Season (sports)

In an organized sports league, a typical season is the portion of one year in which regulated games of the sport are in session: for example, in Major League Baseball the season lasts approximately from April to October.[1] In other team sports, like association football or basketball, it is generally from August or September to May although in some countries - such as Northern Europe or East Asia - the season starts in the spring and finishes in autumn, mainly due to weather conditions encountered during the winter.

A year can often be broken up into several distinct sections (sometimes themselves called seasons). These are: a preseason, a series of exhibition games played for training purposes; a regular season, the main period of the league's competition; the postseason, a playoff tournament played against the league's top teams to determine the league's champion; and the offseason, the time when there is no official competition.

Regular season

In sport, the term "regular season" or "home and away season"[2] refers to the sport's league competition. The regular season is usually similar to a group tournament format: teams are divided into groups, conferences and/or divisions, and each club plays a set number of games against a set number of opponents. In most countries the league is played in a double round-robin format, where every team plays every other team twice, once at their home venue, and once away at the oppositions venue as visitors. The results over all games are accumulated and when every team has completed its full schedule of games, a winner is declared.

In North America, the scheduling is different. Rather than every team playing all others twice, teams usually play more games against local rivals than teams in other parts of the country. For example, the NBA's Los Angeles Lakers will play the Los Angeles Clippers (a team within their division, a subdivision of the conference) four times in a regular season, while both will only play the Boston Celtics, who are in the opposite Eastern Conference, twice. Part of this is due to the vast geographic distances between some teams in North America—measured in a straight line, Los Angeles is 2,606 miles (4,194 kilometers) from Boston, for instance—and a desire to limit travel expenses. In the scheduling system used in the NFL, it is possible for two teams to only meet every four years, and to only have 2 common opponents in a season. Major League Baseball has the most uneven schedules of all the four major North American sports. In MLB the conferences are called leagues instead, but have exactly the same effect as conferences (as with all North American major leagues, leagues, conferences and division are not based on skill, but instead geography, history and rivalries). Teams play 19 games against each of teams in their own division each year but will only play 20 games total against all of the teams in the other league. Because each of the interleague matchups is part of a 3-game series or a 2-game series, teams will play no games at all against most teams from the other league. They play 6 of the 15 teams in the other league, a historically high number (until 1997, interleague play was limited to exhibition matches and the postseason World Series, and thus MLB teams did not play the other league's teams at all).

In Australia, the two largest football leagues, the AFL (Australian rules football) and NRL (rugby league), both grew out of competitions held within a single city (respectively Melbourne and Sydney) and only began expanding to the rest of the country when inexpensive air travel made a national league possible. These leagues use a single table instead of being split into divisions. The term "home and away season" is sometimes used instead of regular season.

Many football leagues in Latin America have a very different system. Because most Latin American countries never had a football cup competition, they instead split their season into two parts, typically known as the Apertura and Clausura (Spanish for "opening" and "closing"). Most countries that use this system, Argentina being one notable example, crown separate league champions for each part of the season, using only league play. A few others, such as Uruguay, crown one champion at the end of a playoff involving top teams from each half of the season. Mexico operates its Apertura and Clausura as separate competitions that both end in playoffs. Brazil has a different system, the season starts with the state championships in January (every Brazilian state have his own championship), these state championships ends in April. The Campeonato Brasileiro Série A itself starts in May and ends in early December, and is played in a double round-robin format in the same way as the European championships.

A system similar to the Apertura and Clausura developed independently in Philippine professional basketball, with formerly two, now three tournaments (called "conferences") in one season, with each conference divided into an "elimination round" (the regular season) and the playoffs in the North American sense. Winning the playoffs is the ultimate goal of every team for every conference; while there is no season championship, winning all conferences within a single season is rare and has only happened five times since 1975, with the two most recent examples occurring in 1996 and 2013–14. The elimination round and playoffs setup has permeated down to the local level and in most team sports, although seasons are not divided into conferences.

Postseason

Many sports leagues have playoffs or "finals" that occur after the regular season is complete. A subset of the teams enter into a playoff tournament, usually a knockout tournament, generally a pre-determined number with better overall records (more wins, fewer losses) during the regular season. There are many variations used to determine the champion, the league's top prize. In many of these leagues, winning the league's top prize at the conclusion of the postseason is more important than winning the regular season. This includes the five major U.S. sports leagues (Super Bowl, Stanley Cup Finals, NBA Finals, World Series and MLS Cup), the major Australian sports (NBL Grand Final, A-League Grand Final, AFL Grand Final and NRL Grand Final) and the CFL's Grey Cup.

European leagues have also started holding playoffs after a double round-robin "regular season". The Football League started its promotion playoffs in 1987, with the third up to the sixth-ranked teams participating for the final promotion berth (the two top teams are automatically promoted). Elsewhere, relegation playoffs are also held to determine which teams would be relegated to the lower leagues. One prominent top-level football league, the Eredivisie of the Netherlands, uses two different playoffs—one for relegation purposes, and the other to determine one of the league's entrants in the following season's UEFA Europa League. In Superleague Greece, which currently has two places in the UEFA Champions League and three in the Europa League, the teams that finish second through fifth in the regular season enter a home-and-away "playoff" mini-league. Since one Europa League place is reserved for the country's cup winner, only three of the four teams are guaranteed a place in the next season's European competitions (unless both the cup winner and runner-up are already qualified for Europe by other means). The playoff determines the country's second Champions League participant, and the points at which the two or three Europa League entrants join that competition. Conversely, some leagues like the Premier League do not hold a postseason, and therefore these leagues' champions and relegation are instead based on the regular season records.

Although rugby union did not become professional until 1995, that sport has a long history of playoffs, primarily in France and the Southern Hemisphere. The French national championship, now known as Top 14, staged a championship final in its first season of 1892, first used more than one round of playoffs in 1893, and has continuously operated a playoff system (except during the two World Wars) since 1899. South Africa's Currie Cup has determined its champions by playoffs since 1968, and New Zealand's National Provincial Championship, the top level of which is now known as the Mitre 10 Cup, has used playoffs since its creation in 1976. Argentina's Nacional de Clubes has determined its champion by playoffs since its inception in 1993. Currently, two separate competitions feed into the Nacional, the Torneo de la URBA (for Buenos Aires clubs, held since 1899) and Torneo del Interior (for the rest of the country); both use playoffs to determine their champions. Super Rugby, involving regional franchises from Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa and national franchises in Argentina and Japan, has used playoffs to determine its champions since its creation as Super 12 in 1996.

By contrast, other European countries were slow to adopt playoffs in rugby union. The English Premiership only began playoffs in 1999–2000, and did not use them to determine the league champion until 2002-03. The Celtic League, now known as Pro14, resisted a playoff system even longer; its champions were determined solely by league play from its inception in 2001–02 until playoffs began in 2009–10.

When the UEFA Champions League reformatted in 1993, it added a "knockout stage" involving four teams that finished at the top two places in their respective groups. Like North American sports leagues, this setup prevented some participants from facing each other, necessitating a two-round knockout stage to determine the champions. It has since been expanded to the 4-round knockout stage today. The Copa Libertadores has applied a knockout stage since the 1988 tournament, expanding to the current four-round format next season. All intercontinental club football competitions now feature a knockout stage.

Off-season

The off-season, vacation time, or close season is the time of year when there is no official competition. Although upper management continues to work, the athletes will take much vacation time off. Also, various events such as drafts, transfers and important off-season free agent signings occur. Generally, most athletes stay in shape during the off-season in preparation for the next season. Certain new rules in the league may be made during this time, and will become enforced during the next regular season.

As most countries which have a league in a particular sport will operate their regular season at roughly the same time as the others, international tournaments may be arranged during the off season.

For example, most European football league club competitions run from July or August to May, subsequently major international competitions such as the FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Football Championship are organised to occur in June and July.

Seasons by league

The table represents typical seasons for some leagues by month. Blank or white denotes off-season and pre-season months and solid colors mark the rest of the year. Leagues in the same sport use the same color.

  • "E" denotes exhibition/preseason games.
  • "Q" denotes pre-competition qualifiers.
  • "S" denotes the start of the regular-season.
  • "P" denotes playoff(s)/postseason/knockout stages.
  • "F" denotes Final(s).
League Sport Countries/Regions Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
ABL Baseball Australia P F               S    
A-League Association football Australia New Zealand       P F         S    
ACB Basketball Spain[nb 1]         P P F       S    
AFC Champions League Association football Asia   Q S           P P F
AAF American football United States S   P F
AFL Arena Football United States S       P F
AFL Australian rules football Australia     S           P F      
AIHL Ice hockey Australia       S       P F        
ATP World Tour Tennis Worldwide S                   F  
ANZ Premiership Netball New Zealand         S   P F          
AUDL Ultimate Frisbee United States Canada       S       P F        
Asia Series Baseball Asia                     P F  
Bangladesh Premier League Cricket Bangladesh                     S P F
Basketbol Süper Ligi Basketball Turkey       P P F         S    
Big Bash League Cricket Australia   P F                   S
CAF Champions League Association football Africa   Q Q S             P F  
Bundesliga Association football Germany               S        
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A Association football Brazil         S              
CFL Canadian football Canada           E S       P F  
Caribbean Premier League Cricket Barbados Guyana Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Trinidad and Tobago           S P F          
Chinese Super League Association football China     S                  
CEV Champions League Volleyball Europe P P P F         Q Q S
CONCACAF Champions League Association football North America   P P P F                
CONCACAF League Association football North America               P P P F    
Copa Libertadores Association football South America S P P F            
Copa Sudamericana Association football South America               S P P F
County Championship Cricket England Wales         S      
CPBL Baseball Taiwan     S             F    
DTM Motorsport Germany       S                
Euro Beach Soccer League Beach soccer Europe           S P F      
European Rugby Champions Cup[nb 2] Rugby union Europe       P F         S    
European Tour[nb 3] Golf Europe[nb 4]                     F S
Formula One Motorsport Worldwide     S                  
Gallagher Premiership Rugby union England         P F       S      
Greek Basket League Basketball Greece         P P F       S    
Guinness Pro14 Rugby union Ireland Italy Scotland South Africa Wales[nb 5]         P F       S      
HSBC World Rugby Sevens Series Rugby sevens (union) Worldwide                   S    
Indian Premier League Cricket India       S P F            
IndyCar Series Motorsport United States[nb 6]     S                  
J1 League Association football Japan     S                  
KBL Basketball South Korea     P F           S    
KBO Baseball South Korea       S           P F    
KHL Ice hockey Belarus China Finland Kazakhstan Latvia Russia Slovakia[nb 7]     P P F         S      
La Liga Association football Spain               S        
LBPRC Baseball Puerto Rico P F                 S    
Lega Basket Serie A Basketball Italy         P P F       S    
LIDOM Baseball Dominican Republic P F                 S    
Liga MX Association football Mexico[nb 8] S       P   F     S     P P   F
Ligue 1 Association football France[nb 9]               S        
LMB Baseball Mexico     E S       P F[nb 10]      
LMP Baseball Mexico P F                 S    
LPGA Tour Golf United States[nb 11] S                      
LVBP Baseball Venezuela P F                 S    
MLB Baseball United States Canada   E E S         P P F F[nb 12]  
MLL Lacrosse United States Canada         S     P F        
MLS Association football United States Canada     S             P P F  
Grand Prix motorcycle racing Motorsport Worldwide     S                  
NASCAR Motorsport United States Canada Mexico Europe[nb 13]   E S             P[nb 14] P P F  
NBA Basketball United States Canada       P P P F     E E S    
NBL Basketball Australia New Zealand   P P F           S    
NFL American football United States[nb 15] P F           E S      
NHL Ice hockey United States Canada       P P P F     E S    
NHRA Drag racing United States Canada   S             P[nb 16] P P F  
NLL Lacrosse United States Canada         P F             S
NRC Rugby union Australia Fiji[nb 17]               S   P F  
NRL Rugby league Australia New Zealand     S           P F    
NCAA basketball Basketball United States     P P F             S  
NCAA football American football United States P F               S   P[nb 18] P F[nb 18]
NPB Baseball Japan     S             P F  
NWSL Association football United States     S           P F[nb 19]      
PGA Tour Golf United States[nb 20]               P P   F S  
PBA Basketball Philippines P P   F   S   P   F F S P   F   S    
Premier League Association football England[nb 21]               S        
Premier Soccer League Association football South Africa               S        
Primera División (Argentina) Association football Argentina[nb 22]               S        
Serie A Association football Italy               S        
Serie del Caribe Baseball Caribbean   P F                    
Serie Nacional de Béisbol Baseball Cuba P F                   S  
Sheffield Shield Cricket Australia     F             S    
Suncorp Super Netball Netball Australia   S       P F            
Super League Rugby league England France   S             P P F    
Supercars Championship Motorsport Australia[nb 23]   S                    
Superleague Greece Association football Greece       P P F   S        
Süper Lig Association football Turkey               S        
Super Rugby Rugby union Australia New Zealand South Africa Argentina Japan[nb 24]   S       P[nb 25] P F[nb 26] P F[nb 27]        
Top 14 Rugby union France         P F[nb 28]   S        
Turkish Airlines EuroLeague Basketball Europe P P P P F       Q Q S    
UEFA Champions League Association football Europe   P P P F   Q Q S      
UEFA Women's Champions League Association football Europe P P P P F     Q S P P P P
UEFA Europa League Association football Europe   P P P F   Q Q S      
WNBA Basketball United States         E S     P F[nb 29]    
WNBL Basketball Australia   P P F             S    
WRC Motorsport Worldwide S                      
WTA Tour Tennis Worldwide                   F S  
XFL American football United States S   P F
  1. ^ A team from Andorra, BC Andorra, has competed in the league since the 2014–15 season.
  2. ^ Replaced the former European club competition, the Heineken Cup, effective in 2014–15.
  3. ^ The current scheduling, in which the season starts in January, took effect in 2012. In 2010 and 2011, the schedule began late in the previous calendar year.
  4. ^ The bulk of the tour's sole-sanctioned events are in Europe, with some in the Persian Gulf countries. It co-sanctions many other events with tours in Asia, Africa, and Australia. Along with the PGA Tour, the European Tour co-sanctions the major championships and the World Golf Championships; one of the majors is held in the UK, one of the WGC events is held in China, and the rest of these events are in the US.
  5. ^ The league originally involved only the three Celtic nations; Italy joined beginning in the 2010–11 season, and South Africa in 2017–18.
  6. ^ Since the 2015 season, the only series race held outside the U.S. is hosted by Canada. Australia, Brazil, and Japan have hosted races in the past.
  7. ^ As of the most recent 2017–18 season, there are 21 teams in Russia and one each in Belarus, China, Finland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, and Slovakia.
  8. ^ Like many football leagues in Latin America, Mexico divides its season into two phases with separate champions in each phase. Unlike most leagues in that sport, Liga MX uses a knockout playoff, involving the top eight teams after league play, to determine its champions.
  9. ^ The current 2017–18 season features one team from Monaco in AS Monaco, which has been in the league on numerous occasions, most recently since the 2013–14 season.
  10. ^ The Serie del Rey usually ends in September.
  11. ^ Most LPGA events are held in the US, but it also sole-sanctions official money events in Thailand, Singapore, Mexico, China, Canada, Malaysia, and Taiwan, as well as an unofficial event in Brazil. Since 2013, two of its majors, one in the UK and the other in France, have been co-sanctioned with the Ladies European Tour. The LPGA also co-sanctions events with the Korean LPGA and Japan LPGA in those countries and the ALPG Tour in Australia.
  12. ^ The World Series usually ends in late October, but can extend into early November.
  13. ^ Since the 2013 season, the top two NASCAR touring series, the Cup Series and Xfinity Series, race only in the US. The third-level Truck Series has a race in Canada. The Xfinity Series has previously held races in Canada and Mexico. NASCAR also operates national series in Canada and Mexico and a European series, plus many regional developmental series in the US.
  14. ^ NASCAR has used a playoff-style system to determine the champion of the Cup Series since 2004; in 2016, it extended this system to its other two U.S. national touring series. The playoffs in the Xfinity and Truck Series are shorter than that of the Cup Series.
  15. ^ The NFL currently takes at least one regular-season game outside the US (London since 2007). The Jacksonville Jaguars are in the middle of a eight-year period (2013–2020) in which one home game is in London. The 2018 season will be the third consecutive season for a game in Mexico City. For several years in the early 21st century, the Buffalo Bills played one home game per season in Toronto.
  16. ^ The NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series uses a playoff system known as the Countdown to the Championship to determine the champion of each of the four drag racing classes.
  17. ^ The competition was established in 2014 as a solely Australian affair; the Fijian Drua joined in 2017.
  18. ^ a b The NCAA has never recognized an official champion in the top-level Division I FBS. Although the four-team College Football Playoff began in 2014, it is not an official NCAA championship event. All other NCAA divisions determine officially recognized champions in playoff tournaments that start in November. The playoffs in Divisions II and III end in December. Since the 2010 season, the Division I FCS playoffs end in January.
  19. ^ The schedule listed here is that for the current 2018 season. In some years, the playoffs are held in October. In addition, the NWSL season is disrupted twice in a four-year cycle—first by the FIFA Women's World Cup, and then the following year by the Summer Olympics. In those years, fewer regular-season games are played, and the league takes a break for the stated event.
  20. ^ The vast majority of the PGA Tour's sole-sanctioned events are in the US proper, but the tour also has events in Malaysia, Mexico, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Along with the European Tour, the PGA Tour co-sanctions the major championships and the World Golf Championships; one of the majors is held in the UK, one of the WGC events is held in China, and the rest of these events are in the US.
  21. ^ The next 2018–19 season will feature one team from Wales in Cardiff City, which had last played at that level in the 2013–14 season.
  22. ^ The 2016–17 season marked the completion of Argentina's transition from its former calendar-year Apertura and Clausura season format to a single league season spanning two calendar years.
  23. ^ Currently, one race is held in New Zealand. Bahrain, China, the United Arab Emirates, and the USA have staged races in the past. Longer-term plans call for additional races in Hong Kong, India, the Philippines, Singapore, South Africa, and South Korea.
  24. ^ Argentine and Japanese teams joined the competition in 2016. The Japanese team divides its "home" matches between Tokyo and Singapore.
  25. ^ The playoffs, or "finals" as they are officially called, begin in late June in Rugby World Cup years.
  26. ^ During World Cup years, the final match is held in July; in other years, the finals begin in July.
  27. ^ In non-World Cup years, the final match is held in August.
  28. ^ Depending on the calendar, the final may fall on the last weekend of May in some seasons.
  29. ^ During Summer Olympic years, the WNBA Finals run into late October. During years in which the FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup is held, the season is compressed, with the WNBA Finals ending in September. In other years, the WNBA Finals end in early October.

Summary

Sport Duration
American football Originally football was played only in the fall, but for many years the season has extended from late summer through early to mid-winter.
  • The 16-game NFL regular season currently begins the first Thursday in September (after a month of exhibition games) and ends 17 weeks later around New Year's Day. The playoffs culminate with the Super Bowl on the first Sunday in February.
  • The college season begins the last week in August. The regular season ends in late November, with playoff and bowl games throughout December and early January.
  • Indoor football, past professional leagues such as the USFL and XFL, and some women's and amateur leagues play in the February to August season.
Association football Usually August to May in the Northern Hemisphere, and February to November in the Southern Hemisphere. Exceptions are generally for one of two reasons:
  • In some northern countries with severe winter weather (such as the United States, Norway, and Sweden), the season is contested within a calendar year (roughly March to November) to avoid the worst weather.
    • However, other leagues use winter breaks to avoid most of the coldest days to prevent players suffering from hypothermia.
  • Some countries, primarily in Latin America, use a split season, known as Apertura and Clausura. The traditional association football season from August to May is divided in two sections per season, each with its own champion. Apertura and Clausura are the Spanish words for "opening" and "closing". In French-speaking Haiti, these are known as the Ouverture and the Fermeture, while in English-speaking Belize, they are respectively the Opening and Closing seasons. The North American Soccer League (NASL) adopted a split season in 2013; the season is divided into a Spring Championship and Fall Championship.
  • In some countries where soccer competes with locally more popular football codes (i.e. Major League Soccer in the U.S., A-League in Australia), the season is arranged so as to minimize the time that it is in conflict with the more popular code(s). This arrangement also eases scheduling concerns regarding venues used for multiple football codes. However, in the case of the United States' MLS, their regular seasons can conflict with major tournaments such as the Gold Cup and FIFA World Cup due to the demand of the league's best national players to participate in the national squad.

(See Domestic association football season for details.)

Australian rules football March to late August, with finals series extending up to late September or early October.
Baseball April to early October, with playoffs extending up to early November. The Australian Baseball League runs from November to early February, with playoffs extending up to late February.
Basketball In most countries, late October to mid-April, with playoffs extending up to mid-June. The three major exceptions to this rule are:
  • The U.S. college basketball season begins in mid-November. The regular season ends in the first days of March, followed by conference tournaments and then national championship tournaments that run into early April.
  • The Philippine Basketball Association has a unique calendar. Its season runs from early October to August, and is divided into "conferences"—not the North American concept of subgroupings within a larger competition, but rather separate competitions involving the same set of teams, similar to football's Apertura and Clausura in Latin America. The season was divided into three conferences from 1975 to 2003. It then transitioned to a two-conference season in 2004, and also changed to a season spanning two calendar years, with the transition completed in the 2004–05 season. The PBA returned to a three-conference season effective in 2010–11. The season starts with the Philippine Cup, restricted to Filipino players, followed by two other tournaments in which teams can field one non-Filipino, the Commissioner's and Governors Cups.
  • The WNBA season is scheduled during the offseason of its parent league, the NBA. When the league was launched, all of its teams were owned by NBA teams and generally played in the same arenas as their NBA counterparts; however, this has changed over time. The scheduling also allows many WNBA players to participate in overseas leagues, primarily in Europe, Australia, and China, during the traditional basketball season.
Canadian football July to late October, with playoffs extending into November.
Cricket Year-round. Domestic seasons typically held in the driest period of the year—summer in temperate climates, dry season in tropical climates.
Golf Year-round
Ice hockey Early October to mid-April, with playoffs extending up to early June. The three major exceptions to this rule are:
  • The U.S. men's college hockey season begins in early October. The regular season ends in late February or early March, followed by conference tournaments and then a national championship tournament that runs into mid-April. The women's season typically begins and ends two or three weeks earlier than the men's.
  • The KHL regular season begins in early September and ends in late February. The playoffs run from March to mid-April.
  • The Australian Ice Hockey League's season runs from April to mid-August, with playoffs extending up to late August.
Motor racing Year-round, but generally concentrated from March to October. NASCAR runs from mid-February to late September, with playoffs extending up to late November.
Rugby league Late February to October in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
Rugby union September to late May, sometimes the first weekend in June, in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, Super Rugby starts in February and ends in early July in World Cup years and mid-August in other years. Domestic competitions in New Zealand and South Africa overlap slightly with the Super Rugby season, starting in July and ending in October or November. In Australia, the domestic competition does not overlap at all with Super Rugby, instead beginning in August and ending in early November.
Swimming Year-round
Tennis Year-round

Notes and references

  1. ^ Jay Jaffe (September 8, 2014). "MLB announces 2015 schedule with April start, October finish".
  2. ^ Rodney D. Fort; John Fizel (2004). International Sports Economics Comparisons. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 316–. ISBN 978-0-275-98032-0.

See also

1968 NBA Finals

The 1968 NBA World Championship Series pitted the Boston Celtics from the East, against the Los Angeles Lakers from the West, for the sixth time in ten years. The Celtics won their tenth NBA Championship in twelve seasons, by defeating the Lakers in six games. Significantly, Game 6 of the 1968 NBA Finals marked the first time that any NBA competition had taken place during the month of May.

1971 Cotton Bowl Classic

The 1971 Cotton Bowl Classic was a college football bowl game played on January 1, 1971, at the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, Texas. It featured the undefeated and top-ranked Texas Longhorns of the Southwest Conference and the independent Notre Dame Fighting Irish.

2008 Marshall Thundering Herd football team

The 2008 Marshall Thundering Herd football team represented Marshall University in the 2008 NCAA Division I FBS football season. Marshall competed as a member of the East Division of Conference USA, and played their home games at Joan C. Edwards Stadium. The Thundering Herd were led by fourth-year head coach Mark Snyder. Marshall finished the season with a 4–8 record (3–5).Before the season, Sports Illustrated ranked Marshall the 115th team in the FBS (out of 120) and predicted they would finish with a 1–11 record. Against 11th-ranked Wisconsin, the Herd led 14–0 in the second quarter, but gave up 51 unanswered points in the remainder of the game. Later in the season, Marshall upset Houston, 37–23, after having led 37–9 earlier in the final period. The following week, they lost in overtime to favorite East Carolina by a field goal, 19–16. Marshall held Rice quarterback Chase Clement to 84 passing yards in the first half, which was tied at 7, but went on to lose, 35–10. In the season closer, they proved competitive for eventual Conference USA runners-up Tulsa.

49ers–Cowboys rivalry

The 49ers–Cowboys rivalry is a National Football League (NFL) rivalry between the San Francisco 49ers and the Dallas Cowboys. The Cowboys lead the series 18-17-1. It is one of the great inter-division rivalry games in the NFL. The two teams do not play every year; instead, they play once every three years due to the NFL's rotating division schedules, or if the two teams finish in the same place in their respective divisions, they would play the ensuing season. Sports Illustrated ranked it as the eighth best rivalry while the NFL Top 10 ranked this rivalry to be the tenth best in the NFL. The rivalry was also the subject of two 2015 episodes of NFL Network's The Timeline series.

Broncos–Patriots rivalry

The Broncos–Patriots rivalry is a National Football League (NFL) rivalry between the Denver Broncos and New England Patriots (known as the Boston Patriots until 1971).

Cherry Hill Arena

The Cherry Hill Arena was an indoor arena located in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, built in 1959.

It was originally known as the Ice House and renamed the Delaware Valley Gardens before assuming its most familiar name. The arena, which seated 4,416, was the home of the short-lived Jersey Larks of the Eastern Hockey League in 1960-61 and hosted occasional home games of the NBA Philadelphia Warriors. In 1964 EHL hockey returned to the arena in the form of the Jersey Devils, who would be the arena's longest-lasting tenants, surviving until the EHL folded in 1973. Early in the 1973-1974 hockey season, the New York Golden Blades of the World Hockey Association moved to the arena and played there as the New Jersey Knights for the rest of the season. Sports Illustrated later described Cherry Hill Arena as "perhaps the worst facility" used by any WHA team, noting that it lacked showers in the dressing room for visiting teams, who had to dress at a Holiday Inn two miles away, and that the arena's ice surface was not even level, giving the home team a distinct home advantage as the visitors would have to skate uphill to the opponent's goal.By 1978 the arena had been renamed The Centrum. The Jersey Aces of the Northeastern Hockey League began the 1978-79 season as tenants at the Centrum, but moved to Hampton, Virginia after a handful of home games.

The Cherry Hill Arena was demolished in the 1980s and replaced by a shopping center, the main tenant of which was – at different times – a Kmart and three grocery stores, a Super G, Stop & Shop, and lastly a now-closed ShopRite. Another shopping center, called the Centrum Shops, uses the arena's final name but is located across Brace Road from the arena site. The Arena was owned by David Baird IV, CEO of Haddonfield Lumber.

Cristiano Ronaldo

Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro GOIH ComM (European Portuguese: [kɾiʃˈtjɐnu ʁoˈnaɫdu]; born 5 February 1985) is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Italian club Juventus and captains the Portugal national team. Often considered the best player in the world and regarded by many as one of the greatest players of all time, Ronaldo has a record-tying five Ballon d'Or awards, the most for a European player, and is the first player to win four European Golden Shoes. He has won 27 trophies in his career, including five league titles, five UEFA Champions League titles and one UEFA European Championship. A prolific goalscorer, Ronaldo holds the records for most official goals scored in Europe's top-five leagues (414), the UEFA Champions League (124), the UEFA European Championship (9), as well as those for most assists in the UEFA Champions League (34) and the UEFA European Championship (6). He has scored 700 senior career goals for club and country.

Born and raised on the Portuguese island of Madeira, Ronaldo was diagnosed with a racing heart at age 15. He underwent an operation to treat his condition, and began his senior club career playing for Sporting CP, before signing with Manchester United at age 18 in 2003. After winning his first trophy in England, the FA Cup, during his first season there, he helped United win three successive Premier League titles, a UEFA Champions League title, and a FIFA Club World Cup. By age 22, he had received Ballon d'Or and FIFA World Player of the Year nominations and at age 23, he won his first Ballon d'Or and FIFA World Player of the Year awards. In 2009, Ronaldo was the subject of, what was, at the time, the most expensive association football transfer when he moved from Manchester United to Real Madrid in a transfer worth €94 million (£80 million).

With Real Madrid, Ronaldo won 15 trophies, including two La Liga titles, two Copas del Rey, four UEFA Champions League titles, two UEFA Super Cups, and three FIFA Club World Cups. Real Madrid's all-time top goalscorer, Ronaldo scored a record 34 La Liga hat-tricks, including a record-tying eight hat-tricks in the 2014–15 season and is the only player to reach 30 goals in six consecutive La Liga seasons. After joining Madrid, Ronaldo finished runner-up for the Ballon d'Or three times, behind Lionel Messi, his perceived career rival, before winning back-to-back Ballons d'Or in 2013 and 2014. After winning the 2016 and 2017 Champions Leagues, Ronaldo secured back-to-back Ballons d'Or again in 2016 and 2017. A historic third consecutive Champions League followed, making Ronaldo the first player to win the trophy five times. In 2018, he signed for Juventus in a transfer worth an initial €100 million; the highest ever paid by an Italian club and the highest fee ever paid for a player over 30 years old.

A Portuguese international, Ronaldo was named the best Portuguese player of all time by the Portuguese Football Federation in 2015. He made his senior debut for Portugal in 2003 at age 18, and has since had over 150 caps, including appearing and scoring in eight major tournaments, becoming Portugal's most capped player and his country's all-time top goalscorer. He scored his first international goal at Euro 2004 and helped Portugal reach the final. He took over full captaincy in July 2008, leading Portugal to their first-ever triumph in a major tournament by winning Euro 2016, and received the Silver Boot as the second-highest goalscorer of the tournament, before becoming the highest European international goalscorer of all-time. One of the most marketable athletes in the world, he was ranked the world's highest-paid athlete by Forbes in 2016 and 2017, as well as the world's most famous athlete by ESPN in 2016, 2017 and 2018.

Evansville Crush

The Evansville Crush was an American indoor soccer team, founded in 2010. The team was a member of the Premier Arena Soccer League (PASL-Premier), the development league for the Professional Arena Soccer League (PASL), and played in the Midwest Conference. They played their home matches at the Metro Sports Center in the city of Evansville, Indiana. In 2013, the team was replaced by the Evansville Kings but lasted only one season.

Evansville Thunderbolts

The Evansville Thunderbolts are a minor league ice hockey team in the Southern Professional Hockey League. The team plays at the Ford Center in Evansville, Indiana. The team replaced the Evansville IceMen of the ECHL.

Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School

Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts is a high school specializing in teaching visual arts and performing arts, situated near Lincoln Center in the Lincoln Square neighborhood of the Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York City, in the U.S. state of New York. Located at 100 Amsterdam Avenue between West 64th and 65th Streets, the school is operated by the New York City Department of Education, and resulted from the merger of the High School of Music & Art and the School of Performing Arts. The school has a dual mission of arts and academics, preparing students for a career in the arts or conservatory study as well as a pursuit of higher education.

Informally known as LaGuardia Arts, LaG, or LaGuardia High School, the school is the only one among the nine specialized high schools in New York City that receives special funding from the New York State legislature through the Hecht Calandra Act, as well as the only specialized high school that does not use the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test (SHSAT) as admissions criteria.The school in 2013–2014 had 2,730 students and 163 staff members, with a teacher–student ratio of 1:20.

Howie Auer

Howard Joseph "Howie" Auer (January 9, 1908 – November 1985) was an American football player. He played for the Michigan Wolverines football teams from 1929–1931 and for the Philadelphia Eagles of the NFL in 1933.

Auer was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1908 and attended high school in Bay City, Michigan. He enrolled at the University of Michigan in 1928 and played football for Harry Kipke in his first three seasons as the Wolverines head football coach. As a sophomore in 1929, Auer was the starting tackle in seven of nine games played by the Wolverines. In 1930, injuries limited Auer to four games as a starter on the undefeated (8–0–1) 1930 Michigan team that tied for the Big Ten Conference championship. As a senior in 1931, he was a starting tackle in eight of Michigan's nine games and was part of another Big Ten co-championship team. At the end of the 1931 season, sports writer Hank Casserly picked Auer as a first-team player on his All-Big Ten team and explained the selection of Auer as follows:"Auer of Michigan, a greatly underrated tackle, gets the other post on the first team. He was a consistent performer during every game and stole the show from his other rivals during the closing games of the season. Even in the Ohio State game, in which Michigan was outplayed, Auer stood out. He was a powerhouse on both offense and defense, and blocked tackles, ends, and guards, with equal ease and was one of the reasons why the Wolverines had the greatest all around line in the Western conference."

Auer was also selected as a second-team All-Big Ten player by the United Press in 1932.After graduating from Michigan, Auer played one season of professional football for the Philadelphia Eagles. Auer lived in Valrico, Florida in his later years. He died in 1985 at age 77.

KMND

KMND (1510 AM), branded as "Fox Sports 1510 KMND", is a radio station that serves the Midland–Odessa metropolitan area with Fox Sports Radio talk shows, the WinningEDGE radio show, and a weekly sports update on Pro Football and Basketball. It also simulcasts the programming on 99.5 FM. The station is under ownership of Townsquare Media.

1510 AM signed on in Midland in 1958. It began as a 500 watt daytimer called KABH. Over its early years it was a middle of road station. Partners in cross town KNFM acquired an interest in KABH and the letters were changed to KNAM. About 1979 the station changed owners, relocated its office, and changed calls to KMND for "Command".

As an affiliate of the Dallas Cowboys, KMND carried the Wade Phillips show and the Dallas Cowboys daily report, but they did not have the contract to air the games. Sister station KGEE/KNFM aired the Cowboys games in the Odessa-Midland area. As an affiliate of ESPN Radio, the station carried commercials for the ESPN Radio College Football Game of the Week, the BCS on ESPN Radio, the NIT on ESPN Radio, and Major League Baseball on ESPN Radio, but the station only aired college bowl games that were sold as part of ESPN Radio coverage nationwide. In 2009 they ended up adding the full broadcast schedule beginning with the NBA on ESPN Radio and then continuing into Major League Baseball on ESPN Radio. They also carried live coverage of the Midland High Bulldogs and the Midland Lee Rebels post-season play for all sports except football. The station doesn't produce any local shows, but in the past they produced Sportstalk with Robbie Burns which aired weekdays from 3 PM- 6 PM and Saturday from 10 AM- 12 PM. They also aired coverage of post-season sports for the Midland College Chaparalls from 2004-2008. In 2009 those rights moved to KQRX.

Before becoming an ESPN Radio affiliate, KMND specialized in talk radio shows now found on KCRS (AM), including Rush Limbaugh, and tejano music.

In March 2017 KMND moved from ESPN Radio to Fox Sports Radio.

Kutztown Golden Bears

The Kutztown Golden Bears are the sports teams that represent Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, located in Kutztown, Pennsylvania. Kutztown University is a member of NCAA Division II and competes in the Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference (PSAC). The university sponsors eight men's and thirteen women's intercollegiate sports. In 2007–08, Kutztown University added women’s lacrosse and women’s bowling to the list of varsity sports that it offers.Kutztown won the Dixon Trophy in 2006, which is awarded to the PSAC school with the best overall athletic program that year. Kutztown became the fifth league school to win the award after placing second in the rankings in the 2003–04 and 2004–05 school years. Famous former athletes from Kutztown include football stars Andre Reed, John Mobley, Bruce Harper and Doug Dennison and baseball standout Ryan Vogelsong.

The university provides an array of intramural and club sports programs for students. Leagues and tournaments are organized by the Recreational Services department every semester, and range from badminton tournaments to rock climbing competitions.

LeBron James

LeBron Raymone James Sr. (; born December 30, 1984) is an American professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He is often considered the best basketball player in the world and regarded by some as the greatest player of all time. His accomplishments include four NBA Most Valuable Player Awards, three NBA Finals MVP Awards, and two Olympic gold medals. James has appeared in fifteen NBA All-Star Games and been named NBA All-Star MVP three times. He won the 2008 NBA scoring title, is the all-time NBA playoffs scoring leader, and is fourth in all-time career points scored. He has been voted onto the All-NBA First Team twelve times and the All-Defensive First Team five times.

James played basketball for St. Vincent–St. Mary High School in his hometown of Akron, Ohio, where he was heavily touted by the national media as a future NBA superstar. A prep-to-pro, he joined the Cleveland Cavaliers in 2003 as the first overall draft pick. Named the 2003–04 NBA Rookie of the Year, he soon established himself as one of the league's premier players; he won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award in 2009 and 2010. After failing to win a championship with Cleveland, James left in 2010 to sign as a free agent with the Miami Heat. This move was announced in an ESPN special titled The Decision, and is one of the most controversial free agent decisions in American sports history.

James won his first two NBA championships while playing for the Miami Heat in 2012 and 2013. He was named league MVP and NBA Finals MVP in both championship years. After his fourth season with the Heat in 2014, James opted out of his contract to re-sign with the Cavaliers. In 2016, he led the Cavaliers to victory over the Golden State Warriors in the NBA Finals, delivering the team's first championship and ending Cleveland's 52-year professional sports title drought. In 2018, James opted out of his contract with the Cavaliers to sign with the Lakers.

Off the court, James has accumulated additional wealth and fame from numerous endorsement contracts. His public life has been the subject of much scrutiny, and he has been ranked as one of America's most influential and popular athletes. He has been featured in books, documentaries, and television commercials. He has also hosted the ESPY Awards and Saturday Night Live, and appeared in the 2015 film Trainwreck.

List of Cleveland Indians managers

The Cleveland Indians are a professional baseball franchise based in Cleveland, Ohio that formed in 1901. They are members of the Central division of Major League Baseball's American League. The current manager of the Indians is Terry Francona, who replaced Manny Acta after the end of the 2012 season.

The Indians have had 46 managers in their history. Jimmy McAleer became the first manager of the then Cleveland Blues in 1901, serving for one season. In 1901, McAleer was replaced with Bill Armour. The Indians made their first playoff appearance under Tris Speaker in 1920. Out of the six managers that have led the Indians into the postseason, only Speaker and Lou Boudreau have led the Indians to World Series championships, doing so in 1920 and 1948, respectively. Al López (1954), Mike Hargrove (1995 and 1997) and Terry Francona (2016) have also appeared in World Series with the Indians. The highest winning percentage of any manager who managed at least one season was Lopez, with a percentage of .617. The lowest percentage was Johnny Lipon's .305 in 1971, although he managed for only 59 games. The lowest percentage of a manager with at least one season with the Indians was McAleer's .397 in 1901.

Armour became the first manager who held the title of manager for the Indians for more than one season. Boudreau has managed more games (1383) than any other Indians manager, closely followed by Hargrove (1364). Charlie Manuel, Eric Wedge, Speaker, Boudreau, Lopez, and Hargrove are the only managers to have led the Indians into the playoffs. Speaker, Boudreau, Lopez, Walter Johnson, Joe Gordon, Nap Lajoie and Frank Robinson are the seven members of the Baseball Hall of Fame who are also former managers of this club. Of those seven, Lopez is the only one inducted as a manager.The highest win–loss total for an Indians manager is held by Boudreau, with 728 wins and 649 losses. Wedge became the first Indians manager to win the Manager of the Year award, in 2007.

List of Kansas City Royals managers

The Kansas City Royals are a franchise based in Kansas City, Missouri. They are members of the Central division of Major League Baseball's American League. The Royals franchise was formed in 1969.

There have been 19 managers for the Royals. Joe Gordon became the first manager of the Kansas City Royals in 1969, serving for one season. Bob Lemon became the first manager who held the title of manager for the Royals for more than one season. Ned Yost has managed more games than any other Royals manager and as many seasons as Dick Howser and Tony Muser. Whitey Herzog, Jim Frey, Howser, and Ned Yost are the only managers to have led the Royals into the playoffs. Three Royals managers—Gordon, Lemon, and Herzog—have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame;In 1970, Gordon was replaced with Charlie Metro. The Royals made their first playoff appearance under Herzog. Four managers have led the Royals into the postseason. Dick Howser led the Royals to their first World Series Championship in 1985. Ned Yost led the Royals into two World Series appearances, in the 2014 World Series, and a Win in the 2015 World Series. Frey, led the Royals to One world series appearance in the 1980 World Series. The highest winning percentage of any manager who managed at least one season was Herzog, with a percentage of .574. The lowest percentage was Bob Schaefer in 2005, although he managed for only 17 games. The lowest percentage of a manager with at least one season with the Royals was Buddy Bell, the manager from 2005 through the 2007 season with a percentage of .399.

The highest win total for a Royals manager is held by Yost, who also holds the record for losses. Tony Peña became the first Royals manager to win the Manager of the Year award, in 2003. The current manager of the Royals is Ned Yost. He was hired on May 13, 2010 after Trey Hillman was fired.

Little Flower Academy

Little Flower Academy (LFA) is an independent all girls Catholic secondary school located in Vancouver’s Shaughnessy neighbourhood. Established in 1927, by the Sisters of Saint Ann, Little Flower Academy educates young women within an intercultural Catholic faith community to realize their spiritual, intellectual, physical, social, and emotional potential.

Passer rating

Passer rating (also known as quarterback rating, QB rating, or passing efficiency in college football) is a measure of the performance of passers, primarily quarterbacks, in American football and Canadian football. There are two formulae currently in use: one used by both the National Football League (NFL) and Canadian Football League (CFL), and the other used in NCAA football. Passer rating is calculated using a player's passing attempts, completions, yards, touchdowns, and interceptions. Since 1973, passer rating has been the official formula used by the NFL to determine its passing leader.

Passer rating in the NFL is on a scale from 0 to 158.3. Passing efficiency in college football is on a scale from −731.6 to 1261.6.

Three-point field goal

A three-point field goal (also 3-pointer or informally, trey) is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw.

The distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by competition level: in the National Basketball Association (NBA) the arc is 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m) from the center of the basket; in FIBA and the WNBA the arc is 6.75 metres or 22 feet 1 3⁄4 inches; and in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) the arc is 20 feet 9 inches (6.32 m). In the NBA and FIBA/WNBA, the three-point line becomes parallel to each sideline at the points where the arc is 3 feet (0.91 m) from each sideline; as a result the distance from the basket gradually decreases to a minimum of 22 feet (6.71 m). In the NCAA the arc is continuous for 180° around the basket. There are more variations (see main article).

In 3x3, a FIBA-sanctioned variant of the half-court 3-on-3 game, the same line exists, but shots from behind it are only worth 2 points with all other shots worth 1 point.

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