Screw cap

A screw cap or closure is a common type of closure for bottles, jars, and tubes.

Common screw closures (from left to right): Plastic bottle with plastic screw cap, Dispensing closure for salad dressing (with inner seal), Break-away closure for syrup, Dispensing pump closure, Dispensing closure (with inner seal), Spray pump, Metal closure on glass jar, Child resistant closure, Cap on toothpaste, Measuring cap

A "sports cap", which appears on many water bottles, seen in closed configuration at left and in open configuration at right, allowing the water to pass around the central blue piece.

Sports cap (bottle) - closed
Sports cap (bottle) - open


plastic screw cap with break-away tamper-evident band

A screw closure is a mechanical device which is screwed on and off of a "finish" on a container. Either continuous threads or lugs are used. It must be engineered to be cost-effective, to provide an effective seal (and barrier), to be compatible with the contents, to be easily opened by the consumer, often to be reclosable, and to comply with product, package, and environmental laws and regulations. Some closures need to be tamper resistant and have child-resistant packaging features. A tamper-evident band is a common tamper warning for screw caps of bottles, for example.

Wine industry

Screw caps' use as an alternative to cork for sealing wine bottles is gaining increasing support. A screw cap is a metal cap that screws onto threads on the neck of a bottle, generally with a metal skirt down the neck to resemble the traditional wine capsule ("foil"). A layer of plastic (often PVDC), cork, rubber, or other soft material is used as wad to make a seal with the mouth of the bottle.

Sake industry

Sake bottles are almost universally closed with screw caps (some are packed in barrels, or novelty bottles).

See also


  • Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4
  • Yam, K. L., "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
  • Prlewe, J. Wine from Grape to Glass. NY: Abbeville Press, 1999.
  • Wayne J. Mortensen and Brian K. Marks, The Failure of a Wine Closure Innovation: A Strategic Marketing Analysis,
  • ASTM D3474 Standard Practice for Calibration and Use of Torque Meters Used in Packaging Applications

External links

  • [1] New Zealand Screw Cap Initiative
Alternative wine closure

Alternative wine closures are substitute closures used in the wine industry for sealing wine bottles in place of traditional cork closures. The emergence of these alternatives has grown in response to quality control efforts by winemakers to protect against "cork taint" caused by the presence of the chemical trichloroanisole (TCA).The closures debate, chiefly between supporters of screw caps and natural corks, has increased the awareness of post-bottling wine chemistry, and the concept of winemaking has grown to continue after the bottling process, because closures with different oxygen transmission rates may lead to wines that taste different when they reach consumers.The cork-industry group APCOR cites a study showing a 0.7–1.2% taint rate. In a 2005 study of 2800 bottles tasted at the Wine Spectator blind-tasting facilities in Napa, California, 7% of the bottles were found to be tainted.

Boston round (bottle)

A Boston round bottle, or Winchester bottle, is a strong, heavy bottle commonly used in the drug and chemical industries. It is often made of amber (brown) glass (to filter out UV light) but can also be made of plastics.

Bottle cap

A bottle cap seals the top opening of a bottle. A cap is typically colourfully decorated with the logo of the brand of beverage. Plastic caps are used for plastic bottles, while metal with plastic backing is used for glass; the metal is usually steel. Plastic caps may have a pour spout. Flip-Top caps like Flapper closures provide controlled dispensing of dry products. Caps for plastic bottles are often made of a different type of plastic from the bottle.

Canteen (bottle)

A canteen is a drinking water bottle designed to be used by hikers, campers, soldiers and workers in the field. It is usually fitted with a shoulder strap or means for fastening it to a belt, and may be covered with a cloth bag and padding to protect the bottle and insulate the contents. If the padding is soaked with water, evaporative cooling can help keep the contents of the bottle cool. Many canteens also include a nested canteen cup.

Primitive canteens were sometimes made of hollowed-out gourds, such as a calabash, or were bags made of leather.

Later, canteens consisted of a glass bottle in a woven basket cover. The bottle was usually closed with a cork stopper.

Designs of the mid-1900s were made of metal — tin-plated steel, stainless steel or aluminum — with a screw cap, the cap frequently being secured to the bottle neck with a short chain or strap to prevent loss. These were an improvement over glass bottles, but were subject to developing pinhole leaks if dented, dropped or bumped against jagged rocks.

Contemporary designs are almost exclusively made of one of several types of plastics, especially polyethylene or polycarbonate. They are typically as light as, or lighter than, their metal equivalents and are quite resistant to developing leaks, even when dropped or severely bumped.

Hunter-gatherers in the Kalahari use ostrich eggshell as water containers in which they puncture a hole to enable them to be used as canteens. The presence of such eggshells dating from the Howiesons Poort period of the Middle Stone Age at Diepkloof Rock Shelter in South Africa suggests canteens were used by humans as early as 60,000 years ago.

Closure (container)

Closures are devices and techniques used to close or seal container such as a bottle, jug, jar, tube, can, etc. Closures can be a cap, cover, lid, plug, etc.

Other types of containers such as boxes and drums may also have closures but are not discussed in this article.

Disposable cup

A disposable cup is a type of tableware and disposable food packaging. Disposable cup types include paper cups, plastic cups and foam cups. Expanded polystyrene is used to manufacture foam cups, and polypropylene is used to manufacture plastic cups.As they are produced for single use, disposable cups and other similar disposable products constitute a major source of consumer and household waste, such as paper waste and plastic waste. It has been estimated that the average household discards around 70 disposable cups every year.US consumption is some 108 billion cups per year, the UK uses an estimated 2.5 billion paper cups every year.

Grosset Wines

Grosset Wines is an Australian winery based in the Clare Valley wine region of South Australia.

Growler (jug)

A growler () is a glass, ceramic, plastic, or stainless steel bottle (or jug) used to transport draft beer in the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil and other countries. They are commonly sold at breweries and brewpubs as a means to sell take-out craft beer. Rarely, beers are bottled in growlers for retail sale. The significant growth of craft breweries and the growing popularity of home brewing has also led to an emerging market for the sale of collectible growlers. Some U.S. grocery stores, convenience stores, bars and restaurants have growler filling stations.Crowlers ("Canned Growler") are a more modern and similar concept: a fillable and machine-sealable beer can. The selected beer is poured into the can body and then a pop-top is sealed over it at a canning station. It isn't reusable like a growler bottle, but is easier to transport. The major limitation is that they can only be about a quart (32 oz. [946-ml] or 40 imp oz [1136-ml]) or liter (33.8 oz or 35.2 imp oz) in size.

List of bottle types, brands and companies

This is a list of bottle types, brands and companies. A bottle is a rigid container with a neck that is narrower than the body, and a "mouth". Bottles are often made of glass, clay, plastic, aluminum or other impervious materials, and are typically used to store liquids. The bottle has developed over millennia of use, with some of the earliest examples appearing in China, Phoenicia, Rome and Crete. Bottles are often recycled according to the SPI recycling code for the material. Some regions have a container deposit which is refunded after returning the bottle to the retailer.

Merchants Manor Hotel

Merchants Manor Hotel is a hotel set on a hill above the town of Falmouth in Cornwall. Originally a mansion built in 1913 for the Carne family of merchants and brewers who developed the screw–cap bottle, in 1958, it became known as the Green Lawns Hotel. It became the Merchants Manor Hotel in 2012.

Peter Durand

Peter Durand (21 october 1766- 23 july 1822) was an English merchant who is widely credited with receiving the first patent for the idea of preserving food using tin cans. The patent (No 3372) was granted on August 25, 1810 by King George III of England.

The patent specifies that it was issued to Peter Durand, a merchant of Hoxton Square, Middlesex, United Kingdom, for a method of preserving animal food, vegetable food and other perishable articles using various vessels made of glass, pottery, tin or other suitable metals. The preservation procedure was to fill up a vessel with food and cap it. Vegetables were to be put in raw, whereas animal substances might either be raw or half-cooked. Then the whole item was to be heated by any means, such as an oven, stove or a steam bath, but most conveniently by immersing in water and boiling it. The boiling time was not specified, and was said to depend on the food and vessel size. Neither was the patent clear on the preservation time, which was merely said to be "long". The cap was to be partly open during the whole heating and cooling procedure, but right after that, the vessel should be sealed airtight by any means, such as a cork plug, a screw-cap with a rubber seal, cementing, etc.In his patent, Durand clearly mentions that the idea of the invention was communicated to him more than a year ago by a friend abroad. The patent itself consists of two distinct parts: first, the description of the original idea, and second, observations by Durand himself. Durand was clearly suspicious of the invention. However, having a curious mind, he performed a thorough test of it by himself, sealing meat, soups and milk, and boiling them as described. The original inventor had only experimented with small food volumes, whereas Durand envisioned future large scale production and therefore preserved up to 30 pounds (13.6 kg) of meat in one can. For unknown reasons, Durand used only tin cans rather than glass vessels. He arranged for the cans to sail with the Royal Navy for a period of four to six months. Several members of the Royal Society and the Royal Institution examined the food upon its arrival, and found that it was perfectly preserved.Durand's patent was dedicated to the preservation technique rather than to the vessel. The technique itself was developed previously by a Frenchman, Nicolas Appert. However, Appert used exclusively glass vessels whereas Durand was the first to mention in a patent use of tin cans.After receiving the patent, Durand did not pursue canning food himself. He sold his patent in 1812 to two other Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, for £1,000. Donkin was involved with tinning of iron from 1808 and was keen to expand it to the food industry. Donkin and Hall set up a commercial canning factory and by 1813 were producing their first canned goods for the British army. In 1818, Durand introduced tin cans in the United States by re-patenting his British patent in the US. By 1820, canned food was a recognized article in Britain and France and by 1822 in the United States.Regarding the foreign friend of Durand, who had given him the food preservation idea, extensive research in 19th century archives has revealed that he was French inventor Philippe de Girard. The relation between Durand and Girard has not been advertised, and the credit for the first canned food patent remains with Durand.

Pewsey Vale

Pewsey Vale vineyard was founded in Eden Valley, South Australia during 1847 by Englishman, Joseph Gilbert. It is currently part of S.Smith and son. It was the first vineyard established in what is now the Eden Valley wine region and the first to plant Riesling vines in Australia. Pewsey Vale has become one of Australia’s leading producers of commercial riesling, with its signature wine being the Contours Riesling.

Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin

Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin (Toulon, 24 March 1693 - Paris, 13 January 1768) was a French flutist and composer of the late Baroque period. He was a son of Jean-Joseph Buffardin (Vaison-la-Romaine, 22 July 1664 - Avignon, 28 August 1726), an instrument maker [needs citation].

Buffardin was the principal flutist of the orchestra (Hofkapelle) at the court of the Elector of Saxony in Dresden from 1715 to 1749. He was the teacher of flutists Johann Joachim Quantz, Pietro Grassi Florio, and Johann Sebastian Bach's elder brother, Johann Jacob Bach, whom he met in Constantinople in 1711.

Buffardin's Concerto in E minor for Flute is the only work which it is certain he wrote. Quantz said of Buffardin: "Il ne jouait que des choses rapides: car c'est en cela qu'excellait mon maître." (Translation: "He only played fast pieces; for in that my master excelled."). Antoine Mahaut claimed that Buffardin was the inventor of the flute's screw cap and the foot register; it remains uncertain whether or not a transverse flute stamped "Buffardin le fils" (discovered in 2015) may be attributed to him or a relative (see Giovanni Tardino, note for recording Bach: Sonate a cembalo obligato e traversiere solo, HRA (HiResAudio), 2018).

Screw cap (wine)

A screw cap is a metal, normally aluminium, cap that screws onto threads on the neck of a wine bottle, generally with a metal skirt down the neck to resemble the traditional wine capsule ("foil"). A layer of plastic (often PVDC), cork, rubber, or other soft material is used as wad to make a seal with the mouth of the bottle. Its use as an alternative wine closure is gaining increasing support as an alternative to cork for sealing wine bottles. In markets such as Australia and New Zealand screw caps on bottles have overtaken cork to become the most common means of sealing bottles.

Tamper-evident band

A tamper-evident band or security ring serves as a tamper resistant or tamper evident function to a screw cap, lid, or closure. The term tamper proof is sometimes used but is considered a misnomer given that pilfering is still technically possibleA security band can be integral with the cap or can be a separate package component. It is a plastic or metal structure around the circumference (usually) of the closure that is often found attached below a closure in bottles, jars, and tubs.

Several variations have been developed for caps, lids, and closures. The use of custom printing and security printing is available. Perforations or other areas of weakness are often used to initiate and control a tear. Sometimes engineered frangibility is used for break-away functions.

While tamper-evident bands are not considered a challenge for recycling, it is important that the band stays attached to the cap in case of refillable bottles, because it is hard to remove the rings from intact bottles in an economical way.The opening ring is a tamper warning: if the seal between the ring and the cap is broken, it is an indication that the cap has been opened.

Teller mine

The Teller mine was a German-made antitank mine common in World War II. With explosives sealed inside a sheet metal casing and fitted with a pressure-actuated fuze, Teller mines had a built-in carrying handle on the side. As the name suggests (Teller is the German word for dish or plate) the mines were plate-shaped.

Containing little more than 5.5 kilograms of TNT and a fuze activation pressure of approximately 200 lb (91 kg), the Teller mine was capable of blasting the tracks off any World War II-era tank or destroying a lightly armored vehicle. Because of its rather high operating pressure, only a vehicle or heavy object passing over the Teller mine would set it off.

Of the two types of pressure-fuze available for Teller mines, the T.Mi.Z.43 fuze was notable for featuring an integral anti-handling device as standard: when the T.Mi.Z.43 fuze is inserted and the pressure plate (or screw cap) is screwed down into place, it shears a weak arming pin inside the fuze with an audible "snap". This action arms the anti-handling device. Thereafter, any attempt to disarm the mine by unscrewing the pressure plate (or screw cap) to remove the fuze will automatically release the spring-loaded firing pin inside it, triggering detonation.

Since it is impossible to determine which fuze type has been installed, no pressure plate or screw cap should ever be removed from a Teller mine. The T.Mi.Z.43 fuze can be fitted to the Teller mine 35, 42 and 43 series.To hinder demining, all Teller mines featured two additional fuze wells (located on the side and underneath) to enable anti-handling devices to be attached, typically some form of pull-fuze.

There were four models of Teller Mine made during World War II:

Teller Mine 43

Teller Mine 42

Teller Mine 35

Teller Mine 29Approximately 3,622,900 of these mines were produced by Germany from 1943 to 1944.


A vial (also known as a phial or flacon) is a small glass or plastic vessel or bottle, often used to store medication as liquids, powders or capsules. They can also be used as scientific sample vessels; for instance, in autosampler devices in analytical chromatography. Vial-like glass containers date back to classical antiquity; modern vials are often made of plastics such as polypropylene. There are different types of vials such as a single dose vial and multi-dose vials often used for medications. The single dose vial is only used once whereas a multi-dose vial can be used more than once. The CDC sets specific guidelines on multi-dose vials.

Volumetric flask

A volumetric flask (measuring flask or graduated flask) is a piece of laboratory apparatus, a type of laboratory flask, calibrated to contain a precise volume at a certain temperature. Volumetric flasks are used for precise dilutions and preparation of standard solutions. These flasks are usually pear-shaped, with a flat bottom, and made of glass or plastic. The flask's mouth is either furnished with a plastic snap/screw cap or fitted with a joint to accommodate a PTFE or glass stopper. The neck of volumetric flasks is elongated and narrow with an etched ring graduation marking. The marking indicates the volume of liquid contained when filled up to that point. The marking is typically calibrated "to contain" (marked "TC" or "IN") at 20 °C and indicated correspondingly on a label. The flask's label also indicates the nominal volume, tolerance, precision class, relevant manufacturing standard and the manufacturer’s logo. Volumetric flasks are of various sizes, containing from 1 milliliter to 20 liters of liquid.

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