Scottish Power

Scottish Power is a vertically integrated energy company based in Glasgow, Scotland.[1] It is a subsidiary of Spanish utility Iberdrola.

ScottishPower is the distribution network operator for central and southern Scotland, Merseyside, North Wales and parts of Cheshire and Shropshire.[2] It is also the Transmission Owner for the south of Scotland. The company also supplies electricity and gas to homes and businesses around the United Kingdom and generates power for supply to the grid. It owned PPM Energy in the United States which has now been folded into Avangrid.

Scottish Power Ltd.
IndustryElectricity generation, transmission, distribution, retailing
HeadquartersGlasgow, Scotland, UK
Key people
Keith Anderson (CEO)
ProductsElectricity and Natural gas
Revenue£5,446.1 million (2006)
£869.7 million (2006)
£507.7 million (2006)
Number of employees
9,953 (2006)



Scottish Power 1990 Logo
Original ScottishPower logo

ScottishPower was formed in 1990, in preparation for the privatisation of the previously state-owned Scottish electricity industry the following year.[3] Previously the UK government had privatised the English and Welsh electricity industry by splitting the market into 12 regional electricity companies (RECs) and two power generators. However, in Scotland, the industry was already organised on an integrated generation, distribution, and supply basis, and this integration survived the privatisation to become a model for the rest of the United Kingdom. ScottishPower was largely formed from the larger of the two Scottish electricity boards, the South of Scotland Electricity Board, whilst the other, the North of Scotland Hydro Board, eventually became part of the Scottish and Southern Energy Group (the nuclear power stations in Scotland were spun off into a third company, Scottish Nuclear, which was not sold off with ScottishPower and Scottish Hydro Electric, but was sold later as part of British Energy).

Manweb and Southern Water

ScottishPower was the larger of the two Scottish energy companies and benefited from being both a generator and supplier of power. In 1995 it acquired the regional electricity company MANWEB, which supplied Merseyside, North Wales and parts of Cheshire.[4] In 1996 the company diversified into the water supply business with the purchase of Southern Water[5] (which was sold again in 2002).[6]

When the supply of energy into British homes was opened up to competition, ScottishPower entered this market, stealing share from the previous gas supply monopoly British Gas and also building new market share in England and Wales.


ScottishPower established the telecommunications company, Thus (originally known as Scottish Telecom)[7] and then floated it on the London Stock Exchange in 2002.[8]


In 2000, ScottishPower completed the acquisition of PacifiCorp, which supplies electricity in the western United States, which operates as Pacific Power (in the regulated energy industries of the states of Oregon, Washington, California), and as Rocky Mountain Power (in the regulated energy industries of the states of Idaho and Utah as well as both and central and eastern Wyoming (former Pacific Power territory), and southwestern Wyoming).[9] In May 2005, ScottishPower announced that it had agreed to sell Pacificorp to MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company, a company controlled by Warren Buffett's company, Berkshire Hathaway, for US$5.1 billion in cash and US$4.3 billion in debt and preferred stock.[10] The successful completion of the deal was announced on 21 March 2006, after securing regulatory approvals. The deal did not include PPM Energy (which, as Pacificorp Power Marketing, was formerly the non-regulated subsidiary of Pacificorp).

Rejected takeover bid from E.ON

Following the announcement, the group's share price rose but was now widely seen as vulnerable to a takeover. It was soon revealed that the German energy group E.ON, who also owns Powergen, was interested in a takeover. On 22 November 2005, the board rejected an offer from E.ON of 570 pence a share, which would have valued the group at £10.7 billion.[11]

Takeover bid from Iberdrola

On 28 November 2006, the board of directors of ScottishPower agreed to an £11.6 billion takeover bid by the Spanish energy firm Iberdrola. The offer was formally approved by shareholders at an EGM on 30 March 2007, effectively creating Europe's third largest utility company.[12]

Regulatory investigations and complaints

In April 2007, the British government's energy regulator, the Office of Gas and Electricity Markets (Ofgem), urged customers of Scottish Power and EDF Energy to switch to a cheaper provider after the firms refused to cut prices in line with the rest of the industry.[13]

In April 2008, Ofgem launched an investigation into allegations that Scottish Power abused their dominant market position relating to the electricity transmission network they own jointly in Scotland.[14] Ofgem said it had launched its inquiry into Scottish Power and Scottish & Southern Energy under section 18 of the Competition Act, "based on a formal complaint alleging abuse of a dominant position in the electricity generation sector arising from constrained capacity on the transmission network."[15] The energy regulator believes that energy generators manipulate the power market for profit when supplies are tight because network operator National Grid has to pay utilities to turn their plants on or off to balance supply and demand. This resulted in companies deliberately shutting their plants down when supplies are tight in order to receive a higher payment to start up again, increasing the system balancing costs at the expense of consumers. Ofgem was alarmed that the cost of balancing the system increased from £70 million in 2007/08 to an estimated £238 million for 2008/09 and an expected £258 million in 2009/10, with most of the costs incurred in Scotland. In January 2009, Ofgem suspended the investigation, saying it would be more effective to deal with the wider problem than pursuing the specific case further.[16]

Scottish Power building (geograph 5475867)
The company's new headquarters in central Glasgow (2017)

In November 2012, the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) publicly listed ScottishPower as one of a number of companies that it had concerns about due to unsolicited telephone calls for marketing. The concerns were based on complaints. In response, ScottishPower said that it was working with the ICO to address any issues.[17]

In early 2015, Scottish Power was temporarily banned from signing up new customers, due to long-standing and serious concerns regarding poor customer service, overdue bills and failure to implement rulings made by the Energy Ombudsman.[18] The company's failings continued to be highlighted in the press later in the year, with complaints levels 20 times those of their best-performing competitor.[19][20]

In April 2016, Scottish Power released a press release that an £18M agreement had been reached with OFGEM following their investigation into customer service standards.[21]

In 2017, Scottish Power created controversy when they pursued a couple for a £4,300 debt despite the couple not owing Scottish Power any money and, moreover, not being customers of the firm. Scottish Power ignored letters from the couple, instead sending bailiffs to the home of the couple. It later transpired that the couple were in no debt to Scottish Power.[22]


Transformer and electricity power generating gear at Knapton Power Station - - 545607
Knapton Power Station

Energy Retail

The Energy Retail division contains ScottishPower Energy Retail Ltd which holds the gas and electricity supply licences and has over 5.2 million customers in the UK. Also included in this division is SP Dataserve Ltd which is responsible for the metering and data management work and is the first-ever meter-reading company to allow customers to text in their meter readings.[23]

Energy Networks

Scottish power area
Scottish Power electricity distribution areas

The Energy Networks business contains three asset owning companies SP Transmission Ltd - holds the transmission licence for central and southern Scotland and owns the part of the Moyle Interconnector with Northern Ireland Electricity, SP Distribution Ltd - holds the distribution licence for central and southern Scotland and SP Manweb Plc - holds the distribution licence for North Wales, Merseyside, and Cheshire. A fourth asset management business SP Power Systems Ltd maintains and repairs the distribution networks on behalf of the owners and acts as the Distribution Network Operator. The operation of the transmission grid is carried out by National Grid plc.

Energy Wholesale

Energy Wholesale contained two companies ScottishPower Generation Ltd which formerly generated 6,200MW of electricity power in the United Kingdom using coal-fired thermal power stations, combined cycle power stations, hydro-electric schemes, pumped storage generation and were acquired by Drax in 2018. In 2006, ScottishPower Renewables (SPR) was granted permission to build Europe's largest on-shore windfarm. The 322 MW / 140 turbine site cost an estimated £300m and covers approximately 55 km2 (21 sq mi) of moorland south of Glasgow. By 2014, SPR had a portfolio of over 1,250 MW of operating windfarms, including the recently expanded Whitelee with a total generation capacity of 539 MW, making it Europe's largest windfarm. Also within this division is ScottishPower Energy Management Ltd which is responsible for buying and selling wholesale energy.

In 2005, the WWF named ScottishPower's Cockenzie power station as the UK's least carbon-efficient power station.[24] It is now closed.

In 2007, the WWF named ScottishPower's Longannet power station as the UK's least carbon-efficient power station out of Europe's top 30 worst polluting power stations in absolute terms.[25]

ScottishPower generation portfolio
Station name Generation capacity Installation Fuel
Longannet Power Station 2,400 MW (closed in 2016) 4 x 600 MW GEC Turbo-alternators
Each set is formed of a pair of 300 MW cross compound coupled T/A
Whitelee Wind Farm 322 MW 140 Siemens wind turbines Wind
Black Law Wind Farm 124 MW 54 Siemens wind turbines Wind
Inverkip Power Station 2028 MW (demolished in 2013) 3 x 676 MW Parsons turbo-alternators Oil

PPM Energy

PPM Energy Inc was previously the competitive arm of Pacificorp but was made a separate business in 2002. It was involved in renewable energy and gas storage, amongst other things, in the US. It is now part of Avangrid Renewables.

See also


  1. ^ "Scottish Power Limited - Overview (free company information from Companies House)".
  2. ^ "Contact Us - SP Energy Networks".
  3. ^ A whole world sold on sell-offs Guardian, 22 November 2000
  4. ^ Manweb confirms bid talks Independent, 26 September 1995
  5. ^ Scottish Water gets $2.35bn offer New York Times, 29 May 1996
  6. ^ Scottish Power to sell water firm for £2bn BBC News, 8 March 2002
  7. ^ Thus: About us
  8. ^ And thus the demerger finally canme to pass Independent, 20 December 2001
  9. ^ Scottish utility bids for PacificCorp Chicago Sun-Times, 8 December 1998
  10. ^ Berkshire Unit to acquire PacificCorp for $5.1bn Wall Street Journal, 24 May 2005
  11. ^ Scottish Power rejects bid move BBC News, 22 November 2005
  12. ^ Iberdrola to buy Scottish Power for £11.6bn International Herald Tribune, 28 November 2006
  13. ^ Ofgem slams EDF and Scottish Power. Times Online. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  14. ^ Ofgem inquiry into dominance of Scottish grid. The Guardian. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  15. ^ Scottish Power to be investigated by Ofgem Archived 4 August 2012 at LDP Business. 8 April 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  16. ^ Ofgem wants more power to punish market abuse. Reuters. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
  17. ^ Core, Kevin (16 November 2012), Commissioner names firms over 'nuisance' marketing calls, BBC News, retrieved 8 February 2013
  18. ^ "Scottish Power hit with 12-day sales ban by Ofgem". BBC News. 4 March 2015 – via
  19. ^ "Bungling Scottish Power still owes customers thousands". 13 October 2015.
  20. ^ Shaw, Vicky (28 September 2015). "ScottishPower finish bottom of customer service league table with 20 times more complaints than top-ranked supplier".
  21. ^ "ScottishPower to pay £18m for customer service failings". 26 April 2016.
  22. ^ "Firm chases wrong couple for £4k debt". BBC News. 17 March 2017.
  23. ^ "Incentivated - Full service mobile marketing and advertising agency based in London (UK)".
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^

External links


Alestorm is a multi-national heavy metal band originally from Perth, Scotland. Their music is characterised by a pirate theme, and as a result they have been dubbed a "pirate metal" band by many critics and their fanbase.After signing to Napalm Records in 2007, their debut album Captain Morgan's Revenge, was released on 25 January 2008. Black Sails at Midnight, the band's second album, was released on 27 May 2009. The band's third album, Back Through Time, was released on 3 June 2011. The fourth album from the band, Sunset on the Golden Age, was released in August 2014. Their fifth and latest album No Grave But the Sea was released on 26 May 2017.

Arecleoch Wind Farm

Arecleoch Wind Farm is a 60 turbine wind farm in South Ayrshire, Scotland with a total capacity of 120 megawatts (MW), enough to power over 67,000 homes. Construction started in 2009 and it was commissioned in June 2011.

Beinn an Tuirc windfarm

Beinn an Tuirc wind farm is a wind farm in Argyll, Scotland.

The site has 46 turbines with a total generating capacity of 30.36 MW, with each unit being a Vestas V47-660, with each turbine producing 660 kW, and is operated by Scottish Power. It was commissioned in 2001 and started operation in 2002. It cost £21 million to build. The turbines were built by Danish company Vestas, which specializes in their manufacture. It is 10 miles (16 kilometres) north of Campbeltown on the slopes of the Beinn an Tuirc, the highest hill on the Kintyre peninsula.Scottish Power was awarded a Queen's Award for Enterprise in 2006 for constructing Beinn an Tuirc and Black Law wind farms with a "collaborative and responsible approach". This referred to the company's practice of taking into account environmental concerns and the wishes of the local community in the wind farms' construction.One of the V47 turbines suffered a catastrophic failure in November 2007 when a brake problem led to the tower being bent in two. This was the first incident of an operational turbine tower collapsing in the UK. The farm was closed as a precaution, but soon reopened.

In an unusual move, Scottish Power has offered local rangers £30 for every mountain hare they hand over. The idea is to re-introduce this species to an area near to the wind farm in an attempt to lure golden eagles away from the turbines. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds said, "Scottish Power's approach in creating this habitat that takes into account local biodiversity is to be welcomed."

Bill Kazmaier

William Kazmaier (born December 30, 1953) is an American former world champion powerlifter, world champion strongman and professional wrestler. During the 1970s and 1980s, he set numerous powerlifting and strongman world records, and won two International Powerlifting Federation (IPF) World Championships and three World's Strongest Man titles. In the 1980s, Kazmaier became famous for his claim to be "the strongest man who ever lived" by equaling and surpassing spectacular and versatile feats of strength of famous strongmen of the 20th century. He is widely considered to be one of the all-time greatest competitors in strength competitions.

Coal Clough Wind Farm

Coal Clough Wind Farm is one of the oldest onshore wind farms in England. The wind farm, which was built for Scottish Power, produced electricity from originally 24 Vestas WD34 wind turbines. It had a total nameplate capacity of 9.6 MW of electricity, enough to serve the average needs of 5,500 homes. It is situated near Burnley, Lancashire in the parish of Cliviger, near Coal Clough Farm, on the edge of Stiperden Moor in the South Pennines. For just a few weeks it was the largest wind farm in the UK, until the much larger Penrhyddlan and Llidiartywaun wind farms (now called Llandinam) in Powys, Wales overtook it. It narrowly remained the largest in England until Coldham opened in Cambridgeshire in November 2005. The record was then taken yet again by Scout Moor Wind Farm just 7 miles (11 km) to the south west until May 2009 where Whitelee Wind Farm took and now holds it with 215 units with a total output capacity of 539 Mw. In 2009 Scottish Power announced plans to replace the existing turbines with eight 2 MW units with an estimated maximum height 110 metres (361 ft).After many ups and downs during the years, the announced planning on re-powering the wind farm was soon granted and work quickly began onsite mid 2014 to early 2015. It involved the decommissioning & removal of the existing 24 turbines, the laying of new cabling and drainage, removal of current WD34 bases and placement of new foundations, upgrading/building service roads, substation installation, the erection the newer & more efficient turbines you see in full operation today etc.The new and improved Coal Clough Wind Farm is set to be in operation for their full 25 years "Usefulness" life span, and will then be decommissioned and removed from site to be either refurbished & sold on to businesses worldwide or sent to be recycled.

Del Amitri

Del Amitri is a Scottish alternative rock band formed in Glasgow in 1980. Between 1985 and 2002, the band released six studio albums. Their 1995 single "Roll to Me" reached number 10 on the Billboard Hot 100. Five Del Amitri albums have reached the Top 10 in the UK. Globally, Del Amitri have sold six million albums.

Drax Group

Drax Group plc is a British electrical power generation company. The Group is made up of upstream and downstream enterprises. The principal downstream enterprises are based in the UK and include Drax Power Limited, which runs Europe's biggest biomass-fuelled power station, Drax power station, near Selby in North Yorkshire – the UK's largest decarbonisation project, as well as supplying between 7-8 per cent of the country's electricity needs. Related businesses include Haven Power, a supplier of electricity (including sustainable biomass energy) to business. The group's largest upstream enterprises are Drax Biomass, which sources sustainable biomass for Drax power station and Baton Rouge Transit, which handles storage and transport of finished biomass pellets from the Port of Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

Extra Energy

Extra Energy Supply Ltd (trading as extraenergy) was an independent retail energy supplier based in Birmingham, England. It supplied gas and electricity to domestic and SME customers. Extra Energy is part of Extra Holding, which operates in industries including telecoms, travel, insurance and energy. The group holds no debt and has high levels of liquidity. The company was launched in the UK in April 2014 and was the fastest growing energy supplier in the country. In November 2015, Extra Energy attracted 29.4% of all customers who switched energy supplier.In February 2016, the company was chosen by the Sun newspaper as its partner energy supplier for its People Power deal, which is designed to save Sun readers money on their energy bills. The tariff saved customers switching from a Big Six firm an average of £358.Extra Energy was founded and is solely owned by Moti Ben-Moshe. The company first launched in Germany in 2008, where it now has more than 2 million customers.The energy supplier has consistently featured in best buy tables since it launched into the UK market by offering the best dual fuel tariffs in the market, however It drew 1,682 complaints per 100,000 customers in the first three months of 2016, according to figures from Citizens Advice, which said this was "the highest complaints ratio ever recorded" in the five years since it began compiling league tables.The company appointed Ben Jones, previously CEO of BES Utilities, as managing director of operations in 2015, and hired Richard Rose, formerly director of financial controlling at RWE npower, as chief financial officer.

As of 21 November 2018 Extra Energy ceased trading. The regulator OFGEM automatically protected supplies and assigned Scottish Power as the replacement provider for existing customers after a competitive process.As of 4 December 2018 Mike Denny, Matthew Hammond and Ian Green of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP were appointed as joint administrators of Extra Energy.


Gloryhammer is an Anglo-Swiss symphonic power metal band founded by keyboardist Christopher Bowes, lead vocalist of the band Alestorm. Each member of the band represents a character in the story concept. The band appears on-stage in armour and costumes.


Iberdrola (Spanish pronunciation: [iβeɾˈðɾola]) is a Spanish public multinational electric utility company based in Bilbao, Basque Country. Iberdrola has a workforce of around 31,330 employees in dozens of countries on four continents serving around 31.67 million customers. Subsidiaries include Scottish Power (Scotland), Avangrid (United States) and Neoenergia (Brazil), amongst others. The largest shareholder of the company was, in 2013, Qatar Investment Holding; other significant shareholders are Norges Bank, Kutxabank and Bankia.Iberdrola is a global energy leader, the number-one producer of wind power, and one of the world’s biggest electricity utilities by market capitalisation. The group has businesses in numerous countries and supplies energy to over 100 million people, mainly in Spain, United Kingdom (Scottish Power), USA (AVANGRID), Brazil (Neoenergia), Mexico, Germany, Portugal, Italy or France. With a workforce of 34,000 and assets in excess of €113bn, it achieved a turnover of €35bn and a net profit of €3bn in 2018.

Iberdrola is leading the transition towards a sustainable energy model through investments in renewable energy, smart grids, large-scale energy storage and digital transformation, offering the most advanced products and services to its customers. Thanks to its commitment to clean energy, Iberdrola is one of the companies with the lowest emissions and an international benchmark for its contribution to the fight against climate change and sustainability.

List of power stations in Scotland

This list of power stations in Scotland includes current and former electricity-generating power stations in Scotland, sorted by type. Scotland is a net exporter of electricity and has a generating capacity of over 10GW. Much of this is generated by conventional fossil fuel-burning power stations, as well as two large nuclear power stations. Several hydro-electric schemes operate in the Highlands. Scotland also has an increasing number of wind farms, due to the large proportion of upland areas. As of July 2010, there were 100 operating wind farms in Scotland with a combined capacity of 2.1GW; and a further 96 projects under construction or consented, with capacity of 3.0GW. A number of other power plants include an experimental wave power generator on Islay, and Steven's Croft near Lockerbie, the UK's largest wood-fired biomass power station. Since 2016 no coal fired power stations are operating in Scotland.

Longannet power station

Longannet power station was a large coal-fired power station in Fife. It was the last coal-fired power station in Scotland. It was capable of co-firing biomass, natural gas and sludge. The station is situated on the north bank of the Firth of Forth, near Kincardine on Forth.

Its generating capacity of 2,400 megawatts was the highest of any power station in Scotland. The station began generating electricity in 1970, and when it became fully operational it was the largest coal-fired station in Europe. At the time of closure it was the third largest, after Bełchatów in Poland and Drax in England, and the 21st most polluting.

After failing to win a contract from National Grid, Longannet closed on 24 March 2016. The station was opened in 1973 and operated by the South of Scotland Electricity Board until 1990 when its operation was handed over to Scottish Power following privatisation.

The station is a regional landmark, dominating the Forth skyline with its 183 m (600 ft) chimney stack. Longannet lacked cooling towers, having instead used water from the River Forth for cooling.


MANWEB (Merseyside And North Wales Electricity Board) was the regional electricity supplier and distributor for Merseyside, North Wales and parts of Cheshire. It is now part of SP Energy Networks, itself a subsidiary of the Spanish energy company Iberdrola. In September 1994, MANWEB announced plans to slash five hundred jobs in the workforce.It was originally created in 1947 as the nationalised Merseyside and North Wales Electricity Board in the Electricity Act 1947, but was privatised in 1990 to become Manweb plc.

It was purchased by Scottish Power in January 1996, and subsequently become SP Manweb plc. The Manweb name continued to be used alongside the Scottish Power logo on home and retail publications until the middle of 2007, when it was replaced by "ScottishPower".

However, the Merseyside, Cheshire and North Wales electricity distributor continues as SP Manweb plc, which is managed along with the Scottish transmission operators SP Distribution plc and SP Transmission plc as SP Energy Networks. A fourth company, SP Power Systems Ltd maintains the distribution networks for each of these companies.

River Doon

The River Doon (Scottish Gaelic: Abhainn Dhùin, pronounced [avɪɲˈɣuːɲ]) is a river in Ayrshire, Scotland.Its course is generally north-westerly, passing near to the town of Dalmellington, and through the villages of Patna, Dalrymple, and Alloway, birthplace of Robert Burns. The source of the Doon is Loch Enoch, high in the Galloway Hills.

In the 1930s the Loch Doon was dammed to provide water to the Galloway Hydro Electric Scheme, today operated by Scottish Power.

The Doon is mentioned in Burns' classic narrative poem "Tam o' Shanter", along with the Brig o' Doon, which spans 72 ft (22 m) across the river, just outside Alloway. The river is also the major setting for his lesser-known poem "The Banks O' Doon".

ScottishPower Pipe Band

The ScottishPower Pipe Band, is a Grade 1 pipe band sponsored by the international energy company ScottishPower.

Shell Flat

The Shell Flat Sandbank was the site of a proposed Cirrus Shell Flat Array offshore wind farm in Lancashire, England. It is located about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) off the coast between Blackpool and Cleveleys. The wind farm project was canceled in 2008.

South of Scotland Electricity Board

The South of Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB), was formed as a result of the Electricity Reorganisation (Scotland) Act 1954. On 1 April 1955, South West Scotland Electricity Board and South East Scotland Electricity Board were merged into the South of Scotland Electricity Board. It was the predecessor to Scottish Power and Scottish Nuclear.

The SSEB generated, transmitted and distributed electricity throughout the south of Scotland, including the former regions of Strathclyde, Lothian, Fife, Central, Borders and Dumfries and Galloway and a few towns in northern England.

In January 1990 it shut down a reactor at the Hunterston A Magnox Power Station. The second reactor was shut down on 31 March 1990, the day before the nuclear generation assets (Hunterston A, Hunterston B and Torness Power Stations) were vested with Scottish Nuclear.

The remainder of the assets were privatised as Scottish Power in 1991.

Teenage Fanclub

Teenage Fanclub are a Scottish alternative rock band formed in Bellshill in 1989. The band was founded by Norman Blake (vocals, guitar), Raymond McGinley (vocals, lead guitar) and Gerard Love (vocals, bass), all of whom shared lead vocals and songwriting duties until Love's departure in 2018. As of 2019, the band's lineup consists of Blake, McGinley, Francis MacDonald (drums, vocals), Dave McGowan (bass, vocals) and Euros Childs (keyboards, vocals).In concert, the band usually alternate among its songwriters, giving equal playing time to each one's songs. Although often pegged as alternative rock, the group have incorporated a wide variety of elements from various music styles in their songs.Teenage Fanclub have had a succession of drummers, including Francis MacDonald, Brendan O’Hare and Paul Quinn, who left the band after recording the album Howdy!. Quinn was replaced by the returning Francis MacDonald. Keyboardist Finlay MacDonald (no relation) has also been a member. As of September 2016, the band have released ten studio albums and two compilation albums.

West of Duddon Sands Wind Farm

West of Duddon Sands Wind Farm (WoDS), occasionally also known as West Duddon Wind Farm is an offshore wind farm located 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) south west of Walney Island off the coast of Barrow-in-Furness in Cumbria, in the Irish Sea, England. It was developed by Scottish Power and Dong Energy.

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