Second Battle of Fallujah

The Second Battle of Fallujahcode-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War. It was led by the U.S. Marines and U.S Army against the Iraqi insurgency stronghold in the city of Fallujah and was authorized by the U.S.-appointed Iraqi Interim Government. The U.S. military called it "some of the heaviest urban combat U.S. Marines and Soldiers have been involved in since the Battle of Huế City in Vietnam in 1968."[18][19]

This operation was the second major operation in Fallujah. Earlier, in April 2004, coalition forces fought the First Battle of Fallujah in order to capture or kill insurgent elements considered responsible for the deaths of a Blackwater Security team. When coalition forces fought into the center of the city, the Iraqi government requested that the city's control be transferred to an Iraqi-run local security force, which then began stockpiling weapons and building complex defenses across the city through mid-2004.[20] The second battle was the bloodiest battle of the entire Iraq War,[21] and is notable for being the first major engagement of the Iraq War fought solely against insurgents rather than the forces of the former Ba'athist Iraqi government, which was deposed in 2003.

Second Battle of Fallujah
(Operation Phantom Fury)
Part of the Iraq War
4-14 Marines in Fallujah

U.S. Marines from Mike Battery, 4th Battalion, 14th Marines, operate the 155mm M198 howitzer at Camp Fallujah, November 2004.
Date7 November – 23 December 2004[2][3][4]
(1 month, 2 weeks and 2 days)
Location
Result Coalition victory
Belligerents
 United States
 Iraq
 United Kingdom
Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Islamic Army of Iraq (emblem).png Islamic Army of Iraq
Ansar al-Sunna
1920 Revolution Brigade
Flag of the Ba'ath Party.svg Ba'athists[1]
Army of Mohammed
Army of the Mujahedeen
Secret Islamic Army of Iraq
Other insurgents
Commanders and leaders
United States Richard F. Natonski
United States Keith Stalder
United States Richard F. Natonski[5]
United Kingdom James Cowan
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
(Commander of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad)
Abdullah Jannabi
(Preacher)
Omar Hadid 
(Field Commander)
Abu Ayyub al-Masri
(Preacher)
Abdullah Shaddad
(Field Commander)
Hemin Saleem-Banishari 
(Ansar-ul-Islam Commander)
Strength

United States 10,500 troops[6]
Iraq 2,000 security forces[6]
United Kingdom 850 troops[7]

Total: 13,350 troops
≈3,700–4,000 insurgents[8][9]
Casualties and losses
American:
95 killed, 560 wounded[10]
(54 killed and 425 wounded from 7 to 16 November)[11]
Iraqi:
8–11 killed, 43 wounded[11][12]
British:
4 killed, 10 wounded[13][14]
Total: 107–110 killed, 613 wounded
1,200–2,000 killed,[15][12]
1,500 captured[15]
Civilian fatalities:
581–670 (Iraq Body Count)[16]
800 (Red Cross)[17]

Background

In February 2004, control of Fallujah and the surrounding area in the Al-Anbar province was transferred from the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division to the 1st Marine Division. Shortly afterward, on 31 March 2004, four American private military contractors from Blackwater—Wesley Batalona, Scott Helvenston, Jerry Zovko and Michael Teague—were ambushed and killed in the city.[22] Images of their mutilated bodies were broadcast around the world.[23]

Within days, U.S. Marine Corps forces launched Operation Vigilant Resolve (4 April 2004) to take back control of the city from insurgent forces. On 28 April 2004, Operation Vigilant Resolve ended with an agreement where the local population was ordered to keep the insurgents out of the city.[20] The Fallujah Brigade, composed of local Iraqis under the command of a former Ba'athist officer named Muhammed Latif, took control of the city.[24]

Insurgent strength and control began to grow to such an extent that by 24 September 2004, a senior U.S. official told ABC News that catching Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, said to be in Fallujah, was now "the highest priority," and estimated his troops at 5,000 men, mostly non-Iraqis.[25]

Preparations

Coalition forces

Before beginning their attack, U.S. and Iraqi forces had established checkpoints around the city to prevent anyone from entering, and to intercept insurgents attempting to flee.

In addition, overhead imagery was used to prepare maps of the city for use by the attackers. American units were augmented by Iraqi interpreters to assist them in the planned fight. After weeks of withstanding air strikes and artillery bombardment, the militants in the city appeared to be vulnerable to direct attack.

U.S., Iraqi and British forces totaled about 13,500. The U.S. had gathered some 6,500 Marines and 1,500 Army soldiers that would take part in the assault with about 2,500 Navy personnel in operational and support roles.[6] U.S. troops were grouped in two Regimental Combat Teams: Regimental Combat Team 1 comprised Mike Battery 4/14 Palehorse, 3rd Battalion/1st Marines, 3rd Battalion/5th Marines, Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 4 and 23 (Seabees) as well as the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/7th Cavalry. Regimental Combat Team 7 comprised the 1st Battalion/8th Marines, 1st Battalion/3rd Marines, 1st Batalion 12th Marines Charlie Battery’s artillery, the U.S. Army's 2nd Battalion/2nd Infantry,2nd Battalion/12th Cavalry and 1st battalion 6th field artillery.[26] About 2,000 Iraqi troops assisted with the assault.[6] All were supported by aircraft U.S. Marine and U.S. Army artillery battalions and USSOCOM Sniper Elements.

The 850-strong 1st Battalion of the Black Watch was ordered to help U.S. and Iraqi forces with the encirclement of Fallujah.[27] As part of Task Force Black, D Squadron of the British SAS prepared to take part in the operation, but British political nervousness about the possible scale of casualties stopped any direct UK involvement in the ground battle.[28]

Insurgent forces

In April, Fallujah was defended by about 500 "hardcore" and 1,000+ "part time" insurgents. By November, it was estimated that the numbers had doubled.[29] Another estimate put the number of insurgents at 3,000; however, a number of insurgent leaders escaped before the attack.[30]

Fallujah was occupied by virtually every insurgent group in Iraq: al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI), Islamic Army of Iraq (IAI), Ansar al-Sunna, Army of Mohammed (AOM), the Army of the Mujahedeen and the Secret Islamic Army of Iraq. Three groups, (AQI, IAI and the National Islamic Army (1920 Revolution Brigade)) had their nationwide headquarters in Fallujah. An estimated 2,000 insurgents were from the Army of Mohammed (made up of ex Fedayeen Saddam fighters), Ansar al-Sunna and various smaller Iraqi groups.[31]

The Iraqi insurgents and foreign mujahadeen present in the city prepared fortified defenses in advance of the anticipated attack.[20][32] They dug tunnels, trenches, prepared spider holes, and built and hid a wide variety of IEDs.[20][32] In some locations they filled the interiors of darkened homes with large numbers of propane bottles, large drums of gasoline, and ordnance, all wired to a remote trigger that could be set off by an insurgent when troops entered the building. They blocked streets with Jersey barriers and even emplaced them within homes to create strong points behind which they could attack unsuspecting troops entering the building.[33] Insurgents were equipped with a variety of advanced small arms, and had captured a variety of U.S. armament, including M14s, M16s, body armor, uniforms and helmets.[33]

They booby-trapped buildings and vehicles, including wiring doors and windows to grenades and other ordnance. Anticipating U.S. tactics to seize the roof of high buildings, they bricked up stairwells to the roofs of many buildings, creating paths into prepared fields of fire which they hoped the troops would enter.[33]

Intelligence briefings given prior to battle reported that coalition forces would encounter Chechen, Filipino, Saudi, Libyan, and Syrian combatants, as well as native Iraqis.[34]

Civilian presence

Meanwhile, most of Fallujah's civilian population fled the city, which greatly reduced the potential for noncombatant casualties.[33] U.S. military officials estimated that 70–90% of the 300,000 civilians in the city fled before the attack.[30]

The battle

Diversion

US 1stCavDiv Fallujah, Nov 12, 2004
U.S. Marines from TF 2–7 CAV, prepare to enter a building during fighting in Fallujah.

With Navy SEAL and Marine Recon Snipers providing reconnaissance and target marking on the city perimeter, ground operations began on the night of 7 November 2004. Attacking from the west and south, the Iraqi 36th Commando Battalion with their U.S. Army Special Forces advisers, SEAL Sniper Task Elements from Naval Special Warfare Task Group Central and the U.S. Marine Corps Scout Platoon Mike Battery, 1st and 2nd Platoon, Charlie Company, 1st Battalion 9th Infantry Regiment (Manchu), 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division (U.S. Army), 3rd Platoon Alpha Company 2/72nd Tank Battalion (U.S. Army), and 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, reinforced by Bravo Company from the Marine Corps Reserve's 1st Battalion, 23rd Regiment, and supported by Combat Service Support Company 122, from Combat Service Support Battalion 1, captured Fallujah General Hospital, Blackwater Bridge, ING building, and villages opposite of the Euphrates River along Fallujah's western edge.[35] Troops from the 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines fired 81mm mortars in an operation in south Fallujah. The same unit, operating under the command of the U.S. Army III Corps, then moved to the western approaches to the city and secured the Jurf Kas Sukr Bridge.[35] These initial attacks, however, were a diversion intended to distract and confuse the insurgents holding the city.

Attack

Fallujah 2004 M1A1 Abrams
An M1 Abrams fires its main gun into a building to provide suppressive counterfire against insurgents.
Marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines and 3rd Battalion 5th Marines during the Second Battle of Fallujah.

After Navy Seabees from I MEF Engineer Group (MEG) interrupted and disabled electrical power at two substations located just northeast and northwest of the city, two Marine Regimental Combat Teams, Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) and Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) launched an attack along the northern edge of the city. They were joined by two U.S. Army heavy battalion-sized units, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, and Task Force 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment (Mechanized). These two battalions were followed by four infantry battalions who were tasked with clearing the remaining buildings. The Army's mechanized Second Brigade, First Cavalry Division, augmented by the Marines' Second Reconnaissance Battalion and A. Co 1st Battalion, 5th Infantry Regiment, was tasked to infiltrate the city and destroy any fleeing enemy forces.[36] The British Army's 1st Battalion, The Black Watch, patrolled the main highways to the east. The RCTs were augmented by three 7-man SEAL Sniper Teams from Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central and one platoon from 1st Recon, who provided advance reconnaissance in the city, Joint Terminal Aircraft Control (JTAC) and unilateral overwatch throughout the operation. The United States Air Force provided close air support for the ground offensive, employing F-15 Strike Eagles, F-16 Fighting Falcons, A-10 Thunderbolt IIs, B-52 Stratofortresses, and AC-130 gunships to carry out close-quarter precision airstrikes against enemy strongholds within the city. The Air Force also employed MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicles for reconnaissance and precision strikes, and the U-2 Dragon Lady high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft for intelligence collection, surveillance and reconnaissance before, during, and after the battle.

The six battalions of Army, Marine and Iraqi forces, aided by Mike Battery Marine Corps Scout and Target Acquisition and SEAL Sniper and JTAC elements pre-fire operations, moved into the city under the cover of darkness; and once aligned with the reconnaissance elements, began the assault in the early hours of 8 November 2004, preceded by an intense artillery barrage firing some 2500 155mm projectiles and air attack. This was followed by an attack on the main train station, which was then used as a staging point for follow-on forces. By that afternoon, under the protection of intense air cover, Marines entered the Hay Naib al-Dubat and al-Naziza districts. The Marines were followed by the Navy Seabees of NMCB 4 and NMCB 23 who bulldozed the streets clear of debris from the bombardment that morning. The Seabees used armored bulldozers to plow the streets while remaining safe and protected from enemy fire. Shortly after nightfall on 9 November 2004, Marines had reportedly reached Phase Line Fran at Highway 10 in the center of the city.

US Navy 041108-M-8205V-006 An air strike is called in on a suspected insurgent hideout at the edge of Fallujah, Iraq by U.S. Marines assigned K Company, 3rd Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, during the openin
An air strike is called in on a suspected insurgent hideout in Fallujah.

While most of the fighting subsided by 13 November 2004, U.S. Marines and Special Operations Forces continued to face determined isolated resistance from insurgents hidden throughout the city. By 16 November 2004, after nine days of fighting, the Marine command described the action as mopping up pockets of resistance. Sporadic fighting continued until 23 December 2004.

By late January 2005, news reports indicated U.S. combat units were leaving the area, and were assisting the local population in returning to the now heavily damaged city.

Recognition

The U.S. Army Task Force 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division, U.S. Army Task Force 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, and Naval Special Warfare Task Group-Central were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for actions during the battle.[37] Additionally, Operation Phantom Fury yielded two nominees for the Medal of Honor. Staff Sergeant David Bellavia of the Army's Task Force 2-2 Infantry, one of the two, was eventually awarded the Silver Star instead. The other, Sergeant Rafael Peralta of 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, was awarded the Navy Cross.[38] Three other Marines were awarded the Navy Cross: First Sergeant Bradley Kasal of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines, Staff Sergeant Aubrey McDade of Bravo Co, 1st Battalion 8th Marines,[39][40] and Corporal Dominic Esquibel of H&S Company, Scout Sniper Platoon, 1st Battalion 8th Marines. Corporal Esquibel refused the award, citing "personal reasons".[41]

Aftermath

USwounded fallujah2004
U.S. Army soldiers rush a wounded soldier to a waiting U.S. Marine CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter during the Second Battle of Fallujah in November 2004.

The battle proved to be the bloodiest of the war and the bloodiest battle involving American troops since the Vietnam War. Comparisons with the Battle of Hue City and the Pacific campaign of World War II were made.[42] Coalition forces suffered a total of 107 killed and 613 wounded during Operation Phantom Fury. U.S. forces had 54 killed and 425 wounded in the initial attack in November.[11] By 23 December when the operation was officially concluded, the casualty number had risen to 95 killed and 560 wounded.[12] British forces had 4 killed and 10 wounded in two separate attacks in the outskirts of Fallujah.[13][14] Iraqi forces suffered 8 killed and 43 wounded.[11] Estimates of insurgent casualties are complicated by a lack of official figures. Most estimates place the number of insurgents killed at around 1,200[43] to 1,500,[15] with some estimations as high as over 2,000 killed.[11][12] Coalition forces also captured approximately 1,500 insurgents during the operation.[15] The Red Cross estimated directly following the battle that some 800 civilians had been killed during the offensive.[44][45][46][47]

The 1st Marine Division fired a total of 5,685 high-explosive 155mm artillery rounds during the battle.[48] The 3rd Marine Air Wing (aviation assets only) expended 318 precision bombs, 391 rockets and missiles, and 93,000 machine gun and cannon rounds.[48]

Fallujah suffered extensive damage to residences, mosques, city services, and businesses. The city, once referred to as the "City of Mosques", had over 200 pre-battle mosques of which 60 or so were destroyed in the fighting. Many of these mosques had been used as arms caches and weapon strongpoints by Islamist forces. Of the roughly 50,000 buildings in Fallujah, between 7,000 and 10,000 were estimated to have been destroyed in the offensive and from half to two-thirds of the remaining buildings had notable damage.[49][50]

While pre-offensive inhabitant figures are unreliable, the nominal population was assumed to have been 200,000–350,000. One report states that both offensives, Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury, created 200,000 internally displaced persons who are still living elsewhere in Iraq.[51] While damage to mosques was heavy, coalition forces reported that 66 out of the city's 133 mosques had been found to be holding significant amounts of insurgent weaponry.[52]

US Navy 041114-M-8205V-005 Iraqi Special Forces Soldiers assigned to the 1st Marines, patrol south clearing every house on their way through Fallujah, Iraq, during Operation Al Fajr (New Dawn)
A city street in Fallujah heavily damaged by the fighting.

In mid-December, residents were allowed to return after undergoing biometric identification, provided they wore their ID cards all the time. Reconstruction progressed slowly and mainly consisted of clearing rubble from heavily damaged areas and reestablishing basic utilities. Only 10% of the pre-offensive inhabitants had returned as of mid-January, and only 30% as of the end of March 2005.[53]

Nevertheless, the battle proved to be less than the decisive engagement that the U.S. military had hoped for. Some of the nonlocal insurgents, along with Zarqawi, were believed to have fled before the military assault, leaving mostly local militants behind. Subsequent U.S. military operations against insurgent positions were ineffective at drawing out insurgents into another open battle, and by September 2006, the situation had deteriorated to the point that the Al-Anbar province that contained Fallujah was reported to be in total insurgent control by the U.S. Marine Corps, with the exception of only pacified Fallujah, but now with an insurgent-plagued Ramadi.[54][55]

After the U.S. military operation of November 2004, the number of insurgent attacks gradually increased in and around the city, and although news reports were often few and far between, several reports of IED attacks on Iraqi troops were reported in the press. Most notable of these attacks was a suicide car bomb attack on 23 June 2005 on a convoy that killed 6 Marines. Thirteen other Marines were injured in the attack. However, fourteen months later insurgents were again able to operate in large numbers.

A third push was mounted from September 2006 and lasted until mid-January 2007. Tactics developed in what has been called the "Third Battle of Fallujah," when applied on a larger scale in Ramadi and the surrounding area, led to what became known as "the Great Sunni Awakening." After four years of bitter fighting, Fallujah was turned over to the Iraqi Forces and the Iraqi Provincial Authority during the autumn of 2007.

Al Qaeda-linked Sunni insurgents from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant subsequently took over Fallujah and parts of Ramadi in early 2014 and was reclaimed by the Iraqi Army and Special Operations Units in June 2016.[56]

Order of battle

American forces

Defense.gov News Photo 041109-M-2789C-095
U.S. Marines take a break while searching the city of Fallujah in November 2004.
Defense.gov News Photo 041108-M-8205V-003
U.S. Marines from the 3rd Battalion 5th Marines seize apartments at the edge of Fallujah in November 2004.
Defense.gov News Photo 041109-A-1067B-004
U.S. Army soldiers use a wall and a pillar as a shield while they tactically enter and clear a building in Fallujah in November 2004.

Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) built around the 1st Marine Regiment:

US Navy 041116-N-1438S-004 Chief Engineering Aide Ardell Ball, center, assigned to Naval Mobile Construction battalion Four (NMCB-4), studies an aerial photograph of the streets in Fallujah, Iraq
A Chief Engineering Aide assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 4 studies an aerial photograph of the streets in Fallujah in November 2004.

Regimental Combat Team 7 (RCT-7) built around the 7th Marine Regiment:

2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (U.S. Army)

  • Company A,1st Battalion 5th Infantry Regiment, [1st Brigade 25th Infantry Division] (U.S. Army)
  • 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry (U.S. Army)
  • A Troop 2nd Squadron, 14th Cavalry (U.S. Army)
  • Alpha Company, 458th Engineer Battalion, Engineer Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (U.S. Army)
  • 3rd Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery Regiment (U.S. Army)
  • 2nd Battalion, 12th Cavalry (U.S. Army)
  • 759th Military Police Battalion Composite (U.S. Army)
    • HHD, 759th Military Police Battalion (FWD)
    • 148th Military Police Team (FWD) (Police Intelligence)
    • 21st Military Police Company (Airborne) (Combat Support)
    • 630th Military Police Company (Combat Support)
    • 984th Military Police Company (Combat Support)
  • 2nd Reconnaissance Battalion (U.S. Marine Corps)
  • 15th Forward Support Battalion
  • 2nd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division TAC (Bravo Company, 13th Signal, E-31; Bravo Company, 312th Military Intel)
  • 689th Engineer Company (Clearance) (U.S. Army Reserve)

1st Squadron, 124th Cavalry, 36th Infantry Division (U.S. Army)

    • 81st BCT QRF Platoon
  • 81st BCT 181 BN C Co Med

CROWS Team One

  • Small Craft Company Special Operations River Recon

United States Air Forces Central Command (U.S. Air Force)

U.S. Special Operations Command (embedded)

Iraqi forces

British forces

Controversies

Gunnery Sergeant Ryan P. Shane shot while trying to rescue wounded Marine in Fallujah
In this series of photographs a Marine and Corpsman from 1st Battalion 8th Marines attempt to recover a Marine wounded by a sniper; an insurgent machine-gunner cuts down one of the would be rescuers.[64]

Despite the Coalition success, the battle was not without controversy. A number of allegations have been made regarding the United States' armed intervention. For example, a documentary entitled Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre stated that the U.S. forces used white phosphorus as a weapon against civilians. The U.S. military maintains that white phosphorus was not used against civilians, but has confirmed its use as an incendiary weapon against enemy combatants.[65]

According to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, white phosphorus is permitted under the Chemical Weapons Convention if it is used to illuminate a battlefield or to produce smoke. But white phosphorus is a banned chemical weapon if its toxic and caustic properties are used intentionally.

An article by a US Army captain present at the battle published in the US Army's Field Artillery Manual makes it clear that white phosphorus was used against insurgents in situations where conventional munitions did not have the desired effects.[66][67]

The use of phosphorus was especially controversial in the United Kingdom because British forces were involved in the battle. British law prohibits British forces being present in a theatre in which phosphorus is used as an anti-personnel weapon, whether or not the targets are military personnel.[68]

On 16 November 2004, NBC News aired footage that showed a U.S. Marine killing a wounded Iraqi fighter. In this video, the Marine was heard saying that the Iraqi was "playing possum". NCIS investigators later determined that the Marine was acting in self-defense.[69] The AP news agency reported that military-age males attempting to flee the city were turned back by the U.S. military.[70]

In popular culture

Manifs à londres contre la guerre en irak
Demonstration in front of the British parliament against the war and the consequences of the Second Battle of Fallujah.

Documentaries

  • Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre, a documentary denouncing the use of white phosphorus and the MK-77 by the U.S. Army against civilians in the city.
  • Occupation: Dreamland, a 2005 documentary film that follows soldiers of the 1/505 of the 82nd Airborne Division in Fallujah, Iraq, in the beginning of 2004.
  • Shootout! - Episode 1: D-Day: Fallujah (UPC: 733961741353), a 2006 A&E History Channel Special detailing various gun battles that occurred during the Second Battle of Fallujah.
  • The Road to Fallujah, a 2009 documentary following the story of Mark Manning, the only westerner to live among the residents of Fallujah following the November 2004 battle.
  • Fear Not the Path of Truth,[71] a 2013 documentary film from a veteran of the 2nd siege of Fallujah who investigates atrocities that he alleges occurred and the legacy of US foreign policy in Fallujah.

Films

Games

  • Six Days in Fallujah, is a video game that follows a squad of U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines over the span of the six bloodiest days in the battle for Fallujah. It was designed with input from active-duty and retired Marines from 3rd Battalion 1st Marines, as well as interviews from the U.S. Marines, Iraqi insurgents, and Iraqi civilians involved in the battle. Currently, the game has no publisher after being dropped by Konami for the controversy surrounding it and remains in limbo.[73]
  • Close Combat: First to Fight, is a video game that was also designed with input from former and active-duty U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines, who had participated in combat around Fallujah, Iraq during Operation Phantom Fury.
  • Phantom Fury: The 2nd Battle for Fallujah, is a solitaire board game based on the actions of 3rd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division in the Jolan district in November 2004.[74]

Music

Books

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq". www.amazon.com. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  3. ^ Tucker (2014), pp. 303
  4. ^ November, 2004 - Into the hot zone at the Second Battle of Fallujah
  5. ^ Rayburn, Joel D.; Sobchak, Frank K. (edited by); Godfroy, Jeanne F.; Morton, Matthew D.; Powell, James S.; Zais, Matthew M. (January 2019). The U.S. Army in the Iraq War - Volume 1, Invasion, Insurgency, Civil War, 2003-2006 (PDF). UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS. p. 346. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7.
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  9. ^ Karon, Tony (8 November 2004). "The Grim Calculations of Retaking Fallujah". Time. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  10. ^ Fallujah-Iwo Jima Comparison Raises Eyebrows
  11. ^ a b c d e Ricks, Thomas E. (2007). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. United States: Penguin Books. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-14-303891-7.
  12. ^ a b c d Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. United States: ABC-CLIO. p. 304. ISBN 1-59884-336-2.
  13. ^ a b "Dead Black Watch soldiers named". BBC News. 5 November 2004. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  14. ^ a b "Black Watch pays price for backing Fallujah offensive". The Independent. London. 9 November 2004. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2011.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
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  18. ^ ScanEagle Proves Worth in Fallujah Fight, DefenseLINK News
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  27. ^ "Black Watch ordered to join US cordon for assault on Fallujah". The Independent. London. 22 October 2004. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  28. ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin , 2012 ISBN 1250006961 ISBN 978-1250006967,p.65
  29. ^ Bing West (2005). No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah. Bantam Books. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-553-80402-7.
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  31. ^ Nance, Malcolm W., The Terrorists of Iraq: Inside the Strategy and Tactics of the Iraq Insurgency 2003-2014, CRC Press, 2014 ISBN 1498706894 ISBN 978-1498706896
  32. ^ a b Lowry, Richard S. (2010). New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah. Savas Beatie. p. 20. ISBN 1-932714-77-4.
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  35. ^ a b Wise p. 75
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  38. ^ Fuentes, Gidget (22 September 2008). "Peralta to be given Navy Cross posthumously". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 21 December 2008.
  39. ^ "Aubrey L. McDade , Jr". Military Times. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  40. ^ "Parris Island DI earns Navy Cross". Marine Corps Times. 19 January 2007. Archived from the original on 22 January 2007.
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Bibliography

Tucker, Spencer C. (2014). Battles That Changed American History: 100 of the Greatest Victories and Defeats. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1440828614.

Further reading

  • No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah, by Bing West (2005) (ISBN 978-0-553-80402-7)
  • We Were One: Shoulder to Shoulder with the Marines Who Took Fallujah, by Patrick O'Donnell (2006) (ISBN 978-0-306-81469-3)
  • Fighting For Fallujah: A New Dawn for Iraq, by John R. Ballard (2006) (ISBN 978-0-275-99055-8)
  • Fallujah With Honor: First Battalion, Eighth Marine's Role in Operation Phantom Fury, by Gary Livingston (2006) (ISBN 1-928724-06-X)
  • Battle of Fallujah: Occupation, Resistance And Stalemate in the War in Iraq, by Vincent L. Foulk (2006) (ISBN 0-7864-2677-2)
  • Among Warriors In Iraq: True Grit, Special Ops, and Raiding in Mosul and Fallujah, by Mike Tucker (2006) (ISBN 978-1-59228-732-1)
  • Iraq 1941: The Battles For Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah and Baghdad, by Robert Lyman (2006) (ISBN 978-1-84176-991-2)
  • My Men Are My Heroes: The Brad Kasal Story, by Brad Kasal as told to Nathaniel R. Helms (2007) (ISBN 0-696-23236-7)
  • On Call In Hell: A Doctor's Iraq War Story, by Cdr. Richard Jadick (2007) (ISBN 0-451-22053-6)
  • House to House: An Epic Memoir of War, by SSG David Bellavia (2007) (ISBN 978-1-4165-7471-2)
  • The Navy Cross: Extraordinary Heroism in Iraq, Afghanistan and Other Conflicts, by James E. Wise, Scott Baron (2007) (ISBN 1-59114-945-2)
  • Marakat Al-Fallujah: Hazimat Amrika Fi Al-Iraq, by Ahmad Mansur (2008) (ISBN 978-977-427-309-4)
  • Sunrise over Fallujah (2008) (ISBN 978-0-439-91625-7)
  • Fallujah: Shock & Awe (2009) (ISBN 978-0-85124-706-9)
  • Inside Fallujah: The War on the Ground, Ahmed Mansour (2009) (ISBN 978-1-56656-778-7)
  • The Daily Thoughts of a Fallujah Marine by Josh Daugherty (2009) (ISBN 978-1-60836-044-4)
  • Popaditch, Nicholas; Steere, Mike (2008). Once a Marine: An Iraq War Tank Commander's Inspirational Memoir of Combat, Courage, and Recovery. ISBN 978-1-932714-47-0.
  • Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq, by Dick Camp (2009) (ISBN 978-0-7603-3698-4)
  • New Dawn: The Battles for Fallujah, by Richard S. Lowry (2010) (ISBN 1-932714-77-4) plus Presentation at the Pritzker Military Library on November 3, 2011

External links

Coordinates: 33°21′N 43°47′E / 33.350°N 43.783°E

1st Division (Iraq)

The 1st Division is a formation of the Iraqi Army.

Abdullah al-Janabi

Abdullah al-Janabi (Arabic: عبد الله الجنابي‎) (b. ~1951) is the former Sunni chief of the Mujahideen Shura Council in Fallujah, Iraq. He gained power following his aid in the insurgency's destruction at the First Battle of Fallujah.He was present at the eventual loss of the city at the Second Battle of Fallujah, but evaded American forces.Al-Janabi later gave an interview with the Al Jazeera television network.On 9 January 2005, the Central Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for him.After the fall of Fallujah to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and other anti-government forces in January 2014, Janabi returned to Fallujah, and began making weekly sermons at the Saad bin Abi Waqas mosque in northern Falluja. At the mosque Janabi told worshippers that "Blood is on the hands of all policemen. Police buildings were used to torture and to extract confessions ... and must be cleansed." Referring to the Iraqi Army, he also claimed that "We swear by God almighty and the blood of martyrs that the Safavid army will not enter the city except over our dead bodies." He also distributed leaflets announcing a new "Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and Prevention of Vice" to enforce its strict Islamic code.During his sermons about 200 masked militants using looted police vehicles guarded the road leading to the mosque, where worshippers were checked for weapons.He is currently a preacher and a "Sharia Council" member for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

Aubrey McDade

Aubrey L. McDade Jr. is a United States Marine who was awarded the Navy Cross for his actions in Iraq War, in which he rescued two U.S. Marines during an enemy ambush during the Second Battle of Fallujah, in November 2004. He is the fifteenth U.S. Marine to receive the Navy Cross in the Global War on Terrorism.

Battle of Fallujah

Battle of Fallujah may refer to:

Anglo-Iraqi War

A 1941 battle

Gulf War

A 1991 bombing of Fallujah

Iraq War

First Battle of Fallujah, in April 2004

Second Battle of Fallujah, in November 2004

Iraqi civil war against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

Fall of Fallujah, in winter 2013–14

Siege of Fallujah, in early 2016

Battle of Fallujah (2016) in May and June 2016, which follows the Siege of Fallujah

David Bellavia

David Bellavia (born November 10, 1975) is an American Iraq War veteran who was awarded the Silver Star for his actions during the Second Battle of Fallujah. Bellavia has also received the Bronze Star, three Army Commendation Medals, two Army Achievement Medals and the New York State Conspicuous Service Cross. He has also been nominated for the Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Service Cross. In 2005, Bellavia was inducted into the New York Veterans' Hall of Fame. He has subsequently been involved with politics in Western New York State. Bellavia was born and raised in Buffalo, New York. He attended Franklin Pierce College in Rindge, New Hampshire and the University at Buffalo.

Iraq War in Al Anbar Governorate

The Iraq War in Al Anbar Governorate, also known as the Al Anbar campaign, consisted of fighting between the United States military, together with Iraqi Government forces, and Sunni insurgents in the western Iraqi governorate of Al Anbar. The Iraq War lasted from 2003 to 2011, but the majority of the fighting and counterinsurgency campaign in Anbar took place between April 2004 and September 2007. Although the fighting initially featured heavy urban warfare primarily between insurgents and U.S. Marines, insurgents in later years focused on ambushing the American and Iraqi security forces with improvised explosive devices (IED's), large scale attacks on combat outposts, and car bombings. Almost 9,000 Iraqis and 1,335 Americans were killed in the campaign, many in the Euphrates River Valley and the Sunni Triangle around the cities of Fallujah and Ramadi.Al Anbar, the only Sunni-dominated province in Iraq, saw little fighting in the initial invasion. Following the fall of Baghdad it was occupied by the U.S. Army's 82nd Airborne Division. Violence began on 28 April 2003 when 17 Iraqis were killed in Fallujah by U.S. soldiers during an anti-American demonstration. In early 2004 the U.S. Army relinquished command of the governorate to the Marines. By April 2004 the governorate was in full-scale revolt. Savage fighting occurred in both Fallujah and Ramadi by the end of 2004, including the Second Battle of Fallujah. Violence escalated throughout 2005 and 2006 as the two sides struggled to secure the Western Euphrates River Valley. During this time, Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) became the governorate's main Sunni insurgent group and turned the provincial capital of Ramadi into its stronghold. The Marine Corps issued an intelligence report in late 2006 declaring that the governorate would be lost without a significant additional commitment of troops.

In August 2006, several tribes located in Ramadi and led by Sheikh Abdul Sattar Abu Risha began to form what would eventually become the Anbar Awakening, which later led to the tribes revolting against AQI. The Anbar Awakening helped turn the tide against the insurgents through 2007. American and Iraqi tribal forces regained control of Ramadi in early 2007, as well as other cities such as Hīt, Haditha, and Rutbah. More hard fighting still followed throughout the Summer of 2007 however, particularly in the rural western River Valley, due largely to its proximity to the Syrian border and the vast network of natural entry points for foreign fighters to enter Iraq, via Syria. In June 2007 the U.S. turned a majority of its attention to eastern Anbar Governorate and secured the cities of Fallujah and Al-Karmah.

The fighting was mostly over by September 2007, although US forces maintained a stabilizing and advisory role through December 2011. Celebrating the victory, President George W. Bush flew to Anbar in September 2007 to congratulate Sheikh Sattar and other leading tribal figures. AQI assassinated Sattar days later. In September 2008, political control was transferred to Iraq. Military control was transferred in June 2009, following the withdrawal of American combat forces from the cities. The Marines were replaced by the US Army in January 2010. The Army withdrew its combat units by August 2010, leaving only advisory and support units. The last American forces left the governorate on 7 December 2011.

James Blake Miller

James Blake Miller (born July 10, 1984) is a United States Marine Corps veteran of the Iraq War, who fought in the Second Battle of Fallujah and was dubbed the "Marlboro Man" (and the "Marlboro Marine") after an iconic photograph of him with a cigarette was published in newspapers in the United States in 2004. Miller suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder after the war.

Jose Luis Nazario Jr.

Sergeant Jose Luis Nazario Jr. (born 1979) is the first American to be tried in a civilian court for war crimes which were allegedly committed while he was on active duty.

Nazario was charged with voluntary manslaughter, assault with a deadly weapon and discharging a firearm during a crime of violence for his role in the death of four unarmed Iraqis.

The Iraqis were killed on November 9, 2004, in Fallujah, Iraq, when Nazario was leading a squad of 13 Marines on house to house searches as part of Operation Phantom Fury, during the Second Battle of Fallujah.

Nazario, a former Marine, was charged under the 2000 Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act for the killing of unarmed Iraqi detainees in the city of Falluja. His trial began on August 19, 2008.Nazario retired from the Marine Corps in 2005.

After his retirement he was to become a Police officer in his home-town of Riverside, California.

The incident became known publicly when one of Nazario's subordinates, Sergeant Ryan Weemer applied for a job with the United States Secret Service.

During his interview he was asked to identify the most serious crime he had participated in, and he described his role in the killing.

Nazario's attorneys told CNN in July 2007 that Nazario totally denied the charges.

Nazario was released on bail, after his arrest. But, because he was still in his probationary period with the Police when he was arrested, he was dismissed.

In 2010, Nazario sued the Riverside Police, to try force them to re-hire him.During his trial five of the thirteen subordinates in his squad testified that they were not eyewitnesses to the killings, but they heard the shots fired.

Two of Nazario's subordinates, Sergeant Weemer and Sergeant Jermaine Nelson, faced contempt of court charges for their refusals to testify.

The contempt charges were dropped a month later.

Although he refused to testify during Navario's trial, in September 2009, Jermaine Nelson would later apologize for his role in the killings during his own trial, and place the blame for all the killings on Nazario.

According to The Guardian, during Nelson's trial a tape of a confession Nelson made in 2007 was played, that offered: "a grisly account that Nazario beat detainees, killed two of them by shooting them in the forehead and ordered squad members to kill the other two."

Nazario's trial was held in his home town, Riverside, California, where he was formerly a police officer.

He was acquitted on August 28, 2008.Nazario's defense team included Joseph Preis, Jared N. Klein and David Foberg, lawyers from the firm Pepper Hamilton, a firm that had worked previously on behalf of Guantanamo detainees.After US District Court Judge Virginia A. Phillips ruled in favor of Riverside in a civil suite Navario launched Richard K. De Atley of the Press Enterprise wrote that court statements revealed that the main reason Riverside had not re-instated Navario was not that Riverside investigators concluded Navario had in fact killed the Iraqi civilians; rather it was "troubling statements" from Federal wiretaps of Navario's phone, and a "2008 domestic abuse court action".

Navario had sued, based on the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act, aking for $6 million in damages.

De Atley quoted a passage from the wiretaps which stated Navario said: "it was 'fun to ... around with people,' that he gets 'to beat somebody's ... because they're drunk,' ". De Atley noted that the court papers did not include evidence Navario had beaten vulnerable members of the public for kicks.

The transcripts also recorded Navario discussing how to subvert the reliability of polygraph tests with another police officer.

According to De Atley in a passage in the wiretap transcripts that had been deemed inadmissible at his manslaughter trial, but had been admissible at his civil suit, Navario described "how to respond directly if asked he had murdered anyone." De Atley wrote Navario said: "Just be like, yeah, I was in combat. And they waive all that ..."

Navario's lawyers had argued that, if the city decided not to put any weight on the murder allegations once Navario was acquitted they should have dropped the investigation, so they would not have come across the domestic violence court action, or Navario's statements captured in the Federal wiretaps.

Muhammed Latif

Muhammed Latif (Arabic: محمد لطيف ‎) is an Iraqi major general, and former member of the Baath Party. The city of Fallujah was handed over to Muhammed Latif, replacing the earlier U.S. choice, Jasim Mohammed Saleh, when it was discovered that the latter had been involved in atrocities against Kurds during the Iran–Iraq War.Jane's Intelligence Review said that he was named Mohammed Abdel Latif and that he was a former military intelligence officer.Latif was granted the right to raise an army of 1,100 soldiers known as the Fallujah Brigade, who would wear their Baathist military uniforms and control the city (which US forces had proven unable to pacify). Within days, the city's mayor, Muhammed Ibrahim al-Juraissey said that there was a visible difference as the city began to calm now under Iraqi leadership once again.Nevertheless, the Fallujah Brigade dissolved and had turned over all the US weapons to the insurgency by September, prompting the return of US forces in the Second Battle of Fallujah in November, resulting in US reoccupation of the city.

Operation New Dawn

Operation New Dawn may refer to:

Operation New Dawn (Iraq, 2010–2011), the United States Armed Forces' involvement in the Iraq War after August 2010

Operation New Dawn (Afghanistan), an operation in Trekh Nawa in the summer of 2010

Second Battle of Fallujah, also known as Operation Al-Fajr (The Dawn), a 2004 joint U.S.-Iraqi offensive against the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah during the Iraq War

Pasaje al amanecer

Pasaje al amanecer is a 2017 Spanish drama film directed by Andreu Castro and starred by Nicolás Coronado, Iria Calero and Annette Duran. It is the film debut of Andreu Castro.It is based on the Christmas Eve before the Second Battle of Fallujah in the Irak War.

Pat Young

Patrick Young Jr. (born April 20, 1983) is an American politician from Maryland. He currently represents District 44B in the Maryland House of Delegates and serves as the Chair of the Baltimore County House Delegation.

Rafael Peralta

Rafael Peralta (April 7, 1979 – November 15, 2004), assigned to the 1st Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment, 3rd Marine Division, III Marine Expeditionary Force, Marine Corps Base Hawaii, was a United States Marine killed in combat during Second Battle of Fallujah in the city of Fallujah, Iraq. In September 2008 his family was notified that he was awarded the Navy Cross, the second-highest award a U.S. Marine can receive. In February 2012, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced that a new Arleigh Burke-class destroyer would be named USS Rafael Peralta.

Richard Jadick

Richard H. Jadick is an American naval surgeon who was awarded the Bronze Star with “Combat V” device for heroic valor in January 2006. He was credited with saving the lives of 30 Marines and sailors during the Second Battle of Fallujah. Jadick was a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy Reserve, assigned as a battalion surgeon to the 1st Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment of the 2nd Marine Division from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Jadick is considered the Iraq war's most decorated doctor.

Satchel charge

A satchel charge is a demolition device, primarily intended for combat, whose primary components are a charge of dynamite or a more potent explosive such as C-4 plastic explosive, a carrying device functionally similar to a satchel or messenger bag, and a triggering mechanism; the term covers both improvised and formally designed devices.

In World War II, combat engineers used satchel charges to demolish heavy stationary targets such as rails, obstacles, blockhouses, bunkers, caves, and bridges. The World War II-era United States Army M37 Demolition Kit contained eight blocks of high explosive, with 2 priming assemblies, in a canvas bag with a shoulder strap. Part or all of this charge could be placed against a structure or slung into an opening. It was usually detonated with a pull igniter. When used as an anti-tank weapon, charges were sufficient to severely damage the tracks. 4 kg (8.8 lb) charges were enough to destroy medium tanks.

Later in the Vietnam War, Vietcong and North Vietnamese soldiers assigned elite sappers to stealthily penetrate defenses of sites controlled by enemy forces. Often, this meant using satchel charges as well as Bangalore torpedoes to blast through barbed wire entanglements, minefields, structures, and other fortifications. The later U.S. M183 Demolition Charge Assembly contained 20 lb (9.1 kg) of C-4 in each satchel, and could be used with a timed fuse. In the Second Battle of Fallujah in Iraq, U.S. M2 20 lb assault demolitions were used to collapse houses being used as fighting positions by insurgents.

Some special forces may use customized satchel charges designed to destroy their specific mission's target.

Sean Stokes

Sean Andrew Stokes (February 6, 1983 - July 30, 2007) was a United States Marine who posthumously received the Silver Star for actions while serving with 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines during the Second Battle of Fallujah.

Shootout!

Shootout! was a documentary series featured on The History Channel and ran for two seasons from 2005 to 2006. It depicts actual firefights between United States military personnel and other combatants. There are also occasional episodes dedicated to police or S.W.A.T. team firefights, as well as Wild West shootouts. It also now has a feature of downloading and playing a first-person shooter, developed by Kuma Reality Games, detailing some of the battles. The battles include skirmishes from World War II, the Vietnam War, and the ongoing War on Terror in Afghanistan and during the 2003-2011 Iraq War. Season 1 was produced for The History Channel by Greystone Communications and Season 2 was produced by Flight 33 Productions. The series was created by Dolores Gavin (History Channel) and Louis Tarantino.

Six Days in Fallujah

Six Days in Fallujah (SDIF) is an unreleased historical third-person shooter video game developed and left unreleased by Atomic Games. Described by Atomic Games as a tactical shooter, it was slated to be the first video game to focus directly on the Iraq War.

The game follows a squad of U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines (3/1), fighting in the Second Battle of Fallujah over the span of six days in November 2004. The premise of the game was the subject of controversy in 2009, with questions raised as to its appropriateness, especially given the fact that the true events the game is based upon were recent at the time. It was originally to be published by Konami, however, in April 2009, a spokesman informed the Associated Press that Konami was no longer publishing the game due to the controversy surrounding it. As of May 16, 2019, the game has not been released and there is no set release date.

Battles and operations of the Iraq War in Anbar Province

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