Second Epistle to Timothy

In the New Testament, the Second Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as Second Timothy and often written 2 Timothy or II Timothy, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles traditionally attributed to Saint Paul.[1] The three epistles are called "pastoral" because they relate to the conduct of church leaders, thought of as pastors (literally shepherds).[2] It is traditionally considered to be the last epistle he wrote before his death. It is addressed to Timothy, a fellow missionary.[1]

The Epistle advocates endurance as the main quality for a preacher of the gospel.[1] As a good soldier for Jesus Christ, he is to be pure, noble, and ready to take his share of suffering.[1] In Paul's farewell, he describes himself as at the end of his career and awaiting the crown of righteousness.[1]

Although the Pastorals are written under Paul's name, they are different from his other epistles, and since the early 19th century, scholars have increasingly seen them as the work of an unknown student of Paul's doctrine.[3][2] They are speculated to have been written between 90 and 140.[2] They do not address Paul's common themes, such as the believers' unity with Christ,[1] and they reflect a church hierarchy that is more organized and defined than the church was in Paul's time.[2] Some scholars refer to the assumedly pseudonymous author as "the Pastor".[2] Some recent scholarship has concluded that Paul probably used an amanuensis, or secretary, in writing his letters which was a common practice in the first century.[4][5]

Authorship

Albert Barnes argued that Paul the Apostle wrote this letter in AD 61 or 65:

There has been much diversity of sentiment on the question when this Epistle was written. That it was written at Rome, and when the apostle was imprisoned there, is the unanimous opinion of all who have written on the Epistle, and indeed is apparent on the face of it; see 2 Timothy 1:8, 2 Timothy 1:16; 2 Timothy 4:6. But whether it was written during his first imprisonment there, or during a second imprisonment, is a question, on which critics even now are by no means agreed. If the supposition of a second imprisonment at Rome, during which this Epistle was written, is correct, then it was written probably not far from the year AD 65. Lardner, however, who supposes it was written during the first imprisonment, places its date in May, AD 61; Hug, also, in the same year.[6]

Some modern critical scholars argue that 2 Timothy was not written by Paul but by an anonymous follower, after Paul's death in the first century AD.[7][8]

The language and ideas of this epistle are notably different from the other two Pastoral letters yet similar to the later Pauline letters, especially the ones he wrote in captivity. This has led some scholars to conclude that the author of 2 Timothy is a different person from 1 Timothy and Titus. Raymond E. Brown proposed that this letter was written by a follower of Paul who had knowledge of Paul's last days.[9]

Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, however, argued that this epistle was written by Paul and that the other two pastoral epistles were written by someone else using this epistle as a model,[10] and that it is the only still-extant letter written by Paul after Romans.[10]

Content

According to the letter, Paul urges Timothy not to have a "spirit of timidity" and not to "be ashamed to testify about our Lord" (1:7–8). He also entreats Timothy to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (cf. Philippians 2:22). He was anticipating that "the time of his departure was at hand" (4:6), and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and steadfastness in the face of false teachings, with advice about combating them with reference to the teachings of the past, and to patience under persecution (1:6–15), and to a faithful discharge of all the duties of his office (4:1–5), with all the solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of the quick and the dead.

Paul clearly anticipates his being put to death and realities beyond in his valedictory found in 2 Timothy 4:6–8: "For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing."

2 Timothy contains one of Paul's Christological Hymns in 2:11–13:

It is a faithful saying:
For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him:
If we suffer, we shall also reign with him:
if we deny him, he also will deny us:
If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful: he cannot deny himself.

or

The saying is trustworthy, for:
If we have died with him, we will also live with him;
if we endure, we will also reign with him;
if we deny him, he also will deny us;
if we are faithless, he remains faithful—
for he cannot deny himself.

For a discussion of 2 Timothy 3:16–17 on Biblical inspiration, see Biblical inspiration § Basis.

Portions of 2 Timothy parallel the Epistle to the Philippians, also believed to be written (with Timothy's help) near the time of Paul's death.[11]

Based on the traditional view that 2 Timothy was Paul's final epistle, chapter 4 mentions (v. 10) about how Demas, formerly considered a "fellow worker", had deserted him for Thessalonica, "having loved this present world". In sharp contrast to his dispute with Barnabas over Mark (Acts 15:37–40), which resulted in the two parting ways, Paul now considered Mark to be "profitable to the ministry" (v. 11). The chapter also features the only Biblical mention of Linus (v. 21), who in Roman Catholic tradition is listed as Peter's immediate successor as Bishop of Rome.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f May, Herbert G.; Metzger, Bruce M. (1977), The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha, pp. 1440, 1446–49.
  2. ^ a b c d e Harris, Stephen L. (1985), "The Pastoral Epistles", Understanding the Bible, Palo Alto: Mayfield, pp. 340–45.
  3. ^ Johnson, Luke Timothy (2001). The First and Second Letters to Timothy. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-13988-8.
  4. ^ Johnson, Luke Timothy (2008), The First and Second Letters to Timothy: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, Anchor Yale Bible, 35A, New Haven; London: Yale University Press, pp. 58–59.
  5. ^ Richards, E. Randolph (2004), Paul and First-Century Letter Writing: Secretaries, Composition and Collection, Downers Grove, IL; Leicester, England: InterVarsity Press; Apollos.
  6. ^ Barnes. "2 Timothy 1". Notes. Bible hub. Retrieved 2016-10-10.
  7. ^ Just, Felix, "New Testament Letter Structure", Catholic Resources.
  8. ^ Collins, Raymond F. (2004), 1 & 2 Timothy and Titus: A Commentary, Westminster John Knox Press, p. 4, ISBN 0-664-22247-1, By the end of the twentieth century New Testament scholarship was virtually unanimous in affirming that the Pastoral Epistles were written some time after Paul's death. …As always some scholars dissent from the consensus view.
  9. ^ Brown, Raymond E. (1997), An Introduction to the New Testament, New York: Doubleday, pp. 672–75.
  10. ^ a b Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Paul: A Critical Life, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996, pp. 356–59.
  11. ^ Reiher, Jim (July 2012), "Could Philippians have been written from the Second Roman Imprisonment?", Evangelical Quarterly, LXXXIV (3): 213–33: sums the other theories, offers examples of different scholars who adhere to different theories, but presents a different option for consideration.

External links

Second Epistle to Timothy
Preceded by
First Timothy
New Testament
Books of the Bible
Succeeded by
Titus
2 Timothy 1

2 Timothy 1 is the first chapter of the Second Epistle to Timothy in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

2 Timothy 2

2 Timothy 2 is the second chapter of the Second Epistle to Timothy in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

2 Timothy 3

2 Timothy 3 is the third chapter of the Second Epistle to Timothy in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

2 Timothy 4

2 Timothy 4 is the fourth (and the last) chapter of the Second Epistle to Timothy in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

Carpus of Beroea

Carpus of Beroea of the Seventy Disciples is commemorated by the Church on May 26 with Alphaeus, and on January 4 with the Seventy.

In his second Epistle to Timothy, Paul requests, "The phelonion that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee, and the books." Carpus was bishop of Beroea (or Verria) in Macedonia.

Eubulus

Eubulus is the name of:

People:

Eubulus (banker), 4th century BC Bithnyian banker and ruler of Atarneus

Eubulus (statesman) (c. 405 BC – c. 335 BC), Athenian statesman

Eubulus (poet), 4th century BC Athenian poet

Saint Eubulus (died 308), Greek Christian martyr

Eubulus, a Praetorian prefect of Illyricum (in the Roman Empire) in 436

Eubulus le Strange, 1st Baron Strange (died 1335), English baron

Eubulus or Eubule Thelwall (c. 1557 – 1630), Welsh lawyer, academic and politician who sat in the House of CommonsCharacters in English plays:

Eubulus, from the 1561 play Gorboduc

Eubulus, from the 1673 play Marriage à la mode by John Dryden

Eubulus, from the 17th century play The CoronationOther uses:

Eubulus, an associate of the Apostle Paul mentioned in the Second Epistle to Timothy (4:21)

Eubulus, 1913 winner of the Australian VRC Sires Produce Stakes Thoroughbred horse race

Fable

Fable is a literary genre: a succinct fictional story, in prose or verse, that features animals, legendary creatures, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that are anthropomorphized (given human qualities, such as the ability to speak human language) and that illustrates or leads to a particular moral lesson (a "moral"), which may at the end be added explicitly as a pithy maxim or saying.

A fable differs from a parable in that the latter excludes animals, plants, inanimate objects, and forces of nature as actors that assume speech or other powers of humankind.

Usage has not always been so clearly distinguished. In the King James Version of the New Testament, "μῦθος" ("mythos") was rendered by the translators as "fable" in the First Epistle to Timothy, the Second Epistle to Timothy, the Epistle to Titus and the First Epistle of Peter.A person who writes fables is a fabulist.

Lois

Lois is a common English name from the New Testament. Paul the Apostle mentions Lois, the pious grandmother of Saint Timothy in the Second Epistle to Timothy (commending her for her faith in 2 Timothy 1:5). The name was first used by English Christians after the Protestant Reformation, and it was popular, particularly in North America, during the first half of the 20th century.

Minuscule 1739

Minuscule 1739 (per Gregory-Aland numbering), α 78 (per von Soden), is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on 102 parchment leaves (23 cm by 17.5 cm). It is dated paleographically to the 10th century.

Minuscule 6

Minuscule 6 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 356 (Soden). It is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on 235 parchment leaves (14.4 cm by 10.5 cm), dated palaeographically to the 13th century. The manuscript has complex contents and full marginalia. It was adapted for liturgical use.

Pastoral epistles

The pastoral epistles are three books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus. They are presented as letters from Paul the Apostle to Timothy and to Titus. They are generally discussed as a group (sometimes with the addition of the Epistle to Philemon) and are given the title pastoral because they are addressed to individuals with pastoral oversight of churches and discuss issues of Christian living, doctrine and leadership. The term "pastorals" was popularized in 1703 by D. N. Berdot and in 1726 by Paul Anton.

Pope Linus

Linus ( (listen); died c. AD 76) was the second Bishop of Rome, and is listed by the Catholic Church as the second pope.

His papacy lasted from c. AD 67 to his death. Among those to have held the position of pope, Peter, Linus and Clement are specifically mentioned in the New Testament.Linus is mentioned in the closing greeting of the Second Epistle to Timothy as being with Paul in Rome near the end of Paul's life.

Saint Eigen

Saint Eigen, Eurgen, Eurgain or Eurgan was the legendary, and possibly historical first female Christian saint. Her name has doubtfully been linked to two Welsh churches and is found in manuscripts from the collection of Iolo Morganwg making historical evidence of her existence dubious and limited.Eigen is noted as the first female saint and daughter of Caratacus in the History of Dunraven Manuscript, a manuscript giving the genealogy of Taliesin from the collection of Thomas Hopkin of Coychurch, one from the Havod Uchtryd collection and in an extract he claimed to have copied from the Long Book of Thomas Truman. This reference can also be found in the family records of Iestyn ab Gwrgant, where it is said of her; "She lived in the close of the first century, and was married to Sarllog, who was a lord of Caer Sarllog, or the present Old Sarum". In this manuscript, Eigen is said to have returned from Rome with Caratacus with Saint Cyllin and Saint Ilid and formed a religious college of twelve named Cor Eurgain (the choir of Eurgain), suggesting the early entry of Christianity into Britain; "the Cymry embraced the faith in Christ through the teaching of the saints of Cor-Eurgain". Attempts have also been made to identify Eigen with the Claudia mentioned by Saint Paul in the Second Epistle to Timothy, however evidence for this is largely coincidental. Some authors also claim she was called Gladys on the suggestion that this was a Welsh word for princess.Eigen is also discussed as the first female saint in the works of Rice Rees, Jane Williams, Sabine Baring-Gould and John Williams (Ab Ithel).In the annals of Tacitus, a daughter of Caratacus is mentioned appearing in front of the Roman Senate and Emperor Claudius in approximately 53 CE. Caratacus' daughter is never named in the record of Tacitus and she is not mentioned with her mother, father and uncles as having been given a pardon from the brutality of a Roman execution by the Emperor.Eigen features in a cantata by Edward Elgar in 1897-8 devoted to the defeat and capture of the king by the Romans. It was first performed at the Leeds choral festival in 1898. Her name in the Cantana has variously been claimed to be both historical and derived from a neighbour of Elgar's in Malvern called Eigen Stone. Eigen, spelt as Eigon is also the subject of a modern, time-slip novel by Barbara Erskine called The Warrior's Princess, published in 2008.The parish church of Llanigon, Wales is dedicated to "Saint Eigon", but this almost certainly refers to Eigion, brother of St Cynidr, to whom the parish church in neighbouring Glasbury was dedicated.Another Welsh church in Northop (Welsh: Llaneurgain), Flintshire, is dedicated to "Saint Eurgain", said to have been the daughter of Prince Maelgwn Gwynedd and niece of St. Asaph. She is said to have lived in Flintshire in the 6th century CE and has a feast day on 30 June. There is evidence that the church of St Eurgain and St Peter has existed since the 6th century.

Saint Eubulus

Saint Eubulus was martyred March 7, 308 at Caesarea Palestina.

Shepherding Movement

The Shepherding Movement (sometimes called the "Discipleship Movement") was an influential and controversial movement within some British, Australian and American charismatic churches. It emerged in the 1970s and early 1980s. The doctrine of the movement emphasized the "one another" passages of the New Testament, and the mentoring relationship described in the Second Epistle to Timothy.

The Quick and the Dead (1995 film)

The Quick and the Dead is a 1995 American Revisionist Western film directed by Sam Raimi, and starring Sharon Stone, Gene Hackman, Russell Crowe and Leonardo DiCaprio. The screenplay was written by Simon Moore but includes contributions from Joss Whedon. The story focuses on "The Lady" (Stone), a gunfighter who rides into the frontier town of Redemption, controlled by John Herod (Hackman). The Lady joins a deadly dueling competition in an attempt to exact revenge for her father's death.

Simon Moore's script was purchased by Sony Pictures Entertainment in May 1993, and actress Sharon Stone signed on as both star and co-producer. Development was fast tracked after director Sam Raimi's hiring, and principal photography began in Old Tucson Studios in Arizona on November 21, 1993. The film was distributed by TriStar Pictures and was released in the US on February 10, 1995, to a dismal box office performance, receiving mixed reviews from critics.

This was Russell Crowe's American film debut and was Woody Strode's final performance (the film is dedicated to him), as well as the last theatrical release of Roberts Blossom who died in 2011. The phrase "the quick and the dead" is from the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy 4:1) in various Bible versions, including the King James Bible, describing the final judgment. The plot of this film bears no resemblance to that of the 1987 film of the same name, which was based on a western novel by Louis L'Amour.

Timothy

Timothy may refer to:

Timothy (given name), a common male given name

First Epistle to Timothy, an epistle of the Bible attributed to Paul

Second Epistle to Timothy, an epistle of the Bible attributed to Paul

Timothy-grass, a type of a grass

Timothy (tortoise), famous tortoise of the UK

"Timothy" (song), early 1970s song by The Buoys

Timothy Goes to School, a children's animated series produced by Nelvana

Timothy (TV film), a 2014 Australian television comedy

Timothy II

Timothy II may refer to:

Pope Timothy II of Alexandria, Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark in 454–477

Timothy II (Nestorian Patriarch), Patriarch of the Church of the East from 1318 to ca. 1332

Patriarch Timothy II of Constantinople, r. 1612–1620

The Second Epistle to Timothy

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