Secondary antisemitism

Secondary antisemitism is a distinct kind of antisemitism which is said to have appeared after the end of World War II. Secondary antisemitism is often explained as being caused by the Holocaust (as opposed to in spite of it).[1] One frequently quoted formulation of the concept, first published in Henryk M. Broder's 1986 book Der Ewige Antisemit ("The Eternal Antisemite"), stems from the Israeli psychiatrist Zvi Rex,[2] who once remarked: "The Germans will never forgive the Jews for Auschwitz."[3][4] The term itself was coined by Peter Schönbach, a Frankfurt School co-worker of Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer, based on their Critical Theory.[5]

An alternative explanation was proposed for the spate of postwar anti-Semitic violence in Eastern Europe. In 1946, the Slovak writer Karel František Koch argued that the anti-semitic incidents that he witnessed in Bratislava after the war were "not antisemitism, but something far worse—the robber’s anxiety that he might have to return Jewish property," a view that has been endorsed by Czech-Slovak scholar Robert Pynsent.[6] It has been estimated that only 15% of Jewish property was returned after the war, and restitution was "negligible" in Eastern Europe. Property not returned has been valued at over $100 million in 2005 dollars.[7]

Adorno, in a 1959 lecture titled "Was bedeutet: Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit" (published in his 1963 book Eingriffe. Neun kritische Modelle.[8]) addressed the fallacy of the broad German post-war tendency to associate and simultaneously causally link Jews with the Holocaust. According to Adorno's critique, an opinion had been readily accepted in Germany according to which the Jewish people were culpable in the crimes against them. Jewish guilt was assumed to varying extents, depending on the varying incarnations of that antisemitic notion, one of which is the idea that Jews were (and are) exploiting German guilt over the Holocaust.

Sometimes the victors are declared to be the cause of what the defeated have done when they were still in charge, and for the crimes of Hitler those are declared guilty who acquiesced his rise to power, and not those who hailed him. The idiocy in all this is in fact an indication of something mentally uncoped-with, of a wound, although the thought of wounds should be dedicated to the victims.[8]

Initially, members of the Frankfurt School spoke of "guilt-defensiveness anti-Semitism", an antisemitism motivated by a deflection of guilt.[9]

The rehabilitation of many lower and even several higher-ranking Third Reich officials and officers appears to have contributed to the development of secondary antisemitism. These officials were rehabilitated in spite of their considerable individual contributions to Nazi Germany's crimes. Several controversies ensued early in post-World War II Germany, e.g., when Konrad Adenauer appointed Hans Globke as Chief of the Chancellery although the latter had formulated the emergency legislation that gave Hitler unlimited dictatorial powers and had been one of the leading legal commentators on the Nuremberg race laws of 1935.[10][11] However, according to Adorno, parts of the German public never acknowledged these events and instead formed the notion of Jewish guilt in the Holocaust.

See also

References

  1. ^ EUMC, Antisemitism. Summary overview of the situation in the European Union 2001-2005 (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-05, retrieved 2007-06-23
  2. ^ (1909 Vienna - 1981 Rehovot) (צבי רקס). As Zvi Rix he published an essay "The Great Terror" in the first issue (April 1975) of Immanuel Velikovsky's Kronos: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Synthesis. Cf. Rix-Velikovsky Correspondence April 1962 – Jan 1977 at varchive.org. Gunnar Heinsohn mentions Zvi Rix in his books Was ist Antisemitismus (1988) and Söhne und Weltmacht (2003).
  3. ^ Broder 1986.
  4. ^ Weinthal, Ben (2007-06-06). "The Raging Bronx Bull of German Journalism". Forward. The Jewish Daily. Retrieved 2012-01-13.
  5. ^ Schönbach 1961, p. 80.
  6. ^ Pynsent 2013, p. 330.
  7. ^ "Restitution of Holocaust-Era Assets: Promises and Reality". Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs. Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  8. ^ a b Adorno, Theodor W. (1996 (this edition), original 1963). Eingriffe. Neun kritische Modelle (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. ISBN 978-3-518-13303-3. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ Andrei S. Markovits (Spring 2006). "A New (or Perhaps Revived) "Uninhibitedness" toward Jews in Germany". Jewish Political Studies Review 18:1-2. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
  10. ^ Wistrich 2001, pp. 74-75.
  11. ^ Pendas 2005, p. 18.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Lars Rensmann (2017). "Guilt, Resentment, and Post-Holocaust Democracy: The Frankfurt School's Analysis of "Secondary Antisemitism" in the Group Experiment and Beyond". Antisemitism Studies. 1 (1): 4. doi:10.2979/antistud.1.1.01.

External links

Alex Linder

Milton Alexander Linder (born June 30, 1966) is the owner-operator of Vanguard News Network (VNN), an antisemitic, white separatist, white supremacist, neo-Nazi, Holocaust denying, fascist, and white nationalist website which he launched in 2000. VNN is one of the most active white supremacist sites on the Internet, according to the Anti-Defamation League (ADL). Its motto is "No Jews. Just Right."

Bible Believers

Bible Believers is the antisemitic website of the Bible Believers' Church of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Not to be confused with "Whole Bible Believers" which is based in the US.

Because the website reprints antisemitic material such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Henry Ford’s The International Jew, and Holocaust denial material from authors such as Bradley Smith and Mark Weber, a complaint was lodged under Australia’s Racial Discrimination Act. In 2007, Justice Richard Conti of the Federal Court of Australia ordered Anthony Grigor-Scott to remove from the website antisemitic claims that Jews deliberately exaggerated the number of Jews killed during World War II. However, the order was overturned on appeal due to a legal technicality: "Bible Believers Church" could not be sued, since it lacked legal personality, and the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986 (Cth) (HREOC Act) would not permit (in the same proceeding) its substitution with another defendant who could be.Bible Believers were described as "[o]ne of the most visible of the plethora of eccentric pseudo-Christian groups in Australia" and "extremist" by the Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council (AIJAC) in their 2008 report on antisemitism in Australia.The church is run by Anthony Grigor-Scott.

Index of continental philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in continental philosophy.

Abandonment (existentialism)

Abjection

Absurdism

Achieving Our Country

Albert Camus

Alberto Moreiras

Albrecht Wellmer

Alexandru Dragomir

Alfred Adler

Allan Bloom

Alterity

Always already

Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

André Malet (philosopher)

Ángel Rama

Angst

Anguish

Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?

Anti-Semite and Jew

Antonio Caso Andrade

Aous Shakra

Apperception

Arborescent

Atheist existentialism

Aufheben

Aurel Kolnai

Authenticity (philosophy)

Autonomism

Avital Ronell

Ayyavazhi phenomenology

Bad faith (existentialism)

Barbara Herrnstein Smith

Beatriz Sarlo

Being and Nothingness

Being and Time

Being in itself

Benedetto Croce

Beyond Good and Evil

Black existentialism

Boredom

Bracketing (phenomenology)

Cahiers pour l'Analyse

Carmen Laforet

Cartesian Meditations

Charles Sanders Peirce

Christian Discourses

Christian existentialism

Christopher Norris (critic)

Citationality

Claude Lefort

Claudio Canaparo

Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments

Consciousness

Constantin Noica

Continental philosophy

Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)

Cornelius Castoriadis

Course in General Linguistics

Critical discourse analysis

Critical historiography

Critical pedagogy

Critical theory

Criticism of postmodernism

Critique of Cynical Reason

Critique of Dialectical Reason

Critique of Pure Reason

Critiques of Slavoj Žižek

Cultural materialism (anthropology)

Cultural studies

Cyborg theory

Dasein

David Farrell Krell

Deconstruction

Delfim Santos

Dermot Moran

Discontinuity (Postmodernism)

Discourse ethics

Duality of structure

Ecce Homo (book)

Eco-criticism

Écriture féminine

Edifying Discourses in Diverse Spirits

Edith Wyschogrod

Edmund Husserl

Edward Said

Egoist anarchism

Either/Or

Epic and Novel

Epoché

Eranos

Ernst Cassirer

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick

Exceptionalism

Exile and the Kingdom

Existential crisis

Existential humanism

Existential phenomenology

Existentiell

Face-to-face

Facticity

Fear and Trembling

Ferdinand de Saussure

For Self-Examination

Foucault–Habermas debate

Franz Rosenzweig

Frederick C. Beiser

Fredric Jameson

French structuralist feminism

Freudo-Marxism

Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography

Friedrich Pollock

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Gabriel Marcel

Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

Geist

Gender studies

Genealogy (philosophy)

Geocriticism

Geoffrey Bennington

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Giles Fraser

Giorgio Agamben

Guy Debord

Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans Lipps

Hegelianism

Hélène Cixous

Helene von Druskowitz

Henri Bergson

Herbert Marcuse

Hermeneutics

Heteronormativity

Heterophenomenology

Historicity (philosophy)

History of Consciousness

Honorio Delgado

Human, All Too Human

Humanistic psychology

Husserliana

Hypermodernity

Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Purpose

Igor Pribac

Influence and reception of Søren Kierkegaard

Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche

Instrumental rationality

International Journal of Žižek Studies

Intersubjectivity

Irrational Man: A Study in Existential Philosophy

Irrealism (the arts)

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Lacan

James E. Faulconer

James M. Edie

Jan Patočka

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-Luc Nancy

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean Grenier

Jeff Malpas

Jena romantics

Johann Gottlieb Fichte

John D. Caputo

Josefina Ayerza

Juan-David Nasio

Judge for Yourselves!

Judith Butler

Juha Varto

Julia Kristeva

Julie Rivkin

Jürgen Habermas

Karl Ameriks

Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel

Keiji Nishitani

L'existentialisme est un humanisme

Lacan at the Scene

Laura Kipnis

Leo Strauss

Léon Dumont

Les jeux sont faits

Les Temps modernes

Lewis White Beck

Lifeworld

List of critical theorists

List of postmodern critics

List of works in critical theory

Literary criticism

Literary theory

Lived body

Logocentrism

Logos: A Journal of Modern Society and Culture

Louis Althusser

Louis H. Mackey

Luce Irigaray

Ludwig Landgrebe

Man's Fate

Marek Siemek

Mark Sacks

Mark Wrathall

Marshall Berman

Martin Buber

Martin Heidegger

Mary Louise Pratt

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Max Horkheimer

Maxence Caron

Metaphor in philosophy

Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science

Metaphysics of Morals

Metaphysics of presence

Michael Vavrus

Michel Foucault bibliography

Michel Henry

Mikhail Ovsyannikov

Minima Moralia

Mirror stage

Modalities (sociology)

Modernism

Mythologies (book)

Nader El-Bizri

Nelly Richard

Néstor García Canclini

Nicola Abbagnano

Nietzsche's views on women

Nietzsche and free will

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nietzsche contra Wagner

Nietzschean affirmation

Objet petit a

Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime

On the Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to Socrates

On the Genealogy of Morality

On Truth and Lies in a Nonmoral Sense

Ontic

Orientalism (book)

Orthotes

Outline of critical theory

Paul de Man

Paul R. Patton

Paul Rée

Per Martin-Löf

Phenomenological Sociology

Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology of essences

Phenomenology of Perception

Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

Philippe Nys

Philosophical Fragments

Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks

Philosophy of dialogue

Philosophy of Existence

Philosophy of Max Stirner

Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard

Philosophy of technology

Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer

Post-Marxism

Post-structuralism

Postcolonialism

Posthegemony

Postmodern Christianity

Postmodern philosophy

Postmodern psychology

Postmodern social construction of nature

Postmodern vertigo

Postmodernism

Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

Practice in Christianity

Pragmatic maxim

Prefaces

Private sphere

Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics

Public sphere

Queer heterosexuality

Queer pedagogy

Queer theory

Ranjana Khanna

Reflective disclosure

Relationship between Friedrich Nietzsche and Max Stirner

Repetition (Kierkegaard)

Repressive hypothesis

Res Extensa

Ressentiment

Richard A. Macksey

Richard Schacht

Robert C. Solomon

Robert Rowland Smith

Roger Caillois

Romanticism

Rudolf Schottlaender

Rudolf Seydel

Russian formalism

Saint Genet

Sarah Coakley

Scheler's Stratification of Emotional Life

Schizoanalysis

Schopenhauer's criticism of the proofs of the parallel postulate

Search for a Method

Secondary antisemitism

Self-deception

Semeiotic

Siegfried Kracauer

Situationist International

Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Slavoj Žižek

Slavoj Žižek bibliography

Social alienation

Socialisme ou Barbarie

Søren Kierkegaard

Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche

Sous rature

Spomenka Hribar

Stages on Life's Way

Stephen Mulhall

Stirrings Still: The International Journal of Existential Literature

Strategic essentialism

Structural Marxism

Sturm und Drang

Sublime (philosophy)

Telos (journal)

Teresa de Lauretis

The Absence of the Book

The Adulterous Woman

The Antichrist (book)

The Art of Being Right

The Birth of the Clinic

The Birth of Tragedy

The Blood of Others

The Book on Adler

The Case of Wagner

The Concept of Anxiety

The Crisis and a Crisis in the Life of an Actress

The Existential Negation Campaign

The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures

The Gay Science

The Imaginary (Sartre)

The Metamorphosis

The Myth of Sisyphus

The Only Possible Argument in Support of a Demonstration of the Existence of God

The Origin of the Work of Art

The Pigeon (novella)

The Plague

The Point of View of My Work as an Author

The Possessed (play)

The Postmodern Condition

The Question Concerning Technology

The Renegade (Camus short story)

The Royal Way

The Seminars of Jacques Lacan

The Sickness Unto Death

The Silent Men

The Society of the Spectacle

The Stranger (Camus novel)

The Sublime Object of Ideology

The Transcendence of the Ego

The Will to Power (manuscript)

Theatre of the Absurd

Theodor W. Adorno

Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces

Thus Spoke Zarathustra

Tim Dean

Time and Free Will

Tomonubu Imamichi

Trace (deconstruction)

Tui (intellectual)

Twilight of the Idols

Two Ages: A Literary Review

Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven

Untimely Meditations (Nietzsche)

Vanja Sutlić

Waiting for Godot

Waking Life

Walter Benjamin

What Is Literature?

Wilhelm Dilthey

William McNeill (philosopher)

Colin Wilson

Wolfgang Fritz Haug

Works of Love

World disclosure

Writing Sampler

Zarathustra's roundelay

Zollikon Seminars

List of neo-Nazi bands

This is a list of notable neo-Nazi bands.

Absurd

Aggrivated Assault

Arische Kämpfer

Blue Eyed Devils

Die Faschistischen 4

Endstufe

Goatmoon

Grand Belial's Key

Honor

Kolovrat

Kraftschlag

Landser

Macht und Ehre

Nordic Thunder

No Remorse

Peste Noire

Prussian Blue

RaHoWa

Skrewdriver

Skullhead

Stahlgewitter

Zillertaler Türkenjäger

Matthew F. Hale

Matthew F. "Matt" Hale (born July 27, 1971) is an American white supremacist, neo-Nazi leader and convicted felon. Hale was the founder of the East Peoria, Illinois-based white separatist group then known as the World Church of the Creator (now called The Creativity Movement), and he declared himself its Pontifex Maximus (Latin for "highest priest") in continuation of the Church of the Creator organization founded by Ben Klassen in 1973.

In 1998, Hale was barred from practicing law in Illinois by the state panel that evaluates the character and fitness of prospective lawyers. The panel stated that Hale's incitement of racial hatred, for the ultimate purpose of depriving selected groups of their legal rights, was blatantly immoral and rendered him unfit to be a lawyer.In 2005, Hale was sentenced to a 40-year federal prison term for encouraging an undercover FBI informant to kill federal judge Joan Lefkow. He is currently serving his sentence at ADX Florence with a projected release date of December 6, 2037.

National Alliance (United States)

The National Alliance was a white supremacist,, neo-Nazi, Holocaust denial and white separatist political organization founded by white supremacist William Luther Pierce in 1974 and based in Hillsboro, West Virginia. Membership in 2002 was estimated at 2,500 with an annual income of $1 million. Membership declined after Pierce's death in 2002 and after a split in its ranks in 2005 the group has been barely functioning.

Racial antisemitism

Racial antisemitism is prejudice against Jews based on a belief or assertion that Jews constitute a distinct racial or ethnic group that has inherent traits or characteristics that are in some way abhorrent or inherently inferior or otherwise different to that of the rest of society. The abhorrence may be expressed in the form of stereotypes or caricatures. Racial antisemitism may present Jews, as a group, as being a threat in some way to the values or safety of society. Racial antisemitism could be seen as worse than religious antisemitism because for religious antisemites conversion was an option and once converted the 'Jew' was gone. With racial antisemitism a Jew could not get rid of their Jewishness.The premise of racial antisemitism is that Jews are a distinct racial or ethnic group, compared to religious antisemitism, which is prejudice against Jews and Judaism on the basis of their religion. According to William Nichols, religious antisemitism may be distinguished from modern antisemitism based on racial or ethnic grounds. "The dividing line was the possibility of effective conversion ... a Jew ceased to be a Jew upon baptism." However, with racial antisemitism, "Now the assimilated Jew was still a Jew, even after baptism ... . From the Enlightenment onward, it is no longer possible to draw clear lines of distinction between religious and racial forms of hostility towards Jews... Once Jews have been emancipated and secular thinking makes its appearance, without leaving behind the old Christian hostility towards Jews, the new term antisemitism becomes almost unavoidable, even before explicitly racist doctrines appear."In the context of the Industrial Revolution, following the emancipation of the Jews and the Haskalah (the Jewish Enlightenment), many Jews rapidly urbanized and experienced a period of greater social mobility. With the decreasing role of religion in public life and the simultaneous tempering of religious antisemitism, a combination of growing nationalism, the rise of eugenics, resentment of the socio-economic success of the Jews, and the influx of Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe, soon led to the newer, and often more virulent, racist antisemitism.Scientific racism, the ideology that genetics played a role in group behavior and characteristics, was highly respected and accepted as fact between 1870 and 1940. It was not only antisemites who believed in race science but highly educated Jews, among others, as well. This acceptance of race science made it possible for antisemites to clothe their hatred of Jews in scientific theory.The logic of racial antisemitism was extended in Nazi Germany, where racial antisemitic ideas were turned into laws, which looked at the "blood" or ethnicity of people, rather than their current religious affiliations, and their subsequent fate would be determined purely on that basis. When added to its views on the Jewish racial traits which Nazi pseudoscience devised, the logic of racial antisemitism led to the Holocaust as a way to eradicate conjured up "Jewish traits" from the world.

The Holocaust in Luxembourg

The Holocaust in Luxembourg refers to the persecution and near-annihilation of the 3,500-strong Jewish population of Luxembourg begun shortly after the start of the German occupation during World War II, when the country was officially incorporated into Nazi Germany. The persecution lasted until October 1941, when the Germans declared the territory to be free of Jews who had been deported to extermination camps and ghettos in Eastern Europe.

The Holocaust in Russia

The Holocaust in Russia refers to the Nazi crimes during the occupation of Russia (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) by Nazi Germany.

The Holocaust in Ukraine

The Holocaust in Ukraine took place in Reichskommissariat Ukraine during the occupation of the Soviet Ukraine by Nazi Germany in World War II. Between 1941 and 1944 more than a million Jews living in Ukrainian SSR were murdered as part of Generalplan Ost and the Final Solution extermination policies.

According to Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, "the Holocaust is integrally and organically connected to the Vernichtungskrieg, to the war in 1941, and is organically and integrally connected to the attempt to conquer Ukraine."

The Holocaust in the USSR

The Holocaust in the Soviet Union (USSR) refers to the German persecution of Jews, Roma and homosexuals as part of The Holocaust in World War II.

It may refer to:

The Holocaust in Russia

The Holocaust in Belarus

The Holocaust in UkraineIt may also refer to The Holocaust in the Baltic states, annexed by the Soviet Union before the war:

The Holocaust in Latvia

The Holocaust in Lithuania

The Holocaust in Estonia

The International Jew

The International Jew is a four-volume set of antisemitic booklets or pamphlets published and distributed in the early 1920s by Henry Ford, the American industrialist and automobile manufacturer.

In spring 1920, Ford began using his personal newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, to chronicle what he considered the "Jewish menace". For 91 issues, the weekly paper announced a variety of Jewish-evil-influenced major stories in its headlines. The most popular and aggressive stories were then chosen to be reprinted into four volumes called The International Jew.The books are to be distinguished from The International Jew: The World's Problem which was a headline in The Dearborn Independent, and is also the name of a collection of articles serialized in The Dearborn Independent.

Triple parentheses

Triple parentheses or triple brackets, also known as an (((echo))), are an antisemitic symbol that has been used to highlight the names of individuals of a Jewish background, or organizations who are thought to be owned by Jewish people. The practice originated from the alt-right blog The Right Stuff; the blog's editors have explained that the symbol is meant to symbolize that the historic actions of Jews caused their surnames to "echo throughout history". The triple parentheses have been adopted as an online stigma by antisemites, neo-Nazis, and white nationalists to identify individuals of Jewish background as targets for online harassment, such as Jewish political journalists critical of Donald Trump during his 2016 election campaign.Use of the notation was brought to mainstream attention by an article posted by Mic in June 2016. The reports also led Google to remove a browser extension meant to automatically place the "echo" notation around Jewish names on web pages, and the notation being classified as a form of hate speech by the Anti-Defamation League. In the wake of these actions, some users, both Jews and non-Jews, have intentionally placed their own names within triple parentheses as a sign of solidarity.Prior to its use in this manner, ((( screen name ))) had been used in online communities such as AOL to indicate that a user was "cyberhugging" the user with the specified screen name.

Vom Schem Hamphoras

Vom Schem Hamphoras, full title: Vom Schem Hamphoras und vom Geschlecht Christi (Of the Unknowable Name and the Generations of Christ), was a book written by German Reformation leader Martin Luther in 1543, in which he equated Jews with the Devil and described them in vile language.

Schem Hamphoras is the Hebrew rabbinic name for the ineffable name of God, the tetragrammaton. Luther's use of the term was in itself a taunt and insult to Jewish sensitivities. He wrote the 125-page text several months after publishing On the Jews and Their Lies.

In Hamphoras (pp. 34-35) he wrote:

Here in Wittenberg, in our parish church, there is a sow carved into the stone under which lie young pigs and Jews who are sucking; behind the sow stands a rabbi who is lifting up the right leg of the sow, raises behind the sow, bows down and looks with great effort into the Talmud under the sow, as if he wanted to read and see something most difficult and exceptional; no doubt they gained their Shem Hamphoras from that place...

Luther argued that the Jews were no longer the chosen people but "the devil's people". An English translation of Vom Schem Hamphoras was first published in 1992 as part of The Jew In Christian Theology by Gerhard Falk. Historians have noted Luther's writings contributed to antisemitism within the German provinces during his era. Historical evidence shows that the Nazi Party in the 1930s and 1940s used Luther's writings to build up antisemitism under their rule, by exerting pressure on schools to incorporate it into the curriculum, and the Lutheran church to incorporate it into sermons. Whether or not Luther's writings were a leading force for antisemitism in Europe over the past 500 years is currently being debated by historians. Nevertheless, it is clear that his writings were used extensively by the Nazis.

Werner Bergmann

Werner Bergmann (born 26 May 1950, Celle, West Germany) is a German sociologist. He is Professor of Sociology at the Center for Research on Antisemitism at the Technical University of Berlin.

Bergmann's work focuses on sociology and history of anti-Semitism and related areas, including racism and right-wing extremism. His has published on the theory of social movements, forms of collective violence (pogroms, genocides) and on prejudice.

In their 1997 book, Anti-Semitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, Berkman and Erd put forward the idea of secondary antisemitism, a privately held antisemitic world view common among post-War citizens of West Germany that remained latent but increased in strength because it was denied a public expression.

Yellow badge

Yellow badges (or yellow patches), also referred to as Jewish badges (German: Judenstern, lit. Jew's star), are badges that Jews were ordered to wear in public during certain periods by the ruling Christians and Muslims, especially in Nazi Germany. The badges served to mark the wearer as a religious or ethnic outsider, and often served as a badge of shame.

Yizkor books

Yizkor books are memorial books commemorating a Jewish community destroyed during the Holocaust. The books are published by former residents or landsmanshaft societies as remembrances of homes, people and ways of life lost during World War II. Yizkor books usually focus on a town but may include sections on neighboring smaller communities. Most of these books are written in Yiddish or Hebrew, some also include sections in English or other languages, depending on where they were published. Since the 1990s, many of these books, or sections of them have been translated into English.

Znamya (newspaper)

Znamya ("Banner", Russian: Знамя) is a newspaper established by ultra-nationalist Black Hundreds journalist Pavel Krushevan in Petersburg. It is known for publishing of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" in August—September 1903.

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