Seal (emblem)

A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects.

The seal-making device is also referred to as the seal matrix or die; the imprint it creates as the seal impression (or, more rarely, the sealing).[1] If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal; in other cases ink or another liquid or liquefied medium is used, in another color than the paper.

In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio (cut below the flat surface) and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief (raised above the surface). The design on the impression will reverse (be a mirror-image of) that of the matrix, which is especially important when script is included in the design, as it very often is. This will not be the case if paper is embossed from behind, where the matrix and impression read the same way, and both matrix and impression are in relief. However engraved gems were often carved in relief, called cameo in this context, giving a "counter-relief" or intaglio impression when used as seals. The process is essentially that of a mould.

Most seals have always given a single impression on an essentially flat surface, but in medieval Europe two-sided seals with two matrices were often used by institutions or rulers (such as towns, bishops and kings) to make two-sided or fully three-dimensional impressions in wax, with a "tag", a piece of ribbon or strip of parchment, running through them. These "pendent" seal impressions dangled below the documents they authenticated, to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached (single-sided seals were treated in the same way).

Some jurisdictions consider rubber stamps[2] or specified signature-accompanying words such as "seal" or "L.S." (abbreviation of locus sigilli, "place of the seal") to be the legal equivalent of, i.e., an equally effective substitute for, a seal.[3]

In the United States, the word "seal" is sometimes assigned to a facsimile of the seal design (in monochrome or color), which may be used in a variety of contexts including architectural settings, on flags, or on official letterheads. Thus, for example, the Great Seal of the United States, among other uses, appears on the reverse of the one-dollar bill; and several of the seals of the U.S. states appear on their respective state flags. In Europe, although coats of arms and heraldic badges may well feature in such contexts as well as on seals, the seal design in its entirety rarely appears as a graphical emblem and is used mainly as originally intended: as an impression on documents.

The study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics.

Seal of Náchod town from 1570 (big)
Town seal (matrix) of Náchod from 1570
Late bronze age seal
Present-day impression of a Late Bronze Age seal

Ancient Near East

Cylinder seal Shamash Louvre AO9132
Mesopotamian limestone cylinder seal and the impression made by it—worship of Shamash

Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of considerable importance in archaeology and art history. In ancient Mesopotamia carved or engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used. These could be rolled along to create an impression on clay (which could be repeated indefinitely), and used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. They are normally hollow and it is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck. Many have only images, often very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. From ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings (see below), including some with the names of kings, have been found; these tend to show only names in hieroglyphics.

Recently, seals have come to light in South Arabia datable to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic (Yitsḥaq bar Ḥanina) engraved in reverse so as to read correctly in the impression.

Ancient Greece and Rome

From the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. In the Early Minoan age these were formed of soft stone and ivory and show particular characteristic forms. By the Middle Minoan age a new set for seal forms, motifs and materials appear. Hard stone requires new rotary carving techniques. The Late Bronze Age is the time par excellence of the lens-shaped seal and the seal ring, which continued into the Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic periods, in the form of pictorial engraved gems. These were a major luxury art form and became keenly collected, with King Mithridates VI of Pontus the first major collector according to Pliny the Elder. His collection fell as booty to Pompey the Great, who deposited it in a temple in Rome. Engraved gems continued to be produced and collected until the 19th century. Pliny also explained the significance of the signet ring, and how over time this ring was worn on the little finger.[4]

East Asia

Namechop
A Baiwen name seal, read up-down-right-left: Ye Hao Min Yin (lit. "Seal of Ye Haomin")
PRC-Stamp-Demo
A demonstration of the use of a standardized seal (Chinese: 公章) (red colour) for organizations in the People's Republic of China

Known as yinzhang (Chinese: 印章) in China, injang in Korea, inshō in Japan, ấn giám (or ấn chương) in Vietnam, seals have been used in East Asia as a form of written identification since the Qin dynasty (221 BC–). The seals of the Han dynasty were impressed in a soft clay, but from the Tang dynasty a red ink made from cinnabar was normally used.[5] Even in modern times, seals, often known as "chops" in local colloquial English, are still commonly used instead of handwritten signatures to authenticate official documents or financial transactions. Both individuals and organizations have official seals, and they often have multiple seals in different sizes and styles for different situations. East Asian seals usually bear the names of the people or organizations represented, but they can also bear poems or personal mottoes. Sometimes both types of seals, or large seals that bear both names and mottoes, are used to authenticate official documents. Seals are so important in East Asia that foreigners who frequently conduct business there also commission the engraving of personal seals.

East Asian seals are carved from a variety of hard materials, including wood, soapstone, sea glass and jade. East Asian seals are traditionally used with a red oil-based paste consisting of finely ground cinnabar, which contrasts with the black ink traditionally used for the ink brush. Red chemical inks are more commonly used in modern times for sealing documents. Seal engraving is considered a form of calligraphy in East Asia. Like ink-brush calligraphy, there are several styles of engraving. Some engraving styles emulate calligraphy styles, but many styles are so highly stylized that the characters represented on the seal are difficult for untrained readers to identify. Seal engravers are considered artists, and, in the past, several famous calligraphers also became famous as engravers. Some seals, carved by famous engravers, or owned by famous artists or political leaders, have become valuable as historical works of art.

Because seals are commissioned by individuals and carved by artists, every seal is unique, and engravers often personalize the seals that they create. The materials of seals and the styles of the engraving are typically matched to the personalities of the owners. Seals can be traditional or modern, or conservative or expressive. Seals are sometimes carved with the owners' zodiac animals on the tops of the seals. Seals are also sometimes carved with images or calligraphy on the sides.

Although it is a utilitarian instrument of daily business in East Asia, westerners and other non-Asians seldom see Asian seals except on Asian paintings and calligraphic art. All traditional paintings in Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, and the rest of East Asia are watercolor paintings on silk, paper, or some other surface to which the red ink from seals can adhere. East Asian paintings often bear multiple seals, including one or two seals from the artist, and the seals from the owners of the paintings.

East Asian seals are the predecessors to block printing.

Western tradition

NLW Penrice and Margam Deeds 2046 (Front) (8634691430)
Equestrian seal of Gilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester and Hertford, c. 1218–1230

There is a direct line of descent from the seals used in the ancient world, to those used in medieval and post-medieval Europe, and so to those used in legal contexts in the western world to the present day. Seals were historically most often impressed in sealing wax (often simply described as "wax"): in the Middle Ages, this generally comprised a compound of about two-thirds beeswax to one-third of some kind of resin, but in the post-medieval period the resin (and other ingredients) came to dominate.[6] During the early Middle Ages seals of lead, or more properly "bullae" (from the Latin), were in common use both in East and West, but with the notable exception of documents ("bulls") issued by the Papal Chancery these leaden authentications fell out of favour in western Christendom. Byzantine Emperors sometimes issued documents with gold seals, known as Golden Bulls.

Byzantine - Signet Ring - Walters 572104 - View A
During the early Byzantine period these rings were used for sealing personal documents and validating wills and testaments. 6th century, silver.[7] The Walters Art Museum.

Wax seals were being used on a fairly regular basis by most western royal chanceries by about the end of the 10th century. In England, few wax seals have survived of earlier date than the Norman Conquest, although some earlier matrices are known, recovered from archaeological contexts: the earliest is a gold double-sided matrix found near Postwick, Norfolk, and dated to the late 7th century; the next oldest is a mid-9th-century matrix of a Bishop Ethilwald (probably Æthelwold, Bishop of East Anglia).[8] The practice of sealing in wax gradually moved down the social hierarchy from monarchs and bishops to great magnates, to petty knights by the end of the 12th century, and to ordinary freemen by the middle of the 13th century.[9] They also came to be used by a variety of corporate bodies, including cathedral chapters, municipalities, monasteries etc., to validate the acts executed in their name.

Traditional wax seals continue to be used on certain high-status and ceremonial documents, but in the 20th century they were gradually superseded in many other contexts by inked or dry embossed seals and by rubber stamps.

While many instruments formerly required seals for validity (e.g. deeds or covenants) it is now unusual in most countries in the west for private citizens to use seals. In Central and Eastern Europe, however, as in East Asia, a signature alone is considered insufficient to authenticate a document of any kind in business, and all managers, as well as many book-keepers and other employees, have personal seals, normally just containing text, with their name and their position. These are applied to all letters, invoices issued, and similar documents. In Europe these are today plastic self-inking stamps.

NYS-Notary-Seal
An embossed notary seal, formerly valid in the State of New York.

Notaries also still use seals on a daily basis. At least in Britain, each registered notary has an individual personal seal, registered with the authorities, which includes his or her name and a pictorial emblem, often an animal—the same combination found in many seals from ancient Greece.

Sealing practices

Siegel
An applied wax seal on an envelope

Seals are used primarily to authenticate documents, specifically those which carry some legal import. There are two main ways in which a seal may be attached to a document. It may be applied directly to the face of the paper or parchment (an applied seal); or it may hang loose from it (a pendent seal). A pendent seal may be attached to cords or ribbons (sometimes in the owner's livery colors), or to the two ends of a strip (or tag) of parchment, threaded through holes or slots cut in the lower edge of the document: the document is often folded double at this point (a plica) to provide extra strength. Alternatively, the seal may be attached to a narrow strip of the material of the document (again, in this case, usually parchment), sliced and folded down, as a tail or tongue, but not detached.[10][11] The object in all cases is to help ensure authenticity by maintaining the integrity of the relationship between document and seal, and to prevent the seal's reuse. If a forger tries to remove an applied seal from its document, it will almost certainly break. A pendent seal is easily detached by cutting the cords or strips of parchment, but the forger would then have great difficulty in attaching it to another document (not least because the cords or parchment are normally knotted inside the seal), and would again almost certainly break it.

Sealtaglarge
A pendent pine resin seal on a parchment tag attached to an English deed dated 1638.

In the Middle Ages, the majority of seals were pendent. They were attached both to legal instruments and to letters patent (i.e. open letters) conferring rights or privileges, which were intended to be available for all to view. In the case of important transactions or agreements, the seals of all parties to the arrangement as well as of witnesses might be attached to the document, and so once executed it would carry several seals. Most governments still attach pendent seals to letters patent.

Wax seal with impression of uppercase letter A
Hand-folded letter sealed with wax and stamped with capital letter "A". If a letter is folded and sealed correctly, a wax seal can eliminate the need for an envelope as demonstrated in the above picture.
Loudoun Castle wax seal
An applied seal on a letter from Loudoun Castle, Galston, Scotland.

Applied seals, by contrast, were originally used to seal a document closed: that is to say, the document would be folded and the seal applied in such a way that the item could not be opened without the seal being broken.[12] Applied seals were used on letters close (letters intended only for the recipient) and parcels to indicate whether or not the item had been opened or tampered with since it had left the sender, as well as providing evidence that the item was actually from the sender and not a forgery. In the post-medieval period, seals came to be commonly used in this way for private letters. A letter writer would fold the completed letter, pour wax over the joint formed by the top of the page, and then impress a ring or other seal matrix. Governments sometimes sent letters to citizens under the governmental seal for their eyes only, known as letters secret. Wax seals might also be used with letterlocking techniques to ensure that only the intended recipient would read the message.[13] In general, seals are no longer used in these ways except for ceremonial purposes. However, applied seals also came to be used on legal instruments applied directly to the face of the document, so that there was no need to break them, and this use continues.

Seal design

Britishmuseuminchaffreyabbeyseal
Two-sided pendent seals from Inchaffray Abbey in Scotland, late 13th century, now in the British Museum.[14]
Great Seal of Montana
The Great Seal of the State of Montana (US)
Viridian Corporate Seal
Example of a corporate seal. In this case, the design includes a marine seal (pinniped) as a visual pun.

Historically, the majority of seals were circular in design, although ovals, triangles, shield-shapes and other patterns are also known. The design generally comprised a graphic emblem (sometimes, but not always, incorporating heraldic devices), surrounded by a text (the legend) running around the perimeter. The legend most often consisted merely of the words "The seal of [the name of the owner]", either in Latin or in the local vernacular language: the Latin word Sigillum was frequently abbreviated to a simple S:. Occasionally, the legend took the form of a motto.

In the Middle Ages it became customary for the seals of women and of ecclesiastics to be given a vesica (pointed oval) shape. The central emblem was often a standing figure of the owner, or (in the case of ecclesiastical seals) of a saint. Medieval townspeople used a wide variety of different emblems but some had seals that included an image relating to their work.[15]

Sealing wax was naturally yellowish or pale brownish in tone, but could also be artificially colored red or green (with many intermediary variations). In some medieval royal chanceries, different colours of wax were customarily used for different functions or departments of state, or to distinguish grants and decrees made in perpetuity from more ephemeral documents.[16][17]

The matrices for pendent seals were sometimes accompanied by a smaller counter-seal, which would be used to impress a small emblem on the reverse of the impression. In some cases the seal and counter-seal would be kept by two different individuals, in order to provide an element of double-checking to the process of authentication. Sometimes, a large official seal, which might be in the custody of chancery officials, would need to be counter-sealed by the individual in whose name it had been applied (the monarch, or the mayor of a town): such a counter-seal might be carried on the person (perhaps secured by a chain or cord), or later, take the form of a signet-ring, and so would be necessarily smaller.[18] Other pendent seals were double-sided, with elaborate and equally-sized obverses and reverses. The impression would be formed by pressing a "sandwich" of matrices and wax firmly together by means of rollers or, later, a lever-press or a screw press.[19][20] Certain medieval seals were more complex still, involving two levels of impression on each side of the wax which would be used to create a scene of three-dimensional depth.[21][22]

On the death of a seal-holder, as a sign of continuity, a son and heir might commission a new seal employing the same symbols and design-elements as those used by his father. It is likely that this practice was a factor in the emergence of hereditary heraldry in western Europe in the 12th century.[23][24]

Sceau chapitre moulins
Vesica-shaped seal of the cathedral chapter of Moulins (France)

Ecclesiastical seals

The use of a seal by men of wealth and position was common before the Christian era, but high functionaries of the Church adopted the habit. An incidental allusion in one of St. Augustine's letters (217 to Victorinus) indicates that he used a seal.[25] The practice spread, and it seems to be taken for granted by King Clovis I at the very beginning of the Merovingian dynasty.[26]

Sigillum cereum
A series of crosses from the sigillum cereum of Beatrice of Bar when donating property to San Zeno, Verona (1073).

Later ecclesiastical synods require that letters under the bishop's seal should be given to priests when for some reason they lawfully quit their own proper diocese. Such a ruling was enacted at Chalon-sur-Saône in 813. Pope Nicholas I in the same century complained that the bishops of Dôle and Reims had, "contra morem" (contrary to custom), sent their letters to him unsealed.[27] The custom of bishops possessing seals may from this date be assumed to have been pretty general.

In the British Museum collection the earliest bishop's seals preserved are those of William de St-Calais, Bishop of Durham (1081–96) and of St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (1093–1109).

Architects, surveyors and professional engineers

Seals are also affixed on architectural or engineering construction documents, or land survey drawings, to certify the identity of the licensed professional who supervised the development.[28][29][30] Depending on the authority having jurisdiction for the project, these seals may be embossed and signed, stamped and signed, or in certain situations a computer generated facsimile of the original seal validated by a digital certificate owned by the professional may be attached to a security protected computer file.[31] The identities on the professional seals determine legal responsibility for any errors or omissions, and in some cases financial responsibility for their correction as well as the territory of their responsibility, e.g: "State of Minnesota".[32]

In some jurisdictions, especially in Canada, it is a legal requirement for a professional engineer to seal documents in accordance with the Engineering Profession Act and Regulations. Professional engineers may also be legally entitled to seal any document they prepare. The seal identifies work performed by, or under the direct supervision of, a licensed professional engineer, and assures the document’s recipient that the work meets the standards expected of experienced professionals who take personal responsibility for their judgments and decisions.

Professional Engineer Seal Province of Saskatchewan Canada
Professional engineer's seal (in fact a rubber stamp) in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada

Destruction of seals

The importance of the seal as a means of authentication necessitated that when authority passed into new hands the old seal should be destroyed and a new one made. When the pope dies it is the first duty of the Cardinal Camerlengo to obtain possession of the Ring of the Fisherman, the papal signet, and to see that it is broken up. A similar practice prevailed in the Middle Ages and it is often alluded to by historians, as it seems to have been a matter of some ceremony. For example, on the death of Robert of Holy Island, Bishop of Durham, in 1283, the chronicler Robert Greystones reports: "After his burial, his seal was publicly broken up in the presence of all by Master Robert Avenel."[33] Matthew Paris gives a similar description of the breaking of the seal of William of Trumpington, Abbot of St Albans, in 1235.

The practice is less widely attested in the case of medieval laypeople, but certainly occurred on occasion, particularly in the 13th and 14th centuries.[34][35] Silver seal matrices have been found in the graves of some of the 12th-century queens of France. These were probably deliberately buried as a means of cancelling them.[36][37]

When King James II of England was dethroned in the Glorious Revolution of 1688/9, he is supposed to have thrown the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames before his flight to France in order to ensure that the machinery of government would cease to function. It is unclear how much truth there is to this story, but certainly the seal was recovered: James's successors, William III and Mary used the same Great Seal matrix, fairly crudely adapted – possibly quite deliberately, in order to demonstrate the continuity of government.[38]

A related practice of destruction is found among blacksmiths: their touchmark (a stamp used on the hot metal to show who made it) is destroyed upon their death.

Signet rings

Baronnet-signet-ring
Armigerous signet ring bearing the arms of the Baronnet family; goldsmith: Jean-Pierre Gautheron, Paris
Egypte louvre 148
Golden ring, with cartouche and hieroglyphic name of Tutankhamun: 'Perfect God, Lord of the Two Lands' ('Ntr-Nfr, Neb-taui'; right to left columns)—Musée du Louvre.

Signet rings have a flat bezel, usually wider than the rest of the hoop, which is decorated, normally in intaglio, so that it will leave a raised (relief) impression of the design when the ring is pressed onto soft sealing wax or a similar material. They have been used since ancient times as the personal seal of an individual. In recent times the design is generally a crest, made by engraving, either in metal or engraved gems (generally semiprecious). Agate is a frequent material, especially carnelian or banded agate like sardonyx; the banding makes the impression contrast with the ground. Most smaller classical engraved gems were probably originally worn as signet rings, or as seals on a necklace. Metal signet rings can also be cast, which may be cheaper but yields a weaker material.

The wearing of signet rings (from Latin "signum" meaning sign) goes back to ancient Egypt; the distinctive personal signature was not developed in antiquity and most documents needed a seal. A seal of Pharaoh is mentioned in the Book of Genesis. Genesis 41:42: "Removing his signet ring from his hand, Pharaoh put it on Joseph's hand; he arrayed him in garments of fine linen, and put a gold chain around his neck."

Although less common today, and very rarely actually used for their intended purpose as seals, signet rings are still worn, especially among the armigerous, in European and some other cultures.

Because it is used to attest the authority of its bearer, the ring has also been seen as a symbol of his power, which is one explanation for its inclusion in the regalia of certain monarchies. After the death of a Pope, the destruction of his signet ring is a prescribed act clearing the way for the sede vacante and subsequent election of a new Pope.[39]

Signet rings are also used as souvenir or membership attribute, e.g., class ring (typically bear the coat of arms or crest of the school), as an alternative to one with a stone. One may also have their initials engraved as a sign of their personal stature.

The less noble classes began wearing and using signet rings as early as the 13th century. In the 17th century, signet rings fell out of favor in the upper levels of society, replaced by other means for mounting and carrying the signet. In the 18th century, though, signet rings again became popular, and by the 19th century, men of all classes wore them.[40]

Since at least the 16th century there have also been pseudo-signet rings where the engraving is not reversed (mirror image), as it should be if the impression is to read correctly.[41]

Figurative uses

Gold seal v2
Representation of a seal of approval.

Seal of approval

The expression Seal of Approval refers to a formal approval, regardless whether it involves a seal or other external marking, by an authoritative person or institute.

It is also part of the formal name of certain quality marks, such as:

See also

Stamps of Germany (DDR) 1988, MiNr Zusammendruck 3156-3159
Stamps of old German seals
Lacre-JP-VII
Sealing wax in a letter, Fonseca Padilla Family Coat of Arms, Jalisco, México.

References

  1. ^ New 2010, p. 7.
  2. ^ Notary Public Handbook. (2009). California Secretary of State, Notary Public Section. p. 7.
  3. ^ Vermont Statutes Title 1 § 134 (2008). Vermont Legislature.
  4. ^ Harris Rackham (1938). "Pliny The Elder, Natural History". Loeb Classical Library.
  5. ^ Thomas Carter (1925). The invention of printing in China. Columbia University Press.
  6. ^ Jenkinson 1968, p. 12.
  7. ^ "Signet Ring". The Walters Art Museum.
  8. ^ New 2010, p. 3.
  9. ^ Jenkinson 1968, pp. 6-7.
  10. ^ Jenkinson 1968, pp. 14–18.
  11. ^ New 2010, pp. 19–23.
  12. ^ Jenkinson 1968, pp. 18–19.
  13. ^ Cain, Abigal (9 November 2018). "Before Envelopes, People Protected Messages With Letterlocking". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  14. ^ British Museum Collection
  15. ^ McEwan 2016, no.764.
  16. ^ Jenkinson 1968, p. 13.
  17. ^ New 2010, p. 41.
  18. ^ John A. McEwan, "Does size matter? Seals in England and Wales, ca. 1200–1500", in Whatley 2019, pp. 103–26 (116–18).
  19. ^ Jenkinson 1968, pp. 8–10.
  20. ^ New 2010, p. 13.
  21. ^ John Cherry, "Medieval and post-medieval seals", in Collon 1997, pp. 130–131.
  22. ^ Markus Späth, "Memorialising the glorious past: thirteenth-century seals from English cathedral priories and their artistic contexts", in Schofield 2015, p. 166.
  23. ^ Wagner, Anthony (1956). Heralds and Heraldry in the Middle Ages (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 13–15.
  24. ^ Brooke-Little, John (1973). Boutell's Heraldry. London: Frederick Warne. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-7232-1708-4.
  25. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbert Thurston (1913). "Seal" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  26. ^ Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Leg., II, 2.
  27. ^ Philipp Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum, nos. 2789, 2806, 2823.
  28. ^ "What is a PE" National Society of Professional Engineers (US).
  29. ^ "How Building Officials Interact With Registered Architects And Engineers" National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (US).
  30. ^ GSA P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. Appendix A: "Submission Requirements" Archived 2009-09-29 at the Wayback Machine U.S. General Services Administration.
  31. ^ "Rule and Regulation Change Allowing the Construction and use of Computerized Seals" Archived 2009-10-11 at the Wayback Machine Kansas State Board of Technical Professions. Typical sample of requirements for a professional seal in the United States.
  32. ^ FAR 36.609 Archived 2010-12-01 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulations, Subpart 36.6 Architect-Engineer Services, Article 36.609 Contract Clauses.
  33. ^ Raine (ed.), James (1839). Historia Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres. Surtees Society. 9. London. p. 63.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  34. ^ Cherry 1992.
  35. ^ Paul Brand, "Seals and the law in the thirteenth century", in Schofield 2015, pp. 111–19 (at p. 115).
  36. ^ Cherry, "Medieval and post-medieval seals", in Collon 1997, p. 134.
  37. ^ Dąbrowska, Elżbieta (2011). "Les sceaux et les matrices de sceaux trouvés dans le tombes médiévales". In Gil, Marc; Chassel, Jean-Luc (eds.). Pourquois les sceaux? La sigillographie, nouvel enjeu de l’histoire de l’art. Lille: Centre de Gestion de l’Édition Scientifique. pp. 31–43.
  38. ^ Jenkinson, Hilary (1943). "What happened to the Great Seal of James II?". Antiquaries Journal. 23: 1–13. doi:10.1017/s0003581500042189.
  39. ^ "What Is A Signet Ring And Why Wear One?". www.hespokestyle.com. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  40. ^ "THE ULTIMATE GUIDE TO SIGNET RINGS / Journal | Rebus Signet Rings". www.rebussignetrings.co.uk. 2017-06-20. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  41. ^ Taylor, Gerald; Scarisbrick, Diana (1978). Finger Rings From Ancient Egypt to the Present Day. Ashmolean Museum. p. 71. ISBN 0-900090-54-5.

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  • Posse, Otto (1913). Die Siegel der deutschen Kaiser und Könige, von 751 bis 1913. 5. Dresden. Accessible on Wikisource
  • Schofield, Phillipp R., ed. (2015). Seals and their Context in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxbow. ISBN 978-1-78297-817-6.
  • Schofield, P. R.; New, E. A., eds. (2016). Seals and Society: medieval Wales, the Welsh marches and their English border region. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 9781783168712.
  • Whatley, Laura, ed. (2019). A Companion to Seals in the Middle Ages. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-38064-6.
  • Yule, Paul (1981). Early Cretan Seals: A Study of Chronology. Marburger Studien zur Vor und Frühgeschichte 4. Mainz. ISBN 3-8053-0490-0.
  • Živković, Tibor (2007). "The Golden Seal of Stroimir" (PDF). Historical Review. Belgrade: The Institute for History. 55: 23–29.

External links

Chipaque

Chipaque is a municipality and town in the Eastern Province of the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. The municipality of 139.45 square kilometres (53.84 sq mi) is located at an altitude of 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes with its westernmost part situated in the Eastern Hills of Bogotá. The Colombian capital is 27 kilometres (17 mi) west of Chipaque. Chipaque borders Bogotá's southern locality Usme in the west. To the east, Chipaque borders Cáqueza, in the south Une and in the north Ubaque. The average temperature is 13 °C (55 °F).

Cieleski coat of arms

Cieleski is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by several szlachta families in the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. A variation of the Trestka coat of arms.

Ciołek coat of arms

Ciołek (Polish for "bull calf") is a Polish coat of arms, one of the oldest in medieval Poland. It was used by many szlachta (noble) families under the late Piast dynasty, under the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, during the Partitions of Poland, and in the 20th century. The variant names "Siolek" and "Cialek" arose from miscommunication among early-20th-century Polish immigrants to the United States.

Emblem

An emblem is an abstract or representational pictorial image that represents a concept, like a moral truth, or an allegory, or a person, like a king or saint.

Kaneyama, Gifu

Kaneyama (兼山町, Kaneyama-chō) was a town located in Kani District, Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 1,695 and a density of 649.43 persons per km². The total area was 2.61 km² (which was the smallest municipality of the country in terms of area before the merger took place).

On May 1, 2005, Kaneyama was merged into the expanded city of Kani.

Kōnu, Hiroshima

Kōnu (甲奴町, kōnu-chō) was a town located in Kōnu District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 3,114 and a density of 47.78 persons per km². The total area was 65.17 km².

On April 1, 2004, Kōnu, along with the towns of Kisa, Mirasaka and Miwa, and the villages of Funo, Kimita and Sakugi (all from Futami District), was merged with the expanded city of Miyoshi and no longer exists as an independent municipality.

The main street of Kōnu also known as "Carter Street", named for US president Jimmy Carter after his visit in the 1990s.

Logo

A logo (abbreviation of logotype, from Greek: λόγος, translit. logos, lit. 'word' and Greek: τύπος, translit. typos, lit. 'imprint') is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark.

In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type (e.g. "The" in ATF Garamond), as opposed to a ligature, which is two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was also used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today often synonymous with its trademark or brand.

Ogończyk coat of arms

Ogończyk is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by several szlachta families in the times of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Representative office

A representative office is an office established by a company or a legal entity to conduct marketing and other non-transactional operations, generally in a foreign country where a branch office or subsidiary is not warranted. Representative offices are generally easier to establish than a branch or subsidiary, as they are not used for actual "business" (e.g. sales) and therefore there is less incentive for them to be regulated.

They have been used extensively by foreign investors in emerging markets such as China, India and Vietnam although they do have restrictions through not being able to invoice locally for goods or services. Consequently, Representative Offices tend to be utilized by foreign investors in fields such as sourcing of products, quality control, and general liaison activities between the Head Office and the Representative Offices overseas.

SOG Specialty Knives

SOG Specialty Knives, Inc. (commonly known as SOG) is a United States knife and tool manufacturing company famous for their reproduction SOG Knife from the Vietnam era.SOG manufactures a variety of knives other than the original military inspired designs, many designed for everyday carry (EDC). The company also produces a line of multi-tools.

Seal of Texas

The Seal of the State of Texas was adopted through the 1845 Texas Constitution, and was based on the seal of the Republic of Texas, which dates from January 25, 1839.

Seal of the Generalitat de Catalunya

The Seal of the Generalitat de Catalunya is the symbol that represents the Generalitat de Catalunya institutions and related organs.

It was designed by Bartomeu Llongueras during the Second Spanish Republic. Traditionally, the St George's Cross had been used as the Generalitat's seal.

After Spain's transition to democracy and the restoration of Catalonia's self-government, it was reinstated, albeit in a slightly modified version, in order to avoid confusion when placing the seal upside down (described by statute in 1981, decree 7/1981).

In some situations, a bicolour version is preferred, instead of the traditional tricolour one.

Sixteen Acres

Sixteen Acres is a neighborhood in Springfield, Massachusetts. Much of the neighborhood was constructed after World War II and is suburban in character.Sixteen Acres includes Western New England University, the SABIS International High School, Pioneer Valley Christian Academy, and the 18-hole, Veterans Memorial Golf Course. Besides streets of newer ranches, colonials, split-levels, and capes, the neighborhood has large condominium complexes on Nassau Drive. Sixteen Acres also features the 28-acre (11 ha) Greenleaf Park, a recently expanded branch library, and two private beach clubs (Bass Pond and the Paddle Club). Commercial clusters on Wilbraham Road and Allen Street provide convenient shopping, including the recently opened Fresh Acres Market.

Sixteen Acres residents have a quick drive to East Longmeadow's employers, such as Hasbro and American Saw, as well as a short drive up Parker Street to the Massachusetts Turnpike.In the early 1900s Theodore Granger (Granger Street) bought a parcel of land which was 16 acres in size in pursuit of his dream to become a farmer. Unfortunately his skills at farming were less than his skills as a carpenter and the farm did not thrive but parcels of land were given to family members and also sold.

Stamp seal

The stamp seal is a carved object, usually stone, first made in the 4th millennium BC, and probably earlier. They were used to impress their picture or inscription into soft, prepared clay.

Seal devices have seldom survived through time; it is usually only their impressions. A major exception are the cylinder seals made of stone, of which examples of their ancient impressions have survived as well, the majority being of clay tablets sealed as an authentication.

The Halaf culture saw the earliest known appearance of stamp seals in the Near East.

Trestka coat of arms

Trestka is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by several szlachta families in the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Officials
Subjects
Charges
of
heraldic
achieve-
ments

(List)

See also
Canting arms
Tinctures
Rules
Tricking
Hatching

(with
black and white
rendering)
External
Applications
See also

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