Seating capacity

Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000.[1]

Ims aerial
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway has the largest seating capacity of any venue in the world.

In venues

MCG stadium
An aerial view of the Melbourne Cricket Ground during the 1992 Cricket World Cup final packed with 90,000 people.

Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are largely dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire".[2] The International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.[3] It also delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity,[4] and sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space.[5]

The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length".[6] It also requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, [and] arrangement of the seating...."[7]

Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, and its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".[8] In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers.[9]

Seating capacity of venues also plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed".[10] Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used and the royalties to be given.[10] The seating capacity must also be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue.[10]

Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is also an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. When entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.

In restaurants

The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as 'covers'; a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers.[11]

Legal capacity and total capacity

Seating capacity differs from total capacity (sometimes called public capacity), which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated.

Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can actually seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Statistical Advance: Analyzing the Brantley Gilbert Big Machine Brickyard 400". ESPN. July 18, 2017.
  2. ^ Fred R. Lawson, Conference, Convention, and Exhibit Facilities (1981), p. 137.
  3. ^ International Building Code (2006), 1025.12 Seat stability.
  4. ^ International Building Code (2006), 1025.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress.
  5. ^ International Building Code (2006), 1108.2.2.1 General seating, Table 1108.2.2.1.
  6. ^ International Fire Code (2006), 1004.7 Fixed seating.
  7. ^ International Fire Code (2006), 1701.4 Site Plans.
  8. ^ Joseph A. Wilkes, Robert T. Packard, Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design, Engineering & Construction, Vol. 4 (1989), p. 558.
  9. ^ Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, Vol. 26 (1936), p. 130.
  10. ^ a b c Charles Grippo, The Stage Producer's Business and Legal Guide (2002), p. 43-63.
  11. ^ "What Is a Cover at a Restaurant?". yourbusiness.azcentral.com. Retrieved 2019-01-22.
ASKI Sport Hall

ASKI Sport Hall (Turkish: ASKİ Spor Salonu) is an indoor arena located in Ankara, Turkey. With a seating capacity for 6,000 people,

the arena hosted the 2008 Turkish basketball cup final eight in which local Türk Telekom B.K. won the trophy, and hosts high attendance matches of the team that regularly plays at Atatürk Sport Hall.

Arena Gripe

Dvorana Gripe is an indoor sporting arena that is located in Split, Croatia. It is a part of the Sport Recreation Center (SRC). It features four indoor halls. It is used to host many sports, as well as concerts. The seating capacity of the smallest indoor hall is 1,500 people. The seating capacity of the medium one is 3,500, and of the biggest one, is 6,000.

Bankers Life Fieldhouse

Bankers Life Fieldhouse is an indoor arena located in Downtown Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. It opened in November 1999 to replace Market Square Arena. The arena is the home of the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indiana Fever of the Women's National Basketball Association. The Fieldhouse also hosts college basketball games (including the annual Big Ten Conference tournaments), indoor concerts, and ice hockey.

It was originally named Conseco Fieldhouse, as the naming rights to the venue were sold to Conseco, a financial services organization based in nearby Carmel. In May 2010, the company renamed itself as CNO Financial Group, but the Conseco name was retained by the Fieldhouse. In December 2011, CNO Financial Group changed the name of the Fieldhouse to Bankers Life Fieldhouse, after one of its subsidiaries, Bankers Life and Casualty. The fieldhouse announced on March 13, 2018, that CNO had decided not to renew its naming sponsorship, which will expire on June 30, 2019.Unlike most other North American sports arenas, the Fieldhouse was designed primarily for basketball. The arena can accommodate an NHL-sized rink, but the seating capacity is reduced to 12,300 for ice hockey, as the seating arrangement is asymmetrical.

Birmingham Odeon

The Birmingham Odeon is a cinema located at 139 New Street in Birmingham, England.

It originally opened in 1937 as the Paramount Theatre, featuring a seating capacity of 2,439. It was built on land made vacant by the removal of King Edward VI School to its new home in Edgbaston.

The cinema received its current name in 1942 after it was purchased by Oscar Deutsch's Odeon Cinemas chain. During the 1970s and early to mid-1980s it was a very popular venue for concerts. In 1988 the auditorium was divided into six screens (with two further screens installed in other parts of the building during the early 1990s), ultimately forming an eight screen multiplex with an overall seating capacity of 1,732.

The rear aspect of the building occupies a striking position overlooking the railway tracks at the southeastern approach to New Street station.

Bloomfield Stadium

Bloomfield Stadium (Hebrew: אצטדיון בלומפילד) is a 14,413-seat football stadium in Tel Aviv, Israel. It is the home stadium of Maccabi Tel Aviv, Hapoel Tel Aviv and Bnei Yehuda Tel Aviv.

Darrell K Royal–Texas Memorial Stadium

Darrell K Royal–Texas Memorial Stadium (formerly War Memorial Stadium, Memorial Stadium, and Texas Memorial Stadium), located in Austin, Texas on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin, has been home to the Longhorns football team since 1924. The stadium has delivered a home field advantage with the team's home record through November 17, 2018 being 374–117–10 (76.4%). The current official stadium seating capacity of 100,119 makes the stadium the largest in the Big 12 Conference, the eighth largest stadium in the United States, and the ninth largest stadium in the world.

The DKR–Texas Memorial Stadium attendance record of 103,507 spectators was set on September 15, 2018, when Texas played The University of Southern California (Texas 37–14 victory).

The stadium has been expanded several times since its original opening. The University's most recent completed project was a $27 million expansion and renovation project to the south end zone facilities in August 2009. For the 2009 season, 4,525 permanent bleacher seats were constructed, which allowed the stadium to become the first football stadium in Texas capable of seating in excess of 100,000 people and brought the stadium to its current seating capacity. In May 2013, Regents for the University of Texas system approved a $62 million stadium improvement project. This project will improve and add athletic and academic facilities within the existing stadium structure, but it will not expand the current seating capacity. The timeline for this project's completion has not yet been revealed.

Irvine Auditorium

Irvine Auditorium is a performance venue at 3401 Spruce Street on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania, in Philadelphia. It was designed by the firm of prominent Philadelphia area architect Horace Trumbauer and built 1926–1932. Irvine Auditorium is notable for its nearly 11,000-pipe Curtis Organ, the world's 22nd-largest pipe organ (by ranks), originally built for the Sesquicentennial Exposition of 1926 and donated to the university in 1928. The building was opened in May, 1929.

A persistent but untrue campus legend holds that the building was a Penn architecture student's design project that received a failing grade. He was forced to give up architecture to go into business, where he amassed a fortune. Years later, he made a major bequest to the university in his will, but only on the condition that his project be built.

Seating capacity is 1,260. (Prior to renovation the seating capacity was 1,976.) The octagonal auditorium featured side balconies that faced each other, at right angles to the stage. The building was restored and renovated in 1997–2000 by Venturi, Scott Brown & Associates, Inc, who removed the side balconies to improve the acoustic quality, as well as to create more intimate performance spaces.

List of football stadiums in Estonia

The following is a list of football stadiums in Estonia, ordered by seating capacity.

Minibus

A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the word "minibus" is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a seating capacity of between 8 and 30 seats. Larger minibuses may be called midibuses. Minibuses are typically front-engined step-entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist.

Off-Broadway

An Off-Broadway theatre is any professional venue in Manhattan in New York City with a seating capacity between 100 and 499, inclusive. These theatres are smaller than Broadway theatres, but larger than Off-Off-Broadway theatres, which seat fewer than 100.

An "Off-Broadway production" is a production of a play, musical, or revue that appears in such a venue and adheres to related trade union and other contracts. Shows that premiere Off-Broadway are sometimes subsequently produced on Broadway.

Ohio Stadium

Ohio Stadium, also known as the Horseshoe, the Shoe, and the House That Harley Built, is an American football stadium in Columbus, Ohio, on the campus of The Ohio State University. Its primary purpose is the home venue of the Ohio State Buckeyes football team; it also serves as the site for the university's Spring Commencement ceremonies each May.

From 1996 to 1998, Ohio Stadium was the home venue for the Columbus Crew of Major League Soccer prior to the opening of Columbus Crew Stadium in 1999. The stadium also was the home venue for the OSU track and field teams from 1923–2001. In addition to athletics, Ohio Stadium is also a concert venue, with U2, Taylor Swift, The Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd, and Metallica among the many acts to have played at the venue.

The stadium opened in 1922 as a replacement for Ohio Field and had a seating capacity of 66,210. In 1923, a cinder running track was added that was later upgraded to an all-weather track. Seating capacity gradually increased over the years and reached a total of 91,470 possible spectators in 1991. Beginning in 2000, the stadium was renovated and expanded in several phases, removing the track and adding additional seating, which raised the capacity to 101,568 by 2001 and to 102,329 in 2007. In 2014, additional seating was added in the end zone, raising the official capacity to 104,944. Another renovation to add more luxury suites began in 2017 and will eventually lead to a decrease of 2,600 seats. It is the largest stadium by capacity in the state of Ohio, and the third largest on-campus football stadium in the United States. Ohio Stadium was added to the National Register of Historic Places by the National Park Service on March 22, 1974.

Philippine Sports Stadium

The Philippine Sports Stadium, also known as New Era University (NEU) Stadium, is a football and track stadium at Ciudad de Victoria, a 140-hectare tourism enterprise zone in the towns of Bocaue and Santa Maria in Bulacan, Philippines. The stadium was built right next to the Philippine Arena, the world's largest indoor arena. The stadium is the largest football stadium in the Philippines with a maximum seating capacity of 25,000. Its seating capacity is more than twice the seating capacity of the Rizal Memorial Stadium, the national stadium of the country which has a seating capacity of 12,000.PWP Landscape Architecture is responsible for the landscaping work on the area around the stadium dubbed as the Stadium Gardens.In December 2016, it was reported that the track and field team of the University of the Philippines is a tenant of the stadium.

Progressive Field

Progressive Field is a baseball park located in the downtown area of Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It is the home field of the Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball and, together with Quicken Loans Arena, is part of the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex. It was ranked as Major League Baseball's best ballpark in a 2008 Sports Illustrated fan opinion poll.The ballpark opened as Jacobs Field in 1994 to replace Cleveland Stadium, which the team had shared with the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League. Since 2008, the facility has been named for Progressive Corporation, based in the Cleveland suburb of Mayfield, which purchased naming rights for $58 million over 16 years. The previous name came from team owners Richard and David Jacobs, who had acquired naming rights when the facility opened. The ballpark is still often referred to as "The Jake", based on its original name.When it opened, the listed seating capacity was 42,865 people and between 1995 and 2001 the team sold out 455 consecutive regular-season games. Modifications over the years resulted in several moderate changes to the capacity, peaking at 45,569 in 2010. After the 2014 and 2015 seasons, the facility was renovated in two phases, which upgraded and reconfigured several areas of the park and reduced seating capacity. As of 2018, seating capacity is listed at 35,041 people, though additional fans can be accommodated through standing room areas and temporary seating.

Since moving to Progressive Field, the Indians have won 10 Central Division titles and have hosted playoff games in 10 seasons, the most recent being in 2017. Progressive Field is one of the few facilities in baseball history to host the Major League Baseball All-Star Game and games of the World Series in the same season, which occurred in 1997. The Indians have hosted games of the American League Championship Series in five seasons and have advanced to the World Series three times at the park.

Rheinpark Stadion

Rheinpark Stadion in Vaduz is the national stadium of Liechtenstein. It plays host to home matches of the Liechtenstein national football team, and is also the home of football club FC Vaduz. It lies on the banks of the river Rhine, just metres from the border with Switzerland.

Rheinpark was officially opened on 31 July 1998 with a match between FC Vaduz, the Liechtenstein Cup holders at the time, and 1. FC Kaiserslautern, the then Bundesliga champions. 1. FC Kaiserslautern won 8–0.

The stadium has a seating capacity of 5,873, with additional standing room space giving it a total capacity of 7,584.The stadium cost roughly CHF19 million to construct.

Sinan Erdem Dome

The Sinan Erdem Dome (Turkish: Sinan Erdem Spor Salonu), formerly known as the Ataköy Dome, is a multi-purpose indoor arena that is located in Ataköy, Bakırköy, Istanbul on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey.

It has a seating capacity of 22,500 for concerts. For the sport of basketball, it has a seating capacity of 16,000, and for the sport of tennis, it has a seating capacity of 16,457 people, making it Turkey's largest multi-purpose indoor venue, and the third largest in Europe (although it is not the third largest in Europe in capacity for basketball use). The arena is named after Sinan Erdem (1927–2003), who was the President of the Turkish Olympic Committee, from 1989, until his death in 2003.

Sun Devil Stadium

Sun Devil Stadium is an outdoor football stadium on the campus of Arizona State University, in Tempe, Arizona, United States. It is home to the Arizona State Sun Devils football team of the Pac-12 Conference and the Arizona Hotshots of the Alliance of American Football. The stadium's seating capacity as of 2018 is 53,599, reduced from a peak of 74,865 in 1989, and the playing surface is natural grass. The field within the stadium was named Frank Kush Field in honor of Frank Kush, the former coach of the ASU football team in 1996. Sun Devil Stadium is undergoing a $304 million renovation that is scheduled to be completed by June 2019. It was the only major football stadium in the Phoenix metropolitan area until the construction of State Farm Stadium in Glendale in 2006.

The stadium has hosted two annual college football bowl games: the Fiesta Bowl from 1971 to 2006, and the Cactus Bowl from 2006 to 2015.

Sun Devil Stadium was also home to the Arizona Cardinals of the National Football League (NFL) from 1988 through the 2005 season. Following the 2005 season, the Cardinals moved to State Farm Stadium.

Worthen Arena

John E. Worthen Arena is an arena on the campus of Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana, United States. The arena opened in 1992 and replaced Irving Gymnasium. Originally named Ball State Arena or University Arena, it was renamed Worthen Arena in honor of the former university president, John E. Worthen. The arena mainly serves as home to four Ball State Cardinals athletic teams: men's and women's basketball and men's and women's volleyball. The seating capacity is listed at 11,500 people and cost $8 million to build.

Worthen Arena is also the site of other events, including concerts (seating capacity 11,500 end-stage, 8,800 270 degree end-stage, 7,200 180-degree end-stage, and 5,500 half-house), trade shows (18,700 square feet of space on the arena floor) and other special events. It features eight permanent and six portable concession stands, two permanent souvenir stands, a press room, two loading docks, and an arena lounge. It stands between 95 and 120 feet from the floor to the ceiling.

Yamaha Stadium

Yamaha Stadium (ヤマハスタジアム, Yamaha Sutajiamu) is a football stadium located in Iwata City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, owned by Yamaha Motors, next to whose plant it is located, and was purpose-designed for use with soccer or rugby.

It is the home ground for the J1 League club Júbilo Iwata, and the rugby union team Yamaha Jubilo. The stadium has a seating capacity of 15,165 people.

Yanmar Stadium Nagai

Yanmar Stadium Nagai (ヤンマースタジアム長居) is an athletic stadium in Osaka, Japan. It is the home ground of J. League club Cerezo Osaka. The stadium has a seating capacity of 47,000.

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