (5 years): Liceo, Istituto Tecnico and professionale (3–4 years)
  • Japan: chūgakkō (中学校; literally middle school), kōtōgakkō (高等学校; literally high school), chūtōkyōikugakkō (中等教育学校; Secondary School) – In the pre-Meiji educational system, the equivalent was called "chūsei"
  • South Korea: 중등교육 (joongdeung gyoyook; literally middle education), comprising 중학교 (joonghakkyo; grades 7–9, though referred to as "middle school grades 1–3") and 고등학교 (godeunghakkyo; grades 10–12, though referred to as "high school grades 1–3")
  • Latvia: vidusskola (literally middle school)
  • Liechtenstein: gymnasium
  • Lithuania: vidurinė mokykla (literally middle school), gimnazija (gymnasium), licėjus (lyceum)
  • Malaysia: secondary school or sekolah menengah, sometimes high school is used
  • Malta: skola sekondarja or secondary school
  • Mexico: educación secundaria y preparatoria
  • Mongolia: бүрэн дунд сургууль
  • Netherlands: middelbare school or voortgezet onderwijs
  • New Zealand: high school, college or secondary school
  • Nigeria: Secondary school, Junior or senior secondary school
  • Norway: videregående skole
  • Pakistan: secondary school, higher secondary school
  • Paraguay: educación media
  • Peru: educación secundaria or escuela secundaria
  • Philippines: high school or mataas na paaralan
  • Poland: gimnazjum (grades 7–9), liceum (grades 10–12)
  • Portugal: 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (5th and 6th grades), 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico (7th to 9th grades), and Ensino Secundário, Liceu (10th to 12th grades)
  • Romania: gimnaziu (grades 5–8), liceu (grades 9–12)
  • Russia: средняя школа (literally middle school); grades 5–9 junior middle school (compulsory), grades 10–11 senior middle school (voluntary)
  • Serbia: gymnasium (4 years), professional schools (4 years), vocational schools (3 or 4 years)
  • South Africa: High School or Hoërskool
  • Spain: educación secundaria, composed of two cycles: E.S.O. (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria, compulsory secondary education, 4 years, 7th to 10th grade) and bachillerato (non-compulsory secondary education, 2 years, 11th and 12th grade); formerly, primary education comprised up to the 8th grade and the secondary education was composed of two non-compulsory cycles: B.U.P. (Bachillerato Unificado Polivalente, 3 years, 9th to 11th grade) and C.O.U. (Curso de Orientación Universitaria, 1 year, 12th grade)
  • Sri Lanka: junior secondary school, senior secondary school
  • Sweden: gymnasium
  • Switzerland: gymnasium, secondary school, collège or lycée
  • Taiwan: Junior High School (國民中學), Senior High School (高級中學), Vocational High School (高級職業中學), Military School (軍校), and Complete High School (完全中學).
  • Thailand: matthayommasueksa (มัธยมศึกษา; lit. "Secondary education")
  • Trinidad and Tobago: Secondary School, Forms 1 to 5 (5 years) or Forms 1-6 (7 years)
  • Turkey: Lise
  • Ukraine: середня освіта (transliteration: serednya osvita)
  • United Kingdom: Secondary School (May be referred to as High School)
  • United States: High school (North America) (usually grades 9–12 but sometimes 10–12, it is also called senior high school) is always considered secondary education; junior high school or intermediate school or middle school (6–8, 7–8, 6–9, 7–9, or other variations) are sometimes considered secondary education.
  • Uruguay: Liceo or Secundaria (3 years of compulsory education: Ciclo Básico; and 3 years of specialization: Bachillerato Diversificado, into: Humanities (Law or Economics), Biology (Medicine or Agronomy), Science (Engineering or Architecture), and Art
  • Venezuela: bachillerato
  • Vietnam: Trung học cơ sở (abbreviated THCS, lit. "basic middle school", equivalent to junior high school in the U.S.); trung học phổ thông (abbr. THPT, lit. "general middle school", equivalent to senior high school in the U.S.)
  • South Korea: 고등학교 (lit. trans. from the American term "high school") (equiv. to America's 10th-12th grades)

See also

References

  1. ^ "International Standard Classification of EducationI S C E D 1997". www.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 2017-03-19. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  2. ^ Iwamoto, Wataru (2005). "Towards a Convergence of Knowledge Acquisition and Skills Development" (PDF). uis.unesco.org. UNESCO. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-05-25. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  3. ^ "International Standard Classification of Education 2011" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-15. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b c Ward, Ken. "British and American Systems (Grades)". trans4mind.com. Archived from the original on 2017-03-31. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  5. ^ Liew Kok-Pun, Michael (1981). "Design of secondary schools:Singapore a case study" (PDF). Educational Building reports. Voume 17: UNESCO. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-04-04. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  6. ^ "Baseline designs: 1,200 place secondary (practical specialism) - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 2017-04-05. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Baseline design: 1,850 place secondary school - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2017-04-05. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  8. ^ a b "Guidelines relating to planning for public school infrastructure". Department of Basic Education, Republic of South Africa. 2012. Archived from the original on 2015-09-07. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  9. ^ "Baseline designs for schools: guidance - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Education Funding Agency. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2017-04-04. Retrieved 3 April 2017.

External links

Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad ( (listen) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat. It is the administrative headquarter of the Ahmadabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. Ahmedabad's population of 5,633,927 (as per 2011 population census) makes it the fifth most populous city in India, and the encompassing urban agglomeration population estimated at 6,357,693 is the seventh most populous in India. Ahmadabad is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River, 30 km (19 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar, which is its twin city.Ahmedabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of cotton in India, and its stock exchange is the country's second oldest. Cricket is a popular sport in Ahmedabad, which houses the 54,000-seat Sardar Patel Stadium. The effects of liberalisation of the Indian economy have energised the city's economy towards tertiary sector activities such as commerce, communication and construction. Ahmedabad's increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction and housing industries resulting in recent development of skyscrapers.In 2010 Ahmedabad was ranked third in Forbes's list of fastest growing cities of the decade. In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as India's best city to live in. As of 2014, Ahmedabad's estimated gross domestic product was $64 billion.Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Government of India's flagship Smart Cities Mission. In July 2017, the Historic City of Ahmedabad or Old Ahmedabad, was declared as India's first UNESCO World Heritage City.

All India Secondary School Examination

All India Secondary School Examination (also known as AISSE) is a centralized public examination that students (belonging to CBSE-Affiliated schools) in India take after class 10. The Central Board of Secondary Education conducts the AISSE during the period of February every year even after implementing the ambitious project of CCE (Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation.) Now, that Central Board of Secondary Education has decided to discontinue the CCE pattern as a result JEE, NEET, etc. shall now be conducted by

National Testing Agency instead. Generally students are tested on English, Languages (Native or Foreign), Mathematics, Sciences, Social Sciences (History, Democratic Politics, Geography and Economics), Arts, Dances and other optional subjects. Successful candidates are awarded with the AISSE Secondary School Completion Certificate, a Statement of Marks and a Migration Certificate stating that the candidate has completed Secondary Schooling and can pursue higher education. For the 2017-18 academic year, the Central Board of Secondary Education has revived the old system of syllabus and marking scheme (complete syllabus for AISSE and marks out of 500.) Exams are to commence on 5 March 2018.

Education in Norway

Education in Norway is mandatory for all children aged 6–16.

The school year in Norway runs from mid August to late June the following year. The Christmas holiday from mid December to early January historically divides the Norwegian school year into two terms. Presently, the second term begins in the beginning of January.

Higher Secondary School Certificate

The Higher Secondary Certificate, also known as HSC or Intermediate or +2 examination, is a public examination taken by students of Intermediate college (Junior college) in Bangladesh, Pakistan and in the states of Gujarat,Tamil Nadu,Kerala, Telangana, Punjab, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Goa in India. In India the examination structure differs from board to board. But in most of the boards, they are subjective examinations. HSC is an equivalent to GCE A Level in England and 3rd and 4th year of high Schools in United States

List of Seventh-day Adventist secondary schools

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List of educational institutions in Cuddalore district

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List of high schools in Minnesota

This is a list of high schools in the state of Minnesota.

List of high schools in Ontario

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List of schools in Chennai

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List of schools in India

This is a list of schools in India grouped by state/UT.

Middle school

A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, and sometimes within, countries.

Ninth grade

Ninth grade, freshman year, or grade 9 is the ninth post-kindergarten year of school education in some school systems. Ninth grade is often the first school year of high school in the United States, or the last year of middle/junior high school. In some countries Grade 9 is the second year of high school.Students are usually 14–15 years old. In the United States, it is often called Freshman year.

In England and Wales, the equivalent educational year is Year Ten. In Scotland the equivalent educational year is Third Year or S3, as this is the third year of compulsory secondary schooling.

Peel District School Board

The Peel District School Board (known as English-Language Public District School Board No. 19 prior to 1999) is a school district that serves approximately 154,000 kindergarten to grade 12 students at more than 253 schools in the Region of Peel (municipalities of Caledon, Brampton and Mississauga) in Ontario.

The board employs more than 15,000 full-time staff and is the largest employer in Peel Region. As of 2012 it is the second largest school board in Canada.According to Ontario's public sector salary disclosure list for 2015, Peel Board has 349 names on the "Sunshine List." This is a list of employees who make more than $100,000 a year.Peter Joshua is the current Director of Education.

Private school

Private schools, also known to many as independent schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments. Children who attend private schools may be there because they are dissatisfied with public schools in their area. They may be selected for their academic prowess, or prowess in other fields, or sometimes their religious background. Private schools retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students for tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public (government) funding; at some private schools students may be able to get a scholarship, lowering this tuition fee, dependent on a student's talents or abilities (e.g. sport scholarship, art scholarship, academic scholarship), need for financial aid, or tax credit scholarships that might be available. Some private schools are associated with a particular religion, such as Judaism or Roman Catholicism. For the past century, roughly one in 10 U.S families has chosen to enroll their children in private school.

Secondary School Certificate

The Secondary School Certificate, also called SSC or Matriculation examination, is a public examination in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan conducted by educational boards as completion exam of secondary education in these countries. Students of 10th grade/class ten can appear in these examinations. It is equivalent to GCSE in England and first two years of high schools in United States.

Secondary education

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education (less common junior secondary education) is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.

Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; Article 28, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states that primary education should be free and compulsory while different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, should be available and accessible to every child. The terminology has proved difficult, and there was no universal definition before ISCED divided the period between primary education and university into junior secondary education and upper secondary education.

In classical and mediaeval times secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood. As trade required navigational and scientific skills the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the Reformation the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, and with Comenius and John Locke education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few. Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years and the elite getting 7 years. The rights to a secondary education were codified after 1945, and countries are still working to achieve the goal of mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under 19.

Student

A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution who attends classes in a course to attain the appropriate level of mastery of a subject under the guidance of an instructor and who devotes time outside class to do whatever activities the instructor assigns that are necessary either for class preparation or to submit evidence of progress towards that mastery. In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive.

In the United Kingdom and India, the term "student" denotes those enrolled in secondary schools and higher (e.g., college or university); those enrolled in elementary schools are called "pupils."

Tertiary education

Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education. The World Bank, for example, defines tertiary education as including universities as well as trade schools and colleges. Higher education is taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, while vocational education beyond secondary education is known as further education in the United Kingdom, or continuing education in the United States.

Tertiary education generally culminates in the receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees.

The UNESCO stated that tertiary education focuses on learning endeavors in specialized fields. It includes academic and higher vocational education.The World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on the future of work argues that given the future of work and the increasing role of technology in value chains, tertiary education becomes even more relevant for workers to compete in the labor market.

Twelfth grade

Twelfth grade, senior year, or grade 12 is the final year of secondary school in most of North America. In other regions it is also equivalently referred to as class 12 or Year 13. In most countries students then graduate at age 18. Some countries have a thirteenth grade, while other countries do not have a 12th grade/year at all. Twelfth grade is typically the last year of high school; graduation year.

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