Second Raid on Schweinfurt

The second Schweinfurt raid[9] was a World War II air battle that took place on 14 October 1943, over Nazi Germany between forces of the United States 8th Air Force and German Luftwaffe fighter arm (Jagdwaffe). The American bombers conducted a strategic bombing raid on ball bearing factories to reduce production of these vital parts for all manner of war machines. This was the second attack on the factories at Schweinfurt. American wartime intelligence claimed the first Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission in August had reduced bearing production by 34 percent but had cost many bombers. A planned follow-up raid had to be postponed to rebuild American forces.

As the squadrons rebuilt, plans for the return mission were modified based on the lessons learned. Planners added additional fighter escorts to cover the outward and return legs of the operation and sent the entire force against Schweinfurt alone, instead of splitting the force. Despite these tactical modifications, a series of minor mishaps combined with the ever-increasing efficiency of the German anti-aircraft effort proved to be devastating. Of the 291 B-17 Flying Fortresses sent on the mission, 60 were lost outright, another 17 damaged so heavily that they had to be scrapped and another 121 had varying degrees of battle damage. Outright losses represented over 26 percent of the attacking force. Losses in aircrew were equally heavy, with 650 men lost of 2,900, 22 percent of the bomber crews. The American Official History of the Army Air Forces in the Second World War acknowledged losses had been so great that the USAAF would not return to the target for four months, "The fact was that the Eighth Air Force had for the time being lost air superiority over Germany".[3]

The operation was a failure, there were no Merlin engined P-51 Mustangs available for USAAF fighter squadrons to provide long-range escort until the winter of 1943–44), while the P-47 Thunderbolt was inadequate. The bomber formations were left exposed to unrelenting attacks by German fighters and the improper preparations for the creation of reserves in the summer of 1943 meant that such costly operations could not be sustained. The intelligence of the Allied air forces was also flawed. Arthur Harris, Air Officer Commanding RAF Bomber Command questioned the intelligence that claimed ball bearings to be vital to the German war economy. Harris refused to cooperate with the Americans, believing ball bearing targets to be a "panacea".[10] Post-war analysis has shown Harris's objections to be correct.[11] An escort of 24 squadrons of Spitfires equipped with drop tanks was provided on the first and last leg of the mission.[12] The Germans had built up enormous reserves of ball bearings and were receiving supplies from all over Europe, particularly Italy, Sweden and Switzerland. The operation against these industries would, even if successful, have achieved little.[13][14] By 1945, the Germans had assembled more reserves than ever.[15]

Second Schweinfurt raid
(Eighth Air Force Mission 115)
Part of Operation Pointblank
Date14 October 1943
Location
Result German victory[1][2][3]
Belligerents
United States Eighth Air Force Nazi Germany Luftwaffe
Units involved
1st Air Division: 91st, 92nd, 303rd, 305th, 306th, 351st, 379th, 381st and 384th BGs;
3rd Air Division: 94th, 95th, 96th, 100th, 385th,388th, and 390th BGs.[4]
JGs 1, 3, 11, 25, 26, 27, 54
Strength

291 B-17 Flying Fortresses

60 B-24 Liberators[5] (diverted)
Casualties and losses
1 P-47
3 P-47 fighters [6]
77 B-17s lost[a]
121 damaged[7]
~590 KIA, 43 WIA, 65 POWs[8]:65
35–38 Messerschmitt Bf 109s & Focke-Wulf Fw 190 lost
20 damaged[7]

Mission

Factories in and around Schweinfurt accounted for a significant amount of German ball-bearing production. The Kugelfischer plant produced 22 percent, and the Vereinigte Kugellagerfabriken I and II produced 20 percent, and another one percent came from the Fichtel & Sachs factory.

After the German ball bearing "bottleneck" had been identified in 1942 and ball bearings had been named the second-most-vital Pointblank industry for the Combined Bomber Offensive in March 1943, Schweinfurt's ball bearing plants were selected for a second air raid after being bombed during the August Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission.

Each of the three bomber wings was to be escorted by fighters from a single group with multiple squadrons of P-47 Thunderbolts. The fighters were inexplicably not employing drop tanks which limited their escort range.[16] One fighter outfit was sidetracked to escort a squadron of 29 B-24s that switched to a diversion mission to Emden because of the bad weather forecast. Some 229 of 291 B-17s hit the city area and ball bearing plants at Schweinfurt, Germany in two groups: the first group bombed at 1439–1445 hours, the second group at 1451–1457 hours. They claimed 186 Luftwaffe aircraft. 60 B-17s were lost, two damaged beyond repair and 13 damaged; casualties amounted to five KIA, 40 WIA and 594 MIA.

In addition, the bomber formations were spread out and vulnerable because of bad weather. The Luftwaffe military intelligence officers had suspected a deep penetration air raid because of the substantial raids. The Luftwaffe's Jagdgeschwader 3 Udet fighter wing intercepted the bombers as they crossed the coast but P-47s succeeded in shooting down seven Bf 109s while losing just one P-47. However one P-47 was also lost when it crashed at Herongate and another during a one-wheel landing on base.[17] Over the Netherlands elements of two more "named" Luftwaffe fighter wings, JG 1 Oesau and JG 26 Schlageter made repeated attacks. The 305th Bomb Group lost 13 of its 16 B-17s in minutes.[18] The B-17s were attacked after bombing by fighters that had refueled and rearmed (JG 11 downed 18 B-17s).[19]

A total of 13 bombers were shot down by German fighters and flak and 12 bombers were damaged so badly that they crashed upon return or had to be scrapped. Another 121 bombers returned with moderate damage.[7] Of 2,900 crewmen, about 254 men did not return (65 survived as prisoners-of-war),[20] while five killed-in-action and 43 wounded were in the damaged aircraft that returned (594 were listed as missing-in-action). Among the most seriously affected American units was the 306th Bomb Group. It lost 100 men: 35 died on the mission or of wounds and 65 were captured. The 305th Bomb Group lost 130 men (87%), with 36 killed.[21] — the defensive efforts of both JG 1 and JG 11 during the "Black Thursday" raid are said to have included substantial use of the BR 21 unguided stand-off rockets against the USAAF combat boxes, as both Luftwaffe fighter wings had started use of the ordnance some six months earlier.

Result

Although the Schweinfurt factories were badly hit, the mission failed to achieve any lasting effect. The production of ball bearings in the factories was halted for only 6 weeks[22] and Germany's war industry could easily rely on its substantial inventory of ball bearings as well as a large production surplus. In addition, the ball bearing facilities were dispersed to reduce their bombing risk.[23]:191 Consequently, despite General Henry H. Arnold's claim that the Black Thursday "loss of 60 [downed/ditched] American bombers in the Schweinfurt raid was incidental",[8]:67 unescorted daylight bomber raids deep into Germany were suspended until the February 1944 Big Week missions with P-51B Mustang escorts that included additional Schweinfurt day/night USAAF/RAF bombing on the 24th.

As a contrast to the strategy of using heavy bombers against a particular wartime resource, the Oil Campaign of World War II was essentially started by the RAF Bomber Command as early as August 1941[24] — two months after Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union, and six months before the United States entered the war. It went forward relentlessly from that time with the USAAF joining in on the efforts by late June 1943 during daylight. The Oil Campaign had its priority diminished from time to time with important events, such as the lead-up to Operation Overlord, which by June 1944 demanded heavy bomber support for a time, but soon thereafter the relentless attacks by day and night resumed, starving the entire German Wehrmacht military of fuel and lubricants from the autumn of 1944 onwards.

Notes

a 59/1 downed/ditched + 5/12 crashed/scrapped[25]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Caldwell and Muller 2007, p. 137.
  2. ^ Hall 1998, p. 201.
  3. ^ a b Cate and Craven 1983, pp. 704–705.
  4. ^ "Black Thursday" Robert L. Hughes
  5. ^ McKillop, Jack. "Combat Chronology of the USAAF: October 1943". The United States Army Air Forces in World War II. USAAF.net. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2010. 229 of 291 B-17s hit the city area and ball bearing plants at Schweinfurt, Germany in two group[s]; the first group bombs at 1439–1445 hours, the second group at 1451–1457 hours; they claim 186-27-89 Luftwaffe aircraft; 60 B-17s are lost, seven damaged beyond repair, and 138 damaged; casualties are five KIA, 40 WIA and 594 MIA.
  6. ^ "Wayback Machine". web.archive.org. 30 September 2013.
  7. ^ a b c Price 2005, p. 151.
  8. ^ a b Hess 1994, p. 65-67.
  9. ^ Spaatz 1988, pp. 187–188.
  10. ^ Mc Farland and Wesely-Phillips in Cargill, 1998, p. 197.
  11. ^ Webster and Frankland 1961, pp. 64–70.
  12. ^ Clostermann 1951
  13. ^ Murray and Millett 2000, p. 313.
  14. ^ Luttwak 2002, p. 56.
  15. ^ Boog, Horst, Vogel and Krebs 2001, p. 75.
  16. ^ Terdoslavich, William. "Raids on Ploesti and Schweinfurt: August 1943 and October 1943", in Fawcett, Bill, ed. How To Lose WWII. New York: Harper, 2010, p. 147.
  17. ^ RAF & US Fighter Commands – with annotated text. Issue I 1943 : https://web.archive.org/web/20130928070316/http://lesbutler.co.uk/claims/allied_1943_issue_Idoc.zip
  18. ^ Caldwell and Muller 2007, p. 135.
  19. ^ Caldwell and Muller 2007, pp. 135–137.
  20. ^ Hess 1994, p. 65.
  21. ^ Hess 1994, pp. 65–67
  22. ^ Bowman & Boiten (2001), p. 74
  23. ^ Jablonski, Edward (1971). "Volume 1 (Tragic Victories), Book II (The Big League)". Airpower: 189–92.
  24. ^ Tedder, Arthur (1966). With Prejudice. Boston: Little, Brown & Company. p. 502.
  25. ^ Masters of the Air, by Donald L. Miller

Bibliography

  • Boog, Horst; Krebs, Gerhard; Vogel, Detlef (2006). Cook-Radmore, D. (ed.). The Strategic Air War in Europe and the War in the West and East Asia, 1943–1944/5. Germany and the Second World War edited by the Militärgeschichtliches Forschungsamt (Research Institute for Military History), Potsdam, Germany. VII. Translated by Cook-Radmore, D.; Garvie, F.; Osers, E.; Smerin, B.; Wilson, B. (Eng. trans. ed.). London: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822889-9.
  • Bowman, Martin W.; Boiten, Theo (2001). Battles With The Luftwaffe: The Bomber Campaign Against Germany 1942–45. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-711363-3.
  • Caldwell, Donald; Muller, Richard (2007). The Luftwaffe Over Germany: Defense of the Reich. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-712-0.
  • Clostermann, Pierre (1951). The Big Show. London: Cassell Books. ISBN 978-0-304-36624-8.
  • Craven, Wesley; Cate Lea, James (1949). The Army Air Forces in World War II: Europe, Torch to Pointblank, August 1942 to December 1943. II. Chicago: University of Chicago. OCLC 1068351234.
  • Hall, Cargill (1998). Case Studies In Strategic Bombardment. Washington, D.C.: Air Force History and Museums Program. ISBN 0-16-049781-7.
  • Hess, William N. (1994). B-17 Flying Fortress: Combat and Development History of the Flying Fortress. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbook International. ISBN 0-87938-881-1.
  • Hooton, E. R. (2010). The Luftwaffe: A Study in Air Power, 1933–1945. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 978-1-906537-18-0.
  • Overy, Richard (1980). The Air War, 1939–1945. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books. ISBN 978-1-57488-716-7.
  • Price, Alfred (1973). Battle over the Reich: The Strategic Bomber Offensive over Germany. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0481-1.
  • Webster, C. K.; Frankland, Noble (1961). The Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany, 1939–1945, Part 4: Endeavour. II. London: HMSO. OCLC 1068104819.

External links

External image
Schweinfurt facilities
1943

1943 (MCMXLIII)

was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1943rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 943rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1940s decade.

Big Week

Big Week or Operation Argument was a sequence of raids by the United States Army Air Forces and RAF Bomber Command from 20 to 25 February 1944, as part of the European strategic bombing campaign against Nazi Germany. The planners intended to attack the German aircraft industry to lure the Luftwaffe into a decisive battle where the Luftwaffe could be damaged so badly that the Allies would achieve air superiority which would ensure success of the invasion of continental Europe.

The joint daylight bombing campaign was also supported by RAF Bomber Command operating against the same targets at night. Arthur "Bomber" Harris resisted contributing RAF Bomber Command so as not to dilute the British "area bombing" offensive. It took an order from Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff, to force Harris to comply.RAF Fighter Command also provided escort for USAAF bomber formations, just at the time that the Eighth Air Force had started introducing the P-51 long-range fighter, to take over the role. The offensive overlapped the German Operation Steinbock, the Baby Blitz, which lasted from January to May 1944.

Black Thursday

Black Thursday is a term used to refer to negative events which occurred on a Thursday. It has been used in the following cases:

February 6, 1851, Black Thursday, a day of devastating bushfires in Victoria, Australia

September 18, 1873, during the Panic of 1873 when the U.S. bank Jay Cooke & Company declared bankruptcy, triggering a series of bank failures

November 8, 1901 (November 21 in the Gregorian calendar), the climax of the gospel riots in Athens.

October 24, 1929, the start of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 at the New York Stock Exchange. "Black Tuesday" was the following week on October 29, 1929.

August 15, 1940, Schwarzer Donnerstag ("Black Thursday"), when the German Luftwaffe mounted its largest number of sorties during the Battle of Britain, and suffered its heaviest losses; known in Britain as "The Greatest Day".

October 14, 1943, when the Allied air forces suffered large losses during bombing in the Second Raid on Schweinfurt during World War II

The night of 16/17 December 1943, when RAF Bomber Command losses during the Berlin bombing campaign were particularly high due to combat losses and bad weather over home airfields. Richard Knott's book 'Black Night for Bomber Command' (2007)is an account of that particular night.

April 12, 1951 was nicknamed "Black Thursday" by USAF pilots after three MiG-15 squadrons with 30 aircraft attacked three squadrons of B-29 Superfortress bombers (36 planes) protected by about a hundred F-80 Shooting Star and F-84 Thunderjet fighters, over Korea, resulting in the destruction of 10 B-29s for one MiG.

May 12, 1955, the first day of the Hock Lee Bus Riots in Singapore

September 1, 1960, a disastrous day for American track and field favourites in the Olympic stadium at the 1960 Rome Olympics

April 4, 1963, 127 fires burn 185,000 acres in North Carolina

November 21, 1968, a group of students at University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh protested in the presidents office to advocate for a more racially inclusive campus. 94 students were arrested and expelled from the University in the event that became known as Black Thursday.

December 17, 1970, shipyard workers and protesters were killed by the army and militia during the massive protests in Gdynia, Poland

January 22, 1987, the Mendiola massacre took place in Mendiola Street, Manila, Philippines on January 22, 1987, in which state security forces violently dispersed a farmers' march to Malacañan Palace

August 24, 1995, when the Moscow interbank credit market collapsed

February 8, 1996, the Black World Wide Web protest against the Communications Decency Act in the United States

July 24, 2003, Jueves negro (Spanish for Black Thursday), when a series of violent political demonstrations created havoc in Guatemala City

The May 6, 2010 Flash Crash, when the Dow Jones briefly lost more than 900 points in response to the 2010 European sovereign debt crisis and algorithmic trading

30 September 2009, when the Irish government revealed to its people the alleged full cost of bailing out Anglo-Irish Bank, causing the country's deficit to rise to 32% of GDP

30 September 2010 in Stuttgart, when German police forces used excessive force against protesters that demonstrated against the Stuttgart 21 train station building project. In August 2013, three policemen were found guilty of bodily injury and received a penalty order, one of the penalty orders was not protested against.

16 January 2014, when the Parliament of Ukraine ratified restrictive anti-protest laws amid massive anti-government protests.

12 June 2014, when WWE fired 11 wrestlers.

Thanksgiving Day, the shopping holiday preceding Black Friday

Bombing of Stuttgart in World War II

The bombing of Stuttgart in World War II was a series of 53 air raids that formed part of the strategic air offensive of the Allies against Germany. The first bombing (by 20 aircraft of the Royal Air Force) occurred on August 25, 1940, and resulted in the destruction of 17 buildings. The city was repeatedly attacked over the next four and one-half years by both the RAF and the 8th Air Force as it had a significant industrial infrastructure (including the Daimler and Porsche automotive factories) and several military bases, and was also a center of rail transportation in southwestern Germany. Stuttgart endured 18 large-scale attacks by the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the war (the first and last of which were on 5 March 1942 and 13 February 1945 respectively), during which 21,016 long tons (21,353 t) of bombs were dropped on the city, but the RAF concluded that its attacks against Stuttgart were not as effective as they could have been:

Stuttgart's experience was not as severe as other German cities. Its location, spread out in a series of deep valleys, had consistently frustrated the Pathfinders and the shelters dug into the sides of the surrounding hills had saved many lives.

Confirmation and overclaiming of aerial victories during World War II

In aerial warfare, the term overclaiming describes a combatant (or group) that claims the destruction of more enemy aircraft than actually achieved. The net effect is that the actual losses and claimed victories are unequal.

Overclaiming by individuals can occur when more than one person attacks the same target and each claims its destruction, when an aircraft appears to be no longer in a flying condition but manages to land safely, or when an individual simply wishes to claim unjustified credit for downing an opponent. In some instances of combat over friendly territory a damaged aircraft may have been claimed as an aerial victory by its opponent while the aircraft was later salvaged and restored to an operational status. In this situation the loss may not appear in the records while the claim remains confirmed.Overclaiming can also occur for political or propaganda reasons. It was common for both sides to inflate figures for "kills" or deflate figures for losses in broadcasts and news reports. Overclaiming during World War II has been the centre of much scrutiny, partly because of the significant amount of air combat relative to other conflicts.

Emil Bitsch

Emil Bitsch (14 June 1916 – 15 March 1944) was a Luftwaffe flying ace of World War II. He was one of the most successful pilots on the Eastern Front; being credited with 108 aerial victories. He claimed 104 over the Eastern Front and four four-engine bombers over the Western Front. He may have been the pilot that shot down Soviet female ace Yekaterina Budanova. Bitsch was killed in action against United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) fighters on 15 March 1944.

Enemy Objectives Unit

The Enemy Objectives Unit (EOU) was formed in the United States during the Second World War to identify targets for strategic bombing in Nazi Germany. The team, consisting of economists, was one section within the Office of Strategic Services. Working within external guidelines, the unit used a systematic methodology to identify military and economic targets where air attack would be most effective. Although some of its recommendations proved flawed, it was credited as contributing to the Allied victory in the war.

Foreign policy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration

The foreign policy of the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration was the foreign policy of the United States from 1933 to 1945, under the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, first and second terms, and the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, third and fourth terms. Roosevelt kept personal control of foreign-policy in the White House, and for that he depended heavily on Henry Morgenthau, Sumner Welles and Harry Hopkins. Meanwhile Secretary of State Cordell Hull handled routine matters; the president ignored Hull on most major issues. Roosevelt was an internationalist, and Congress favored more isolationist solutions, so there was considerable tension before Pearl Harbor in December 1941. During the war years, treaties were few and diplomacy played a secondary role to high-level negotiations with the Allies, especially Britain's Winston Churchill and the Soviet Union's Joseph Stalin.

The 1930s were a high point of isolationism in the United States. The key foreign policy initiative of Roosevelt's first term was the Good Neighbor Policy, in which the U.S. took a non-interventionist stance in Latin American affairs. Foreign policy issues came to the fore in the late 1930s, as Nazi Germany, Japan, and Italy took aggressive actions against other countries. In response to fears that the United States would be drawn into foreign conflicts, Congress passed the Neutrality Acts, a series of laws that prevented trade with belligerents. After Japan invaded China and Germany invaded Poland, Roosevelt provided aid to China, Britain, and France, but public opinion opposed use of the American military. After the Fall of France in June 1940, Roosevelt increased aid to the British and began a very rapid build-up of air power. In the 1940 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican Wendell Willkie, an internationalist who largely refrained from criticizing Roosevelt's foreign policy.

Unlike his first two terms in office, Roosevelt's third and fourth terms were dominated by war issues. Roosevelt won congressional approval of the Lend-Lease program, which was designed to aid allies warring against Germany and Japan. After Germany declared war on the Soviet Union, Roosevelt extended Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union as well. In Asia, Roosevelt provided aid to the Republic of China, which was resisting a largely successful invasion by the Japan. In response to the July 1941 Japanese occupation of southern French Indochina, Roosevelt expanded a trade embargo on Japan. After attempting to re-open oil exports, Japan launched an attack on the U.S. fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor. The United States became a belligerent in December 1941 after Congress responded in kind to declarations of war by Japan, Germany and Italy. The leading Allied Powers the U.S.. Britain, China, Soviet Union, and (by courtesy) China. . The Allies agreed on a Europe first strategy, but in practice the American war effort focused on Japan until 1894.

Britain and the U.S. began the campaign against Germany with an invasion of North Africa, winning decisively in May 1943. Meanwhile, the United States won a decisive victory over Japan in the Battle of Midway and began a campaign of island hopping in the Pacific Ocean. In 1943, the Allies launched an invasion of Italy and continued to pursue the island hopping strategy. The major Allied leaders met at the Tehran Conference in 1943, where they began to discuss post-war plans. Among the concepts discussed was the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization championed by Roosevelt that would replace the League of Nations after the war. In 1944, the U.S. launched a successful invasion of northern France and won a decisive naval victory over Japan in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. By the time of Roosevelt's death in April 1945, the U.S. had occupied portions of Germany and was in the process of capturing Okinawa. Germany and Japan would both surrender within six months of Roosevelt's death.

Heavy bomber

Heavy bombers are bomber aircraft capable of delivering the largest payload of air-to-ground weaponry (usually bombs) and longest range of their era. Archetypal heavy bombers have therefore usually been among the largest and most powerful military aircraft at any point in time. In the second half of the 20th century, heavy bombers were largely superseded by strategic bombers, which were often smaller in size, but were capable of delivering nuclear weapons.

Because of advances in aircraft design and engineering — especially in powerplants and aerodynamics — the size of payloads carried by heavy bombers have increased at rates greater than increases in the size of their airframes. The largest bombers of World War I, the four engine aircraft built by the Zeppelin-Staaken company in Germany, could carry a payload of up to 4,400 pounds (2,000 kg) of bombs. By the middle of World War II even a single-engine fighter-bomber could carry a 2,000-pound (910 kg) bomb load, and such aircraft were taking over from light and medium bombers in the tactical bombing role. Advancements in four-engine aircraft design enabled heavy bombers to carry even larger payloads to targets thousands of kilometres away. For instance, the Avro Lancaster (introduced in 1942) routinely delivered payloads of 14,000 pounds (6,400 kg) (and sometimes up to 22,000 lb/10,000 kg) and had a range of 2,530 miles (4,070 km). The B-29 (1944) delivered payloads in excess of 20,000 pounds (9,100 kg) and had a range of 3,250 miles (5,230 km). By the early 1960s, the jet-powered Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, travelling at speeds of up to 650 miles per hour (1,050 km/h) (i.e., more than double that of a Lancaster), could deliver a payload of 70,000 pounds (32,000 kg), over a combat radius of 4,480 miles (7,210 km).

During World War II, mass production techniques made available large, long-range heavy bombers in such quantities as to allow strategic bombing campaigns to be developed and employed. This culminated in August 1945, when B-29s of the United States Army Air Forces dropped atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, contributing significantly to the end of hostilities.

The arrival of nuclear weapons and guided missiles permanently changed the nature of military aviation and strategy. After the 1950s intercontinental ballistic missiles and ballistic missile submarines began to supersede heavy bombers in the strategic nuclear role. Along with the emergence of more accurate precision-guided munitions ("smart bombs") and nuclear-armed missiles, which could be carried and delivered by smaller aircraft, these technological advancements eclipsed the heavy bomber's once-central role in strategic warfare by the late 20th century. Heavy bombers have, nevertheless, been used to deliver conventional weapons in several regional conflicts since World War II (e.g., B-52s in the Vietnam War).

Heavy bombers are now operated only by the air forces of the United States, Russia and China. They serve in both strategic and tactical bombing roles.

Hermann Graf

Hermann Graf (24 October 1912 – 4 November 1988) was a German Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. He served on both the Eastern and Western Fronts. He became the first pilot in aviation history to claim 200 aerial victories—that is, 200 aerial combat encounters resulting in the destruction of the enemy aircraft. In about 830 combat missions, he claimed a total of 212 aerial victories, almost all of which were achieved on the Eastern Front.

Graf, a pre-war football player and glider pilot, he joined the Luftwaffe and started flight training in 1936. He was initially selected for transport aviation but was subsequently posted to Jagdgeschwader 51 (JG 51—51st Fighter Wing) in May 1939. At the outbreak of war he was stationed on the Franco–German border flying uneventful patrols. He was then posted as a flight instructor stationed in Romania as part of a German military mission training Romanian pilots. Graf flew a few ground support missions in the closing days of the German invasion of Crete.

Following the start of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Graf claimed his first aerial victory on 4 August 1941. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross after 45 victories on 24 January 1942. It was during the second summer of the eastern campaign; however, that his success rate dramatically increased. By 16 September 1942 his number of victories had increased to 172 for which he was honored with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds. At the time of its presentation to Graf it was Germany's highest military decoration. On 26 September 1942 he shot down his 200th enemy aircraft.

By then a national hero, Graf was withdrawn from combat operations and posted to a fighter pilot training school in France before being tasked with the setting up of a new special unit: Jagdgeschwader 50 (JG 50—Fighter Wing 50). Its mission was as a high-altitude unit to intercept the de Havilland Mosquito intruders. In November 1943 Graf returned to combat operations. He was appointed Geschwaderkommodore (Wing Commander) of Jagdgeschwader 11 (JG 11—11th Fighter Wing) and claimed his last and 212th aerial victory on 29 March 1944. He was severely injured during that encounter and, after a period of convalescence, became Geschwaderkommodore of Jagdgeschwader 52 (JG 52—52nd Fighter Wing). He and the remainder of JG 52 surrendered to units of the United States Army on 8 May 1945, but were turned over to the Red Army. Graf was held in Soviet captivity until 1949. After the war he worked as an electronic sales manager and died after a long illness in his home town of Engen on 4 November 1988.

Index of World War II articles (S)

S-1 Uranium Committee

S-50

S-mine

S-Phone

S. A. Ayer

S. J. Warmington

S.L.A. Marshall

S.S. Doomtrooper

S.S. Pink Star

Sławomir Maciej Bittner

Sōkichi Takagi

Sōsaku Suzuki

Søren Kam

S1 Scout Car

Sa vz. 58

Saar Offensive

Sabine Ulibarrí

Sabine Zlatin

Saboteur (2008 video game)

Sabu Dastagir

Saburō Kurusu

Saburo Sakai

Sachsenburg (concentration camp)

Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Sackville Pelham, 5th Earl of Yarborough

Sacramento Mather Airport

Sacred Band (World War II)

Sadae Inoue

Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes

Sadako Kurihara

Sadako Sasaki

Sadamichi Kajioka

Sadao Araki

Sadao Munemori

Sadatoshi Tomioka

Sadayoshi Yamada

Sadeq Hedayat

Safeguarding Military Information

Saga (singer)

Saga of the Franklin

Sahara (1943 American film)

Sahtu

Said bin Taimur

Sailor of the King

Saint-Étienne-du-Mont

Saint-Ambroise (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin Church (Paris)

Saint-Denis - Université (Paris Métro)

Saint-Fargeau (Paris Métro)

Saint-François-Xavier (Paris Métro)

Saint-Georges (Paris Métro)

Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris Métro)

Saint-Germain-des-Prés

Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois

Saint-Jacques (Paris Métro)

Saint-Jacques Tower

Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre

Saint-Lazare (Paris Métro)

Saint-Leu-d'Esserent

Saint-Louis-en-l'Île Church

Saint-Mandé (Paris Métro)

Saint-Marcel (Paris Métro)

Saint-Merri

Saint-Michel (Paris Métro)

Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet

Saint-Paul (Paris Métro)

Saint-Philippe du Roule (Paris Métro)

Saint-Placide (Paris Métro)

Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse (Paris RER)

Saint-Sulpice (Paris Métro)

Saint-Sébastien - Froissart (Paris Métro)

Saint-Séverin (Paris)

Saint-Vincent-de-Paul church, Paris

Saint-Vincent Cemetery

Saint-George Ashe

Saint Julien Memorial

Saint Pierre de Montmartre

Sainte-Chapelle

Sainte-Pélagie

Saints and Soldiers

Saints Innocents Cemetery

Saitō Makoto

Saitō Takao

Sajmište concentration camp

Sakae Oba

Sakhalin Koreans

Sakuma Samata

Sakurakai

Salah Assad

Salamaua-Lae campaign

Salerno landings

Salerno Mutiny

Salim Jay

Salinas Municipal Airport

Salinas Sports Complex

Salle du Manège

Sally-Anne Stapleford

Sally B

Salmon-class submarine

Salo Landau

Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch

Salome Zourabichvili

Salomon Gluck

Salomon Isacovici

Salomon James de Rothschild

Salomon Olembé

Salon (Paris)

Salon d'Automne

Salon Kitty

Salote Tupou III of Tonga

Salpa Line

Saltash Passage

Salute to the Marines

Salvador Bacarisse

Salvatore John Cavallaro

Salvatore Scarpitta

Salvatore Tripoli

Salzburg

Sam Barry

Sam Chapman

Sam Dalrymple

Sam Davis Presley

Sam Dente

Sam Edwards (physicist)

Sam Ferris

Sam Francis (American football)

Sam Gibbons

Sam Goldman

Sam Kydd

Sam Walton

Sam West

Samisdat Publishers

Sammy Davis, Jr.

Sammy Traoré

Samochód pancerny wz. 29

Samochód pancerny wz. 34

Samson (1961 Polish film)

Samson Siasia

Samuel A. Goldblith

Samuel Abraham Goudsmit

Samuel Adams (naval officer)

Samuel Adler (composer)

Samuel B. Griffith

Samuel B. Roberts

Samuel Beckett

Samuel Bing

Samuel Bowers

Samuel C. Phillips

Samuel Chappuzeau

Samuel T. Cohen

Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr.

Samuel D. Waksal

Samuel David Dealey

Samuel E. Anderson

Samuel Fuller

Samuel G. Fuqua

Samuel Glasstone

Samuel Hahnemann

Samuel Jaskilka

Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita

Samuel Kahanamoku

Samuel King Allison

Samuel L. Gravely, Jr.

Samuel Meekosha

Samuel Murray Robinson

Samuel Pearson Goddard, Jr.

Samuel Ramos

Samuel Sharman

Samuel Stockton Miles

Samuel Underhill

Samuel V. Wilson

Samuel Vance (sport shooter)

Samuel W. Koster

San Andreas (novel)

San Marcos Army Air Field

Sandakan Death Marches

Sandro Pertini

Sands of Iwo Jima

Sandweiler German war cemetery

Sandy Jack

Sandy Pearson

Saneyoshi Yasuzumi

Saneyuki Akiyama

Sangamon-class escort carrier

Sankt Georgen an der Gusen

Sannō Shrine

Sano Tsuneha

Sansei Japanese American

Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre

Santa Ana Army Air Base

Santa Anita Park

Santa Maria al Bagno

Santa Maria Public Airport

Santiago Amat

Santos-Dumont 14-bis

Santos Urdinarán

Sapper army

Sara Payne Hayden

Sara Yorke Stevenson

Sarah Bernhardt

Sarah Monette

Sarah Churchill (daughter of Winston Churchill)

Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport

Sarath Amunugama

Sardar-e-Jung

Sargent Shriver

Sargo-class submarine

Sark during the German occupation of the Channel Islands

Sarmiza Bilcescu

Sarny Fortified Area

Sasebo Naval Arsenal

Sasha Fillipov

Sat Okh

Satō Tetsutarō

Satchel charge

Satsuma-class battleship

Sauer 38H

Saul Amarel

Saul Friedländer

Saul Zaentz

Saunders-Roe SR.A/1

Saunders-Roe Lerwick

Sauwastika

Sava Kovačević (Yugoslav partisan)

Savari

Savić Marković Štedimlija

Saving Private Ryan

Saving the Port

Savitri Devi

Savoia-Marchetti heavy fighter prototypes

Savoia-Marchetti S.74

Savoia-Marchetti S.83

Savoia-Marchetti SM.73

Savoia-Marchetti SM.79

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 operational history

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 propulsion

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81

Savoia-Marchetti SM.82

Savoia-Marchetti SM.89

SB2A Buccaneer

SB2C Helldiver

SB2U Vindicator

SBD Dauntless

SC convoys

SC Seahawk

SC250 bomb

Scalphunter (Marvel Comics)

Scammell Pioneer Semi-trailer

Scammell Pioneer

Scarlat Callimachi (communist activist)

Schalburg Corps

Schalburg Cross

Scharführer

Scharnhorst-class battleship

Schiller International University

Schindler's List

Schindlerjuden

Schlachtgeschwader 2

Schloss Hartheim

Schmetterling

Schnellbomber

Schnellboot

Schütze

Schofield tank

Schola Cantorum

Schrödinger (Hellsing)

Schräge Musik

Schutzstaffel unit insignia

Schutzstaffel

Schuyler Enck

Schwarze Kapelle

Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission

Schweizerischer Vaterländischer Verband

Schwerbelastungskörper

Schwere Wehrmachtschlepper

Schwerer Gustav

Schwerer Panzerspähwagen

Science and technology in Nazi Germany

Scots College (Paris)

Scott Atran

Scott Corbett

Scouting in displaced persons camps

SCR-268 radar

SCR-270 radar

SCR-536

SCR-584 radar

Scrap Iron Flotilla

Screamin' Jay Hawkins

Scribner Army Airfield

Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

Sd.Kfz. 10

Sd.Kfz. 11

Sd.Kfz. 2

Sd.Kfz. 250

Sd.Kfz. 251

Sd.Kfz. 252

Sd.Kfz. 253

Sd.Kfz. 254

Sd.Kfz. 4

Sd.Kfz. 6

Sd.Kfz. 7

Sea of Azov coastal advance

Sea of Sand

Seabees in World War II

Seagoing cowboys

Search for HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation

Sebastian Haffner

Sebring Regional Airport

Sechsschartenturm, Heavy MG bunker, La Mare Mill

Second Air Force

Second anti-Partisan offensive

Second Army (Australia)

Second Army (United Kingdom)

Second Artillery Corps

Second Australian Imperial Force

Second Battle of El Alamein order of battle

Second Battle of El Alamein

Second Battle of Kharkov

Second Battle of Sirte

Second Battle of the Java Sea

Second Cairo Conference

Second East Turkestan Republic

Second Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign

Second French Indochina Campaign

Second Great Fire of London

Second Guangxi Campaign

Second Happy Time

Second Infantry Fusiliers Division

Second Philippine Republic

Second Quebec Conference

Second Raid on Schweinfurt

Second Sino-Japanese War

Second Taiwan Strait Crisis

Second United Front

Second United States Army

Second Vienna Award

Second World War at Sea series

Secret Agent (1947 film)

Secret Agent X-9 (1945 serial)

Secret Army (Belgium)

Secret Army (TV series)

Secret Polish Army

Secret Service in Darkest Africa

Secret Weapons Over Normandy

Security Battalions

Security Division (Germany)

Sedgley OSS .38

Sedjenane

Seeds of Destiny

Seehund

Seetakt radar

Seeteufel

Sefanaia Sukanaivalu

Seigo Kosaku

Seiichi Itō

Seiichi Kuno

Seiji Yoshida

Seine

Seishirō Itagaki

Sekula Drljević

Selarang Barracks Incident

Selbstopfer

Selbstschutz

Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

Self-Government Guiding Board

Self-portrait with a friend (Raphael)

Self determination

Selim Ben Achour

Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger

Selvino children

Selâhattin Ülkümen

Semitan

Semovente 105/25

Semovente 47/32

Semovente 75/18

Semovente 75/34

Semovente 90/53

Semovente da 149/40

Semyon Krivoshein

Semyon Rudniev

Semyon Timoshenko

Senate of France

Sendai-class cruiser

Senger Line

Senio

Senjūrō Hayashi

Senjinkun military code

Senninbari

Sentai

Sentarō Ōmori

Sentier (Paris Métro)

Sentimental Journey (aircraft)

Sentinel tank

Sentosa

Sepp Dietrich

Seppo Lindström

September Massacres

Serbia (1941-1944)

Serbian State Guard

Serbian Volunteer Corps

Serge and Beate Klarsfeld

Serge Elisséeff

Serge Gainsbourg

Serge Le Dizet

Serge Moscovici

Serge Nigg

Serge Thion

Serge Weinberg

Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov

Sergei Khudyakov

Sergei Semak

Sergey Belavenets

Sergey Biryuzov

Sergey Kavtaradze

Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Parisse

Sergio Pignedoli

Series E bond

Serjeant's Inn

Serrate radar detector

Service d'ordre légionnaire

Service for Poland's Victory

Servicemen's Readjustment Act (USA)

Services Reconnaissance Department

Seán Russell

Seth Neddermeyer

Settela Steinbach

Seven anti-Partisan offensives

Seven Beauties

Seven Wise Dwarfs

Seventeen Moments of Spring

Seventeenth Air Force

Seventeenth Army (Japan)

Seventh Air Force

Seventh United States Army

Severin Louis Rombach

Severodvinsk

Seweryn Franciszek Czetwertyński-Światopełk

Sexton (artillery)

Sexual enslavement by Nazi Germany in World War II

Seymour Benzer

Seymour W. Terry

Sfarmă-Piatră

SG-43 Goryunov

SGH War Memorial

Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos

Sgt. Rock (comics)

Sh'erit ha-Pletah

Shōji Nishimura

Shōjirō Iida

Shōwa Restoration

Shōzō Murata

Shaanxi Y-8

Shaanxi Y-9

Shadi Air Base

Shadow of Suribachi: Raising the Flags on Iwo Jima

Shadows of Memory

Shafter Airport

Shag Crawford

Shah Nawaz Khan (general)

Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi

Shahid-e-Bharat

Shakespeare and Company (bookstore)

Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

Shalom Yoran

Shalva Maghlakelidze

Shang Zhen

Shangdang Campaign

Shangguan Yunxiang

Shanghai Campaign

Shanghai Expeditionary Army

Shanghai ghetto

Shanlin

Shantou-class gunboat

Shaukat Malik

Shchuka-class submarine

Sheffield Blitz

Shefqet Verlaci

Shek Kong Airfield

Shelby Storck

Shell Shock

Shelling of Mainila

Shenton Thomas

Shenyang J-11

Shenyang J-5

Shenyang J-6

Shenyang J-8

Shenyang Military Region

Sher-e-Hind

Sher Bahadur Thapa

Sher Shah (VC)

Sheriff Andy Taylor

Sherman Firefly

Sherman W. Tribbitt

Sherwood H. Hallman

Sherwood Lett

Sherwood Schwartz

Shetland bus boats

Shetland bus

Shevah Weiss

Shi-Ki

Shi Yousan

Shiba Gorō

Shibayama Yahachi

Shigekazu Shimazaki

Shigematsu Sakaibara

Shigenori Tōgō

Shigeru Fukudome

Shigeru Honjō

Shigetarō Shimada

Shigeyoshi Inoue

Shigeyoshi Miwa

Shigiyasu Suzuki

Shiing-Shen Chern

Shikata ga nai

Shikishima-class battleship

Shimamura Hayao

Shimane Maru-class escort aircraft carrier

Shimushu-class coastal defense ship

Shimushu escort

Shin guntō

Shin Onna Tachiguishi-Retsuden

Shinkolobwe

Shinozaki Mamoru

Shintarō Hashimoto

Shinyei Nakamine

Shinyo (suicide boat)

Shinzo Hamai

Ship of Fools (painting)

Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Shipyard Railway

Shirō Ishii

Shiratsuyu-class destroyer

Shiro Azuma

Shiva N'Zigou

Shizo Kanakuri

Shizuichi Tanaka

Shizuo Yokoyama

Shizuya Hayashi

Shlomo Carlebach (rabbi)

Shmuel Alexandrov

Shmuel Dovid Ungar

Shmuel Tamir

Sho Ito

Shoah (film)

Shoah Foundation

Shocker (Kamen Rider)

Shoes on the Danube Promenade

Shohatsu-class landing craft

Shoichi Yokoi

Shony Alex Braun

Shoo Shoo Baby (aircraft)

SHORAN

Shoreham Aircraft Museum

Short Seaford

Short Sunderland

Showa Steel Works

Shozo Sakurai

Shuangduiji Campaign

Shukri al-Quwatli

Shunji Isaki

Shunkichi Kikuchi

Shunroku Hata

Shyaulyay Offensive Operation

Sibiu Literary Circle

Sicherheitsdienst

Sicherheitspolizei

Sichuan invasion

Sid Luckman

Sid McMath

Sid Scales

Sidney Bates

Sidney Cotton

Sidney Dillon Ripley

Sidney Drell

Sidney George Rogerson

Sidney Hinds

Sid Jelinek

Sidney Keyes

Sidney Kirkman

Sidney Mashbir

Sidney R. Yates

Sidney Sheldon

Siebel Si 204

Sieg Heil

Sieg im Westen

Siege of Bastogne

Siege of Breslau

Siege of Calais (1940)

Siege of Changchun

Siege of Dunkirk

Siege of Malta (World War II)

Siege of Mogilev

Siege of Odessa (1941)

Siege of Sevastopol (1941-1942)

Siege of Tobruk

Siege of Warsaw (1939)

Siegfried Alkan

Siegfried Flesch

Siegfried Freytag

Siegfried Gumbel

Siegfried Handloser

Siegfried Hecker

Siegfried Kasche

Siegfried Knappe

Siegfried Line

Siegfried Müller (mercenary)

Siegfried Rasp

Siegfried Rädel

Siegfried Seidl

Siegfried Uiberreither

Siegfried Verbeke

Siegfried Wolfgang Fehmer

Siegmund Sredzki

Siemens-Schuckert D.I

Siemens-Schuckert D.III

Siemens-Schuckert D.IV

Siemens and Halske T52

Sieradz National Defence Brigade

Sig Rune

SIGABA

Sigfrid Lindberg

Siggie Nordstrom

Sigismund-Helmut von Dawans

Sigismund Payne Best

Sigmaringen

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Rascher

Sigmund Sobolewski

Signe Johansson-Engdahl

Sigrid Hunke

Sigrid Schultz

Sikorski-Mayski Agreement

Sikorsky Memorial Airport

Silas Rhodes

Silbervogel

Silent Hunter 4: Wolves of the Pacific

Silent Hunter II

Silent Hunter III

Silent Hunter

Silent Raiders

Silent Running: My Years on a World War II Attack Submarine

Silent Service (video game)

Silent Service II

Silesian Offensives

Silver Star

Silverplate

Silvestre de Sacy

Silvestre S. Herrera

Silvio Cator

Simcha Rotem

Simcha Zorin

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Šimun Katalinić

Simion Stoilow

Simmon Latutin

Simo Dubajić

Simo Häyhä

Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.

Simon Dubnow

Simon Emil Koedel

Simon François Ravenet

Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat

Simon Kitson

Simon Sabiani

Simon Sheppard (far-right activist)

Simon Srebnik

Simon Vouet

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wilton Phipps

Simon Zimny

Simone and Cino Del Duca Foundation

Simone Del Duca

Simone Signoret

Simone Veil

Simone Weil

Simplon (Paris Métro)

Sin (Marvel Comics)

Sinan Hasani

Since You Went Away

Sinclair Ross

Sink the Bismarck!

Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse

Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941)

Sino-Japanese relations (1931-1937)

Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)

Siping Campaign

Sippenhaft

Sir Alfred Rawlinson, 3rd Baronet

Sir Charles Madden, 2nd Baronet

Sir Edmund Bacon, 13th Baronet

Sir Edmund Paston-Bedingfeld, 9th Baronet

Sir George Dick-Lauder, 12th Baronet

Sir Godfrey Nicholson, 1st Baronet

Sir Guy Campbell, 5th Baronet

Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher, 6th Baronet

Sir Hugh Barrett-Lennard, 6th Baronet

Sir Ivar Colquhoun, 8th Baronet

Sir James Hutchison, 1st Baronet

Sir John Arbuthnot, 1st Baronet

Sir John Aubrey-Fletcher, 7th Baronet

Sir John Dick-Lauder, 11th Baronet

Sir John Gilmour, 3rd Baronet

Sir John Smyth, 1st Baronet

Sir Louis Spears, 1st Baronet

Sir Martin Lindsay, 1st Baronet

Sir Max Aitken, 2nd Baronet

Sir Peter Proby, 2nd Baronet

Sir Richard Wallace, 1st Baronet

Sir Robert Cary, 1st Baronet

Sir Ronald Ross, 2nd Baronet

Sir Rupert Clarke, 3rd Baronet

Sir Standish O'Grady Roche, 4th Baronet

Sir Stephen Bull, 2nd Baronet

Sir William Gladstone, 7th Baronet

Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet

Sir Winston Churchill High School

Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School (Vancouver)

Siracourt

Sisak children's concentration camp

Sisters in Resistance

Site A/Plot M Disposal Site

Situation Hopeless ... But Not Serious

Situation Hopeless... But Not Serious

Sixteenth Air Force

Sixteenth Army (Japan)

Sixth anti-Partisan offensive

Sixth United States Army Group

Sixth United States Army

SJ radar

Skink anti-aircraft tank

Skip bombing

Skitch Henderson

Skoda 100 mm Model 16/19

Skoda 100 mm Model 1916

Skoda 105 mm Model 1939

Skoda 150 mm Model 1918

Skoda 37 mm A7

Skoda 37 mm Model 1934

Skoda 37 mm Model 1937

Skoda 75 mm Model 15

Skoda 75 mm Model 1928

Skoda 75 mm Model 1936

Skoda 75 mm Model 1939

Skoda K-series

Skokie (film)

Skorpa, Møre og Romsdal

Skorpa prisoner of war camp

Skåne Line

Slaughterhouse-Five (film)

Slaughterhouse-Five

Slavko Šlander

Slavko Kvaternik

Slavko Stanzer

Sliač Airport

Slim Aarons

Sloan Doak

Sloan Wilson

Slobodan Jovanović

Slovak-Hungarian War

Slovak Insurgent Air Force

Slovak invasion of Poland

Slovak National Uprising

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Slovene Home Guard

Slovenská pospolitosť - Národná strana

Slutsk Affair

Small Box Girder

Small Scale Raiding Force

Smatchet

SMERSH

Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Smith & Wesson M&P

Smith Gun

SMK tank

Smoky (dog)

Smyth Report

SN machine gun

SNCF Class Z 20500

Sniper's Badge

Sniper! (board game)

SNOS

Snow White's Scary Adventures

So Proudly We Hail!

SO3C Seamew

Soap made from human corpses

Sobhuza II of Swaziland

Sobibor extermination camp

Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany

Social Pact

Society of Red Tape Cutters

Sociétaires of the Comédie-Française

SOE F Section networks

SOE F Section timeline

Soemu Toyoda

Sofiane Feghouli

Soldau concentration camp

Soldier of Orange

Soldier, what did you see?

Soldiers at War

Soldiers: Heroes of World War II

Solférino (Paris Métro)

Solko van den Bergh

Solomon Blatt, Jr.

Solomon Islands campaign

Solomon Islands Labour Corps

Solothurn S-18/1000

Solovyovo, Priozersky District, Leningrad Oblast

Solveig Dommartin

Some Punkins

Somerset Arthur Maxwell

SOMUA MCG

Somua S35

Sonderaktion 1005

Sonderaktion Krakau

Sonderkommando Elbe

Sonderkommando

Sonderkraftfahrzeug

Sonderweg

Song of Russia

Song Xilian

Song Zheyuan

Songs of the Third Reich

Sonja Morgenstern

Sonja Mugoša

Sonkrai

Sonnenstein castle

Sonny Bupp

Sonya Butt

Sonya Olschanezky

Soobrazitelny-class destroyer

Sook Ching massacre

Soong Mei-ling

Sophie's Choice (film)

Sophie Gengembre Anderson

Sophie Scholl

Sophie Zawistowski

Sophoklis Venizelos

Sorbonne

Sorley MacLean

Sotirios Versis

Sotnia

Souleymane Bamba

Soup Nazi

South-East Asian theatre of World War II

South-East Asian Theatre of World War II

South Alberta Regiment

South Atlantic air ferry route in World War II

South Atlantic Station

South by Java Head

South East Asia Command

South Manchuria Railway

South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command

South Pacific Scouts

South Quay Estate

South Sea Fleet

South Seas Detachment

South Seas Force

South West Pacific Area (command)

South West Pacific Area

South West Pacific theatre of World War II

Southampton Blitz

Southeast Area Fleet

Southern California Logistics Airport

Southern Expeditionary Army Group

Southern Front (Soviet Union)

Southern Jiangsu Campaign

Southern Rhodesia in World War II

Southwest Area Fleet

Southwestern Front (Soviet Union)

Souviens-toi du jour

Soviet-Japanese Border Wars

Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

Soviet Air Forces Order of Battle 1 May 1945

Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

Soviet battleship Sovetskaya Ukraina

Soviet cruiser Kirov

Soviet cruiser Krasnyi Krym

Soviet cruiser Maxim Gorky

Soviet deportations from Bessarabia

Soviet deportations from Estonia

Soviet destruction battalion 1941

Soviet gunboat Krasnoye Znamya

Soviet helmets during World War II

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

Soviet occupation of Hungary

Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940

Soviet occupation of Romania

Soviet occupation zone

Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939

Soviet partisan brigade 1941-1944

Soviet partisan detachment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan group 1941-1944

Soviet partisan regiment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan united formation 1941-1944

Soviet partisans in Poland

Soviet partisans

Soviet propaganda during World War II

Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939-1946)

Soviet S-class submarine

Soviet special camps

Soviet submarine L-3

Soviet tank production during World War II

Soviet Tankmen's Song

Soviet Union

Soviet VHF transceiver A7

Soviet Volunteer Group

Soviet war crimes

Soviet women in the Great Patriotic War

Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

Sovremenny-class destroyer

Space Mountain (Disneyland, Paris)

Space Mountain: Mission 2

Space Nazis

Spain in World War II

Spallation Neutron Source

Spandau Prison

Spanish Cross

Sparrow Force

SPARS

Spartacus Educational

Spear of Destiny (video game)

Spearhead (novel)

Special Bureau for India

Special Courts

Special Engineering Detachment

Special Intelligence Service

Special Interrogation Group

Special Operations Executive

Special Repair Service

Specifications for World War II infantry weapons

Speculation about Mona Lisa

Speer und Er

Spica-class torpedo boat

Spike Milligan

Spirit of the Winter War

Spiru Haret

Spiv

Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes

Spook Louder

Sportpalast speech

Spring 1945 offensive in Italy

Springbok Club

Springer (tank)

Spyforce

Squad Leader Scenarios

Squad Leader

Squander Bug

Square Montholon

Squid (weapon)

SR West Country and Battle of Britain Classes

Srbe na vrbe!

Srbosjek (knife)

Sreten Žujović

Srul Bronshtein

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers

SS-Dienstalterslisten

SS-Ehrenring

SS-GB

SS-Hauptamt

SS-Leitheft

SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers

SS-Sturmbrigade Dirlewanger

SS-Totenkopfverbände

SS-Verfügungstruppe

SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt

SS A. B. Hammond

SS A. Frank Lever

SS A. J. Cermak

SS A. Mitchell Palmer

SS Abner Doubleday

SS Abraham Clark

SS Admiral Nakhimov

SS Adolph Woermann

SS Aenos (1910)

SS Aenos (1944)

SS Albert M. Boe

SS Alexander Macomb

SS Amelia Earhart

SS American Victory

SS Amerigo Vespucci

SS and Police Leader

SS Andrew Furuseth

SS Annie Oakley

SS Antenor (1924)

SS Assyrian (1914)

SS Athenia

SS Audacious (1913)

SS Beatus

SS Benjamin Harrison

SS Bessemer Victory

SS Blairspey

SS blood group tattoo

SS Booker T. Washington

SS Brigade Westfalen

SS British Premier

SS Caribou

SS Castilian

SS Ceramic (1912)

SS Charles Bulfinch

SS Charles H. Cugle

SS Charles H. Herty

SS Chivalry

SS City of Benares

SS City of Cairo

SS City of Flint (1919)

SS City of Johannesburg

SS City of Nagpur

SS City of Paris (1922)

SS City of Pretoria

SS City of Venice

SS Clan Alpine

SS Clan Campbell (1937)

SS Clan Chisholm

SS Clan Forbes

SS Clan Fraser

SS Clan Macwhirter

SS Clara Barton

SS Clearton

SS Commissaire Ramel

SS Corinthic (1924)

SS Daniel Webster

SS David E. Hughes

SS Davidson Victory

SS Deutschland (1923)

SS Donau (1929)

SS Duchess of York

SS Eaglescliffe Hall

SS Emidio

SS Empire Brigade

SS Empire Elgar

SS Empire Miniver

SS English Trader

SS Fanad Head

SS Fiscus

SS Flynderborg (1930)

SS Führungshauptamt

SS Fort La Monte

SS Fort Lee

SS General von Steuben

SS George Calvert (MC Hull 29)

SS George E. Badger

SS George Washington Carver

SS Geronimo

SS Gouverneur Morris

SS Gustaf E. Reuter

SS Harriet Tubman

SS Hat Creek

SS Heimwehr Danzig

SS Henry Bacon

SS Henry R. Schoolcraft

SS James B. Stephens

SS James Longstreet

SS Jeremiah O'Brien

SS John Barry

SS John Harvey

SS John Stagg

SS John W. Brown

SS Khedive Ismail

SS Kościuszko

SS Kurtuluş

SS Lane Victory

SS Leopoldville (1929)

SS Long Service Award

SS Malakand (1919)

SS Marine Electric

SS Maritime Victory

SS marschiert

SS Martin Behrman

SS Martti Ragnar (1934)

SS Mayagüez

SS Meriwether Lewis

SS MIT Victory

SS Montfort Stokes

SS Mount Ida

SS Nitta Maru

SS Noronic

SS Ohio

SS Oliver Ellsworth

SS Patrick Henry

SS Paul Hamilton

SS Peleus

SS Pierre L'Enfant

SS Politician

SS Potrero del Llano

SS President Coolidge

SS Rajputana

SS Ranchi

SS Red Oak Victory

SS Richard K. Call

SS Richard Montgomery

SS River Afton

SS Robert E. Peary

SS Robert M. T. Hunter

SS Robin Moor

SS Russell A. Alger

SS Sacketts Harbor

SS Samarkand

SS Samuel Huntington

SS Santa Teresa

SS Sauternes

SS Scoresby

SS Soesterberg

SS Somersby

SS St. Louis

SS Stanford White

SS Stephen Hopkins

SS Storaa

SS Suevic

SS Thistlegorm

SS Thomas T. Tucker

SS Thorøy

SS Tiberton

SS Timothy Bloodworth

SS Timothy Pickering

SS Tjisalak

SS U.S.O.

SS uniform

SS Uriah M. Rose

SS Vega (1913)

SS Volo

SS Volunteer Grenadier Brigade Landstorm Nederland

SS William A. Graham

SS William and Mary Victory

SS Winona

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SS Zachary Taylor

Sándor Büchler

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St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Church

St-Michel - Notre-Dame (Paris RER)

St Augustine Watling Street

St Martin's Church, Bladon

St Mildred, Bread Street

St Swithin, London Stone

St. George (Raphael)

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St. Michael (Raphael)

St. Michael Vanquishing Satan (Raphael)

St. Nazaire Raid

St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport

St. Sebastian (Mantegna)

St. Victor's Abbey, Paris

Stab-in-the-back legend

Stab (Luftwaffe designation)

Stabilizing Automatic Bomb Sight

Stabschef (SA)

Stabsführer

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Stade de France

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Stade de Paris

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Stade Français Paris in cup finals

Stade Français

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Stahlhelm

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Stalag X-B

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Stalag XXI-D

Stalag

Stalin's Missed Chance

Stalin's speech on August 19, 1939

Stalin Line

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Stan Cullis

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Stand Up for Justice: The Ralph Lazo Story

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Stanley Burton Centre for Holocaust Studies

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Stawka większa niż życie

Steel Panthers (series)

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Stella Isaacs, Marchioness of Reading

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Sten Mellgren

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Stendhal University

Stendhal

Stepan Bandera

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Steppe Front

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Sticky bomb

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Stjepan Filipović

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Stolpersteine in the district of Braunau am Inn

Stolpersteine

Storm Across Europe

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Storming of the Bastille

Storybook Land Canal Boats

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Straža na Drini

Strafbattalion

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Strasbourg - Saint-Denis (Paris Métro)

Strategic bombing during World War II

Strategic Bombing Survey (Atomic attacks)

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Strategic Bombing Survey

Strategic Command: European Theater

Strategic operations of the Red Army in World War II

Strawberry Fields (film)

StrayDog: Kerberos Panzer Cops

Street Names of Paris, 1er arrondissement

Strength Through Joy

Stridsvagn m/41

Strikers 1945 Plus

Strom Thurmond

Structure of the Imperial Japanese forces in the South Pacific Mandate

Structure of the Japanese Army in Mengjiang

Struma disaster

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Studio Tram Tour: Behind the Magic

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Sub-district II of Żoliborz (of Armia Krajowa)

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Sub-district VI of Praga (of Armia Krajowa)

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Subhas Brigade

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Subject of the state

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Swing Kids

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Kampfgeschwader 51

Kampfgeschwader 51 "Edelweiss" (KG 51) (Battle Wing 51) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.

The unit began forming in May 1939 and completed forming in December 1939, and took no part in the invasion of Poland which started the war.

It first served in the Phoney War then the Battle of France in May and June 1940. From July to October 1940 it fought in the Battle of Britain and then in the night intruder role during the Blitz until March 1941.

It supported the Balkans Campaign in April 1941 and served on the Eastern Front from June 1941 until December 1943.

In 1944 and 1945 it served exclusively in the West; in the Defence of the Reich, Western Front and in Operation Steinbock. All Groups and squadrons of KG 51 disbanded and reformed during the course of the war. Few remained active by the German surrender in May 1945.

The wing operated the Dornier Do 17, Heinkel He 111 and Junkers Ju 88 light and medium bombers, the Messerschmitt Me 410 heavy fighter and the Messerschmitt Me 262 jet fighter.

List of air operations during the Battle of Europe

This World War II timeline of European Air Operations lists notable military events in the skies of the European Theater of Operations of World War II from the Invasion of Poland to Victory in Europe Day. The list includes combined arms operations, defensive anti-aircraft warfare, and encompasses areas within the territorial waters of belligerent European states.1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

October 14

October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 78 days remain until the end of the year.

Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, third and fourth terms

The third and fourth terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt began on January 20, 1941, the date of Roosevelt's third inauguration, and ended with Roosevelt's death on April 12, 1945. Roosevelt won a third term by defeating Republican nominee Wendell Willkie in the 1940 United States presidential election. He remains the only president to serve for more than two terms. Unlike his first two terms in office, Roosevelt's third and fourth terms were dominated by foreign policy concerns, as the United States became a belligerent in World War II in December 1941.

After defeating Willkie, Roosevelt won congressional approval of the Lend-Lease program, which was designed to aid Britain in its war against Germany. After Germany declared war on the Soviet Union, Roosevelt extended Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union as well. In Asia, Roosevelt provided aid to the Republic of China, which was resisting an invasion by the Empire of Japan. In response to the July 1941 Japanese occupation of southern French Indochina, Roosevelt expanded a trade embargo on Japan. After attempting to re-open oil exports, Japan launched an attack on the U.S. fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor. In response, Congress declared war on Japan and, eventually, Germany and Italy. Along with Britain, China, and the Soviet Union, the United States became a leading member of the Allied Powers. In consultation with military officials and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt decided on a Europe first strategy, which focused on defeating Germany before Japan.

Rather than immediately launching an invasion of occupied France or other parts of Europe, Britain and the U.S. began the campaign against Germany with an invasion of North Africa. After some initial difficulties, Allied forces compelled the surrender of Axis forces in North Africa in May 1943. Meanwhile, the United States won a decisive victory over Japan in the Battle of Midway and began a campaign of island hopping in the Pacific Ocean. In 1943, the Allies launched an invasion of Italy and continued to pursue the island hopping strategy. The major Allied leaders met at the Tehran Conference in 1943, where they began to discuss post-war plans. Among the concepts discussed was the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization championed by Roosevelt that would replace the League of Nations after the war. In 1944, the U.S. launched a successful invasion of northern France and won a decisive naval victory over Japan in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. By the time of Roosevelt's death in April 1945, the U.S. had occupied portions of Germany and was in the process of capturing Okinawa. Germany and Japan would both surrender within six months of Roosevelt's death during the administration of Roosevelt's third and final vice president, Harry S. Truman

Though foreign affairs dominated Roosevelt's third and fourth terms, important developments also took place on the home front. The military buildup spurred economic growth, and unemployment fell precipitously. The United States excelled at war production; in 1944, it produced more military aircraft than the combined output of Germany, Japan, Britain, and the Soviet Union. The United States also established the Manhattan Project to produce the world's first nuclear weapons. As in Roosevelt's second term, the conservative coalition prevented Roosevelt from passing major domestic legislation, though it did increase taxes to help pay for the war. Congress also passed the G.I. Bill, which provided several benefits to World War II veterans. Roosevelt avoided imposing heavy-handed censorship or harsh crackdowns on war-time dissent, but his administration relocated and interned over a hundred thousand Japanese Americans. Roosevelt also prohibited religious and racial discrimination in the defense industry and established the Fair Employment Practice Committee, the first national program designed to prevent employment discrimination. Scholars, historians, and the public typically rank Roosevelt alongside Abraham Lincoln and George Washington as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents.

Schweinfurt

Schweinfurt ( SHVYNE-foort, German: [ˈʃvaɪnfʊɐ̯t] (listen); lit. 'swine ford') is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the navigable Main River, which is spanned by several bridges here, 44 km northeast of Würzburg.

Schweinfurt Army Heliport

Schweinfurt Army Heliport is a military facility near Schweinfurt, being part of U.S. Army Garrison Schweinfurt.

Timeline of World War II (1943)

This is a timeline of events that occurred during World War II in 1943.

Wilhelm Lemke

Wilhelm Lemke (27 September 1920 – 4 December 1943) was a Luftwaffe flying ace of World War II. Lemke was credited with 131 aerial victories—that is, 131 aerial combat encounters resulting in the destruction of the enemy aircraft. All but six of his victories were claimed over the Soviet Air Forces in 617 combat missions.Born in Arnswalde, Lemke joined the military service in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany in 1939. Following flight training, he was posted to 9. Staffel (squadron) of Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3—3rd Fighter Wing). He flew his first combat missions in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, and claimed his first aerial victory on 26 June 1941. There, after 59 aerial victories, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 12 September 1942. He was given command as Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of 9. Staffel on 11 August 1942. On 16 March 1943, he was credited with his 100th aerial victory. Four months later, on 28 July 1943, he claimed his 125th and last victory on the Eastern Front.

Lemke was subsequently relocated to the Western Front, where he flew in the Defense of the Reich and claimed six further victories. In mid-November 1943, he was appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of the II. Gruppe (2nd group) of JG 3 "Udet"; he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 25 November. Lemke was killed in action on 4 December 1943 northwest of Nijmegen in combat with United States Army Air Forces fighters.

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