Second Council of Constantinople

The Second Council of Constantinople is the fifth of the first seven ecumenical councils recognized by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. It is also recognized by the Old Catholics and others. Protestant opinions and recognition of it are varied. Some Protestants, such as Calvinists and Lutherans, recognize the first four councils,[2] whereas most Anglo-Catholics accept all seven. Constantinople II was convoked by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I under the presidency of Patriarch Eutychius of Constantinople. It was held from 5 May to 2 June 553. Participants were overwhelmingly Eastern bishops—only sixteen Western bishops were present, including nine from Illyricum and seven from Africa, but none from Italy—out of the 152 total.[1][3]

The main work of the council was to confirm the condemnation issued by edict in 551 by the Emperor Justinian against the Three Chapters. These were the Christological writings and ultimately the person of Theodore of Mopsuestia (died 428), certain writings against Cyril of Alexandria's Twelve Anathemas accepted at the Council of Ephesus, written by Theodoret of Cyrrhus (died c. 466), and a letter written against Cyrillianism and the Ephesian Council by Ibas of Edessa (died 457).[4]

The purpose of the condemnation was to make plain that the Great Church, which followed a Chalcedonian creed, was firmly opposed to Nestorianism as supported by the Antiochene school which had either assisted Nestorius, the eponymous heresiarch, or had inspired the teaching for which he was anathematized and exiled. The council also condemned the teaching that Mary could not be rightly called the Mother of God (Gk. Theotokos) but only the mother of the man (Gk. anthropotokos) or the mother of Christ (Gk. Christotokos).[4]

Justinian hoped that this would contribute to a reunion between the Chalcedonians and monophysites in the eastern provinces of the Empire. Various attempts at reconciliation between these parties within the Byzantine Empire were made by many emperors over the four centuries following the Council of Ephesus, none of them successful. Some attempts at reconciliation, such as this one, the condemnation of the Three Chapters and the unprecedented posthumous anathematization of Theodore—who had once been widely esteemed as a pillar of orthodoxy—causing further schisms and heresies to arise in the process, such as the aforementioned schism of the Three Chapters and the emergent semi-monophysite compromises of monoenergism and monotheletism. These propositions assert, respectively, that Christ possessed no human energy but only a divine function or principle of operation (purposefully formulated in an equivocal and vague manner, and promulgated between 610 and 622 by the Emperor Heraclius under the advice of Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople) and that Christ possessed no human will but only a divine will, "will" being understood to mean the desires and appetites in accord with the nature (promulgated in 638 by the same and opposed most notably by Maximus the Confessor).[4]

Second Council of Constantinople
Date553
Accepted byEastern Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Old Catholic Church
Anglican Communion
Previous council
Council of Chalcedon
Next council
Third Council of Constantinople
Convoked byEmperor Justinian I
PresidentEutychius of Constantinople
Attendance152[1]
TopicsNestorianism
Origenism
Documents and statements
14 canons on Christology and against the Three Chapters. 15 canons condemning the teaching of Origen and Evagrius.
Chronological list of ecumenical councils

Proceedings

The Council was presided over by Eutychius, Patriarch of Constantinople, assisted by the other three eastern patriarchs or their representatives.[5] Pope Vigilius was also invited; but even though he was at this period resident in Constantinople (to avoid the perils of life in Italy, convulsed by the war against the Ostrogoths), he declined to attend, and even issued a document forbidding the council from preceding without him (his 'First Constitutum'). For more details see Pope Vigilius.

The council, however, proceeded without the pope to condemn the Three Chapters. And during the seventh session of the council, the bishops had Vigilius stricken from the diptychs for his refusal to appear at the council and approve its proceedings, effectively excommunicating him personally but not the rest of the Western Church. Vigilius was then imprisoned in Constantinople by the emperor and his advisors were exiled. After six months, in December 553, he agreed, however, to condemn the Three Chapters, claiming that his hesitation was due to being misled by his advisors.[4] His approval of the council was expressed in two documents, (a letter to Eutychius of Constantinople on 8 December 553, and a second "Constitutum" of 23 February 554, probably addressed to the Western episcopate), condemning the Three Chapters,[6] on his own authority and without mention of the council.[3]

In Northern Italy the ecclesiastical provinces of Milan and Aquileia broke communion with Rome. Milan accepted the condemnation only toward the end of the sixth century, whereas Aquileia did not do so until about 700.[3][7] The rest of the Western Church accepted the decrees of the council, though without great enthusiasm. Though ranked as one of the ecumenical councils, it never attained in the West the status of either Nicaea or Chalcedon.

In Visigothic Spain (Reccared having converted a short time prior) the churches never accepted the council;[8] when news of the later Third Council of Constantinople was communicated to them by Rome it was received as the fifth ecumenical council,[9] not the sixth. Isidore of Seville, in his Chronicle and De Viris Illustribus, judged Justinian a tyrant and persecutor of the orthodox[10] and an admirer of heresy,[11] contrasting him with Facundus of Hermiane and Victor of Tunnuna, who was considered a martyr.[12]

Despite the conflict between the council and the pope, and the inability to reconcile Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians, the council still made a significant theological contribution. The canons condemning the Three Chapters were preceded by ten dogmatic canons which defined Chalcedonian Christology with a new precision, bringing out that God the Word is the one subject of all the operations of Christ, divine and human. The 'two natures' defined at Chalcedon were now clearly interpreted as two sets of attributes possessed by a single person, Christ God, the Second Person of the Trinity.[13] Later Byzantine Christology, as found in Maximus the Confessor and John of Damascus, was built upon this basis. It might have proved sufficient, moreover, to bring about the reunion of Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians, had it not been for the severance of connections between the two groups that resulted from the Muslim conquests of the next century.

Acts

The original Greek acts of the council are lost,[14] but an old Latin version exists, possibly made for Vigilius, of which there is a critical edition[15] and of which there is now an English translation and commentary,[16] it was alleged (probably falsely) that the original Acts of the Fifth Council had been tampered with[17] in favour of Monothelitism.[3] It used to be argued that the extant acts are incomplete, since they make no mention of the debate over Origenism. However, the solution generally accepted today is that the bishops signed the canons condemning Origenism before the council formally opened.[18] This condemnation was confirmed by Pope Vigilius and the subsequent ecumenical council (third Council of Constantinople) gave its "assent" in its Definition of Faith to the five previous synods, including "... the last, that is the Fifth holy Synod assembled in this place, against Theodore of Mopsuestia, Origen, Didymus, and Evagrius ...";[19] its full conciliar authority has only been questioned in modern times.[20]

Notes

  1. ^ a b "NPNF2–14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils, Introduction". CCEL. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
    • (3 names, 3 bishops and 145 other, plus 1 pope, total 152)
  2. ^ See, e.g. Lutheran–Orthodox Joint Commission, Seventh Meeting, The Ecumenical Councils, Common Statement, 1993, available at Lutheran–Orthodox Joint Commission (B. I. 5a. "We agree on the doctrine of God, the Holy Trinity, as formulated by the Ecumenical Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople and on the doctrine of the person of Christ as formulated by the first four Ecumenical Councils.").
  3. ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainThomas J. Shahan (1913). "CouncilsofConstantinople" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  4. ^ a b c d Leo Donald Davis (1983), "Chapter 6 Council of Constantinople II, 553", The First Seven Ecumenical Councils (325–787): Their History and Theology, Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, pp. 242–248, ISBN 978-0814656167, retrieved 2014-08-23
  5. ^ Meyendorff 1989, pp. 241–243.
  6. ^ Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, vol. IX, p. 414–420, 457–488; cf. Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. II, pp. 905–911.
  7. ^ Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. II, pp. 911–927. (For an equitable appreciation of the conduct of Vigilius see, besides the article VIGILIUS, the judgment of Bois, in Diet. de theol. cath., II, 1238–39.)
  8. ^ Herrin (1989) pp. 240–241
  9. ^ Herrin (1989) p. 244
  10. ^ Herrin (1989) p. 241 and the references therein
  11. ^ Isidore of Seville, Chronica Maiora, no. 397a
  12. ^ Herrin (1989) p. 241
  13. ^ Price (2009) vol. I, p. 73–75
  14. ^ "NPNF2–14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils, Excursus on the Genuineness of the Acts of the Fifth Council". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
  15. ^ Straub, Johannes (1971), Acta Conciliorum Oecumenicorum. Tomus IV, volumen I, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
  16. ^ Price (2009)
  17. ^ Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. II, pp. 855–858
  18. ^ Price (2009) vol. 2, pp. 270-86.
  19. ^ "NPNF2–14. The Seven Ecumenical Councils, The Definition of Faith". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
  20. ^ Price (2009) vol. 2, pp. 270ff.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainThomas J. Shahan (1913). "CouncilsofConstantinople" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

Bibliography

  • Herrin, Judith (1989). The Formation of Christendom, revised, illustrated paperback edition. London: Princeton University Press and Fontana.
  • Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450–680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.
  • Price, Richard (2009). The Acts of the Council of Constantinople of 553 – 2 Vol Set: With Related Texts on the Three Chapters Controversy. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press (published Aug 1, 2009). pp. 270–286. ISBN 978-1846311789.
  • Hefele, Karl Josef von (2014) [The seven volumes of this work were first published between 1855 and 1874]. A History of the Councils of the Church: To the Close of the Council of Nicea, A.D. 325 (original, "Conciliengeschichte"). 2. Translated and edited by Edward Hayes Plumptre, Henry Nutcombe Oxenham, William Robinson Clark. Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.: Nabu Press. ISBN 9781293802021.

External links

Antipyrgos (titular see)

The diocese of Antipirgo (Latin: Dioecesis Antipyrgensis) is a suppressed and titular see of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman town of Antipirgo, is identifiable with Tobruch in today's Libya, but during the Roman Empire it was in the Roman province of Creta and Cyrene and then in late antiquity Libya Inferior (Marmarica), and the bishopric was suffraged by the archdiocese of Darni.

Of this ancient diocese is known only one bishop, Emiliano, who was among the attendee at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. Today Antipirgo survives as a titular bishopric, and the seat is vacant since March 6, 1969.

Ascholius

Saint Ascholius (Ἀσχόλιος, d. 383/4) was Bishop of Thessalonica from AD 379 until his death, at the time of the adoption of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire.

He baptized emperor Theodosius

Ascholius was appointed Bishop of Thessalonica by Damasus, Bishop of Rome in an attempt to preserve Roman influence over the area in the face of a policy of expansion pursued by the Bishop of Constantinople.

Ascholius was present at the Second Council of Constantinople in 381

where the claims of Maximus the Cynic to the bishopric of Constantinople were rejected.

Catholic ecumenical councils

Catholic ecumenical councils include 21 councils over a period of some 1900 years. While definitions changed throughout history, in today's Roman Catholic understanding ecumenical councils are assemblies of Patriarchs, Cardinals, residing Bishops, Abbots, male heads of religious orders and other juridical persons, nominated by the Pope. The purpose of an ecumenical council is to define doctrine, reaffirm truths of the Faith, and extirpate heresy. Council decisions, to be valid, are approved by the popes. Participation is limited to these persons, who cannot delegate their voting rights.

Ecumenical councils are different from provincial councils, where bishops of a Church province or region meet. Episcopal conferences and plenary councils are other bodies, meetings of bishops of one country, nation, or region, such as the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. This article does not include councils of a lower order or regional councils. Ecumenical in the Catholic view does not mean that all bishops attended the councils, which was not even the case in Vatican II. Nor does ecumenical imply the participation of or acceptance by all Christian communities and Churches. Ecumenical refers to "a solemn congregations of the Catholic bishops of the world at the invitation of the Pope to decide on matters of the Church with him". The ecumenical character of the councils of the first millennium was not determined by the intention of those who issued the invitations. The papal approval of the early councils did not have a formal character, which was characteristic in later councils. The Catholic Church did not officially declare these councils to be ecumenical. This became theological practice. Different evaluations existed between and within Christian communities. Today 21 councils are accepted in the Catholic church as ecumenical councils.Not all of the twenty-one councils were always accepted as ecumenical within the Catholic Church. For example, the inclusion of the First Lateran Council and the Council of Basel were disputed. A 1539 book on ecumenical councils by Cardinal Dominicus Jacobazzi excluded them as did other scholars. The first few centuries did not know large-scale ecumenical meetings; they were only feasible after the Church had gained freedom from persecution through Emperor Constantine.

Christianity in the 6th century

In 6th-century Christianity, Roman Emperor Justinian launched a military campaign in Constantinople to reclaim the western provinces from the Germans, starting with North Africa and proceeding to Italy. Though he was temporarily successful in recapturing much of the western Mediterranean he destroyed the urban centers and permanently ruined the economies in much of the West. Rome and other cities were abandoned. In the coming centuries the Western Church, as virtually the only surviving Roman institution in the West, became the only remaining link to Greek culture and civilization.

In the East, Roman imperial rule continued through the period historians now call the Byzantine Empire. Even in the West, where imperial political control gradually declined, distinctly Roman culture continued long afterwards; thus historians today prefer to speak of a "transformation of the Roman world" rather than a "Fall of Rome." The advent of the Early Middle Ages was a gradual and often localised process whereby, in the West, rural areas became power centres whilst urban areas declined. Although the greater number of Christians remained in the East, the developments in the West would set the stage for major developments in the Christian world during the later Middle Ages.

Council of Constantinople

Council of Constantinople can refer to a church council (synod) convened at Constantinople:

Council of Constantinople (360), a local council

First Council of Constantinople, the Second Ecumenical Council, in 381

Council of Constantinople (383), a local council, rejected teachings of Eunomius

Council of Constantinople (394), a local council, produced several canons

Synod of Constantinople (543), a local council which condemned Origen

Second Council of Constantinople, the Fifth Ecumenical Council, in 553

Third Council of Constantinople, the Sixth Ecumenical Council, in 680

Council of Constantinople (692), also called in Trullo or Quinisext Council

Council of Constantinople (754), the Council of Hieria

Council of Constantinople (815), a local council that restored Iconoclasm

Council of Constantinople (843), a local council, restored the veneration of icons

Council of Constantinople (861), a local council, confirmed the deposition of Ignatius and election of Photius

Council of Constantinople (867), a local council convened by Photius to discuss Papal supremacy and the Filioque

Fourth Council of Constantinople (Catholic Church), also called the Photian Council, in 869

Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox), considered the Eighth Ecumenical Council by some Orthodox, also called the Photian Council, in 879

Council of Constantinople (1082), a local council convened to deal with John Italos

Council of Constantinople (1094), a local council convened to deal with Leo of Chalcedon

Council of Constantinople (1285), a local council that rejected the Union of the Churches at Lyons

Fifth Council of Constantinople, considered the Ninth Ecumenical Council by some Orthodox, concerning Hesychasm, in 1341-1351

Synod of Constantinople (1484), condemned the Council of Florence

Council of Constantinople (1583), decided not to accept the Gregorian calendar

Council of Constantinople (1593), approved the creation of Moscow Patriarchate

Council of Constantinople (1722), condemned all forms of catholicisation

Council of Constantinople (1756), affirmed rebaptism for Roman Catholics converting to Christian Orthodoxy

Council of Constantinople (1848), issued the Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs

Council of Constantinople (1872), condemned Phyletism, as a schismatic movement

Council of Constantinople (1923), a major council, introduced several reforms

Didymus the Blind

Didymus the Blind (alternatively spelled Dedimus or Didymous) (c. 313 – 398) was a Christian theologian in the Church of Alexandria, where he taught for about half a century. He was a student of Origen, and, after the Second Counsel in Constantinople condemned Origen, Didymus's works were not copied. Many of his writings are lost, but some of his commentaries and essays survive. He was intelligent and a good teacher, but not especially original.

First Council of Constantinople

The First Council of Constantinople (Greek: Πρώτη σύνοδος της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως commonly known as Greek: Β΄ Οικουμενική, "Second Ecumenical"; Latin: Concilium Constantinopolitanum Primum or Latin: Concilium Constantinopolitanum A) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Constantinople in AD 381 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This second ecumenical council, an effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom, except for the Western Church, confirmed the Nicene Creed, expanding the doctrine thereof to produce the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, and dealt with sundry other matters. It met from May to July 381 in the Church of Hagia Irene and was affirmed as ecumenical in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon.

First seven ecumenical councils

In the history of Christianity, the first seven ecumenical councils include the following: the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, the Third Council of Constantinople from 680–681 and finally, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

These seven events represented an attempt by Church leaders to reach an orthodox consensus, restore peace and develop a unified Christendom. Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, the Church of the East, Anglican, Old Catholic, and Roman Catholics, all trace the legitimacy of their clergy by apostolic succession back to this period and beyond, to the earlier period referred to as Early Christianity.

This era begins with the First Council of Nicaea, which enunciated the Nicene Creed that in its original form and as modified by the First Council of Constantinople of 381 was seen by all later councils as the touchstone of orthodoxy on the doctrine of the Trinity.

The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church accept all seven of these councils as legitimate ecumenical councils. The Oriental Orthodox Churches accept only the first three, while the Church of the East accepts only the first two. There is also one additional council (the Quinisext Council), which was held between the sixth and seventh ecumenical councils (in AD 692), and which issued organizational, liturgical and canonical rules but did not discuss theology. It is accepted as ecumenical by the Eastern Orthodox Church alone, however the Eastern Orthodox do not give it a number, but rather count it as a continuation of the sixth council. The Catholic Church does not accept the Quinisext Council, but both the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church consider that there have been more ecumenical councils after the first seven (see: Eighth ecumenical council, Ninth ecumenical council, and Catholic ecumenical councils).

Hadrianopolis (Phrygia)

Hadrianopolis or Hadrianoupolis (Ancient Greek: Ἁδριανούπολις) was a town in ancient Phrygia, built by the emperor Hadrian, between Philomelium and Tyriaeum. It was a bishopric, whose bishop attended the Council of Chalcedon and the Second Council of Constantinople.Its site is located near Doğanhisar in Asiatic Turkey.

Isinda (Pisidia)

Isinda (Ancient Greek: Ἴσινδα) was a town of ancient Pisidia.

Its site is located near Korkuteli, Asiatic Turkey. More precisely, the site is now thought to be at the village of Kişla, though formerly identified with Yazır. In the 1840s, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt and Edward Forbes visited Kişla, an hour's ride from Korkuteli (referred to as Stenez), with extensive walls of soft stone and burnt brick, and identified it as the city of Isinda, which the Roman consul Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, on his victorious march through Asia Minor in 189 BCE, found besieged by Termessus. At the city's request he raised the siege and fined the Termessians 50 talents.Isinda stood in a strategic position at the western end of the pass leading from Pamphylia by Termessus to Pisidia. Samples of the extensive coinage of Isinda are extant, which give evidence that it considered itself an Ionian colony.Isinda was later included in the Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda. At an early stage, it became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Perge, the capital of the province. Of its bishops, Cyrillus took part in the First Council of Nicaea in 325, Edesius in the Council of Ephesus in 431, Marcellinus in the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Talleleus in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Ignatius in the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).No longer a residential bishopric, Isinda is now listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

List of early Christian writers

Various Early Christian writers wrote gospels and other books, some of which were canonized as the New Testament canon developed. The Apostolic Fathers were prominent writers who are traditionally understood to have met and learned from Jesus' personal disciples. The Church Fathers are later writers with no direct connection to the disciples (other than the claim to apostolic succession). Apologists defended Christianity against its critics, especially Greek and Roman philosophers. Dates given, if not otherwise specified, are of their writings or bishopric, not of their lives.

List of excommunicable offences in the Catholic Church

This is a list, in chronological order, of present and past offences to which the Roman Catholic Church has attached the penalty of excommunication; the list is not exhaustive. In most cases these were "automatic excommunications", wherein the violator who knowingly breaks the rule is considered automatically excommunicated from the church regardless of whether a bishop (or the pope) has excommunicated them publicly. However, in a few cases a bishop would need to name the person who violated the rule for them to be excommunicated.

Excommunication is an ecclesiastical penalty placed on a person to encourage the person to return to the communion of the church. An excommunicated person cannot receive any sacraments or exercise an office within the church until the excommunication is lifted by a valid authority in the church (usually a bishop). Previously, other penalties could also be attached. In cases where excommunication is reserved for the apostolic see, only the bishop of Rome (the pope) has the power to lift the excommunication. Before 1869, the church distinguished "major" and "minor" excommunication; a major excommunication was often marked by simply writing, "Let them be anathema" in council documents. Only offences from the 1983 Code of Canon Law still have legal effect in the church.

Monoenergism

Monoenergism (Greek: μονοενεργητισμός) was a notion in early medieval Christian theology, representing the belief that Christ had only one "energy" (energeia). The teaching of one energy was propagated during the first half of the seventh century by Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople but opposition to Dyoenergism would persist until Dyoenergism was espoused as Orthodoxy at the Sixth Ecumenical Council. Ultimately, monoenergism was rejected as heresy, in favour of dyoenergism.

After the failure of Emperor Justinian I and the Second Council of Constantinople to mend the Chalcedonian schism and unify main Christian communities within the Byzantine Empire by a single Christology, similar efforts were renewed by Heraclius (610–641) who attempted to solve the schism between the Eastern Orthodox Chalcedonian party and the monophysite non-Chalcedonian party, suggesting the compromise of monoenergism. This compromise adopted the Chalcedonian dyophysite belief that Christ the Incarnate Logos of God is of and in two natures, but tried to address monophysite misgivings by the view that Christ had one "energy" (energeia), a term whose definition was left deliberately vague. Monoenergism was accepted by the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, as well as by the Armenians and was not clearly criticized by Pope Honorius I of Rome in his 635 epistle. However, it was rejected by Athanasius I Gammolo and the strong opposition of Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem won wide support. This led Heraclius to abandon the teaching in 638 (though still condemning Dyoenergism) and to attempt to enforce instead the doctrine of monothelitism, opposed most notably by Maximus the Confessor. This too failed to heal the schism and theologically unite the empire.

Both monoenergism as well as monotheletism were condemned as heresies by the Sixth Ecumenical Council, held in Constantinople in 680.

Neo-chalcedonism

Neo-chalcedonism was a sixth-century theological movement in the Byzantine empire. The term however is quite recent, first appearing in a 1909 work by J. Lebon. Their main preoccupation was specifying the nature of the hypostatic union of two natures in Christ, which was left vague in the definition of Chalcedon. The dyophysite neo-chaldonians were chiefly opposed by the monophysites, who increasingly labelled them Nestorians, that is, deniers of the deity of Christ.Major neo-chalcedonians include Nephalios, John of Caesarea and Leontios of Jerusalem. They sought a middle ground with the so-called "verbal" (moderate) monophysites. They emphasised the synthesis of natures in Christ, employing a word favoured by the verbal monophysites, and the hypostatic as opposed to natural union of the natures. They continued to accept the proposition that only "one of the Trinity has suffered" and the twelve anathemas of Cyril of Alexandria.The movement achieved supremacy in Egypt during the pontificates of Anastasius I (559–69, 593–99) and Gregory (569–93) of Antioch. Emperor Justinian I accepted the neo-chalcedonian interpretation, and it was approved officially at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. This provoked the Schism of the Three Chapters, which lasted over a century.

Origenist Crises

The Origenist Crises or Origenist Controversies is the name modern scholars have given to two major theological controversies in early Christianity involving the teachings of followers of the third-century Alexandrian theologian Origen (c. 184 – c. 253). The First Origenist Crisis began in the late fourth century AD in Palestine and later spread to Egypt. It dealt with ideas discussed in some of Origen's writings that some members of the church hierarchy deemed heretical. Objections against Origen's writings and demands for his condemnation were first raised by Epiphanius of Salamis and later taken up by Jerome and Pope Theophilus of Alexandria, who were both initially supporters of Origen's teachings. Origen's defenders included Tyrannius Rufinus and John II, Bishop of Jerusalem.

During the crisis, Theophilus issued a condemnation of Origen's incorporeal, non-anthropomorphic conception of God, a view which Theophilus himself had previously vocally supported. The crisis concluded with John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, being removed from his position at the Synod of the Oak in 403 AD for harboring Origenist monks who had been banished from Alexandria. The Second Origenist Crisis occurred in the sixth century AD during the reign of Justinian I. It is less well-documented than the first crisis and dealt more with the ideas of groups that had been influenced by Origen rather than with Origen's actual writings. It concluded with the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 AD possibly issuing an anathema against Origen, although scholars dispute whether the anathema condemning Origen was actually issued by the Council or if it was added later.

Tavium

Tavium, or Tavia (Ancient Greek: Τάουιον, romanized: Taouion; Latin: Taouion or Tavium), was the chief city of the Galatian tribe of Trocmi, one of the three Celtic tribes which migrated from the Danube Valley to Galatia in present-day central Turkey in the 3rd century BCE. Owing to its position on the high roads of commerce was an important trading post. The site was successively occupied by Hittites, Cimmerians, Persians, Celts, Greeks, Romans, Seljuk Turks and Ottoman Turks. At the time of the Roman Empire, Tavium was an important crossroads and a stopping place on the caravan routes.

One of the few things known about Tavium is that there was metalworking, because coins have been found that were minted there in the early 1st century bearing the likenesses of Marcus Aurelius and Elagabalus. Copper, tin, iron and silver were mined in the nearby mountains. Similar to other Celtic towns of the time, the smelting and stamping was done by a small group of artisans working in one or two stone huts.

In the temple at Tavium there was a colossal statue of Jupiter in bronze, greatly venerated by the Galatians. There was some doubt about the exact site of the city, but it is today generally believed to be the ruins situated close to the village of Nefezköy (today known as Büyüknefes), lying in a very fertile plain east of the Halys in the province of Yozgat.

These ruins were partly used in building the neighbouring town of Yozgat, where there exist the remains of a theatre and possibly of a temple of Jupiter; these have a number of inscriptions, mostly Byzantine. In the Notitiæ Episcopatuum the bishopric of Tavium is mentioned up to the 13th century as the first suffragan of Ancyra.

The names of five bishops of the area are known: Dicasius, present at the Councils of Neocæsarea and Nice; Julian, at the second Council of Ephesus (449), and at the Council of Chalcedon (451), and a signer of the letter from the Galatian bishops to the Emperor Leo (458); Anastasius, present at the second Council of Constantinople (553); Gregory at the Council in Trullo (692); Philaretus at Constantinople (869).

As of the early 20th century, Büyüknefes was inhabited during the winter by nomadic Turkish tribes. It was then in the kaza (district) of Sungurlu and the vilayet of Ankara. Now it is a part of Yozgat Province.

Theodoret

Theodoret of Cyrus or Cyrrhus (Greek: Θεοδώρητος Κύρρου; c. AD 393 – c. 458/466) was an influential theologian of the School of Antioch, biblical commentator, and Christian bishop of Cyrrhus (423–457). He played a pivotal role in several 5th-century Byzantine Church controversies that led to various ecumenical acts and schisms. He wrote against Cyril of Alexandria's 12 Anathemas which were sent to Nestorius and did not personally condemn Nestorius until the Council of Chalcedon. His writings against Cyril were included in the Three Chapters Controversy and were condemned at the Second Council of Constantinople. Some Chalcedonian and East Syriac Christians regard him as a "full" saint. Although the Eastern Orthodox Protopresbyter Michael Pomazansky repeatedly refers to him as "Blessed", there is no evidence in his work that this is the official position of any Eastern Orthodox jurisdiction.

Zenopolis (Lycia)

Zenopolis (Greek: Ζηνούπολις) was an ancient Roman and Byzantine city and episcopal see variously placed in Lycia or in neighbouring Pamphylia.

At the Second Council of Constantinople (553), one bishop signed as "Gennadius by the mercy of God bishop of the Zenopolitans, a city of the province of Pamphylia". The acts of the Second Council of Nicaea (787), on the other hand. bear the signature of Σταυράκιος ἐπίσκοπος Ζηνοπόλεως (Stauracius bishop of Zenopolis), who sat with the bishops of Lycia. In about 940, the Notitia Episcopatuum of Constantine Porphyrogenitus listed a Zenopolis in Pamphylia.In his Origines Ecclesiasticae, Joseph Bingham gave Zenopolis as the name of two distinct cities, one in Lycia, the other in Pamphylia, and indicates that the Pamphylian see was also called Diciozanabrus. Le Quien interpreted the references instead as concerning a single city that could be viewed as part of either of the two contiguous provinces of Lycia and Pamphylia. Vailhé does not distinguish between any of the cities that bore the name, but writes as if all were identical with the one in Isauria.The Catholic Church's list of titular sees includes the see as Zenopolis in Lycia.

İslamköy, Kahta

İslamköy is a village in the District of Kahta, Adıyaman Province, Turkey.The village corresponds to ancient Alia, which was in the Roman province of Phrygia Pacatiana, whose capital was Laodicea on the Lycus. The names of some of the bishops of Alia are known through their participation in church councils: Caius at the Council of Chalcedon (451), Glaucus at the Second Council of Constantinople (553), Leo at the Second Council of Nicaea (787), and Michael and Georgius, the one a supporter of Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople, the other a supporter of Photius, at the Council of Constantinople (879).No longer a residential bishopric, Alia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

First seven ecumenical councils
Recognized by the
Catholic Church
Partly recognized by the
Eastern Orthodox Church
Recognized by the
Oriental Orthodox Church
Centuries
Early
Christianity

History
Eastern
Christianity
Middle Ages
Catholicism
Reformation
and
Protestantism
1640–1789
1789–present
General
Early Church
Late antiquity
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
19th century
20th century
21st century

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.