Scottish English

Scottish English includes the varieties of English spoken in Scotland. The main, formal variety is called Scottish Standard English or Standard Scottish English (SSE).[1][2][3] Scottish Standard English may be defined as "the characteristic speech of the professional class [in Scotland] and the accepted norm in schools".[4] IETF language tag for "Scottish Standard English" is en-Scotland.[5]

In addition to distinct pronunciation, grammar and expressions, Scottish English has distinctive vocabulary, particularly pertaining to Scottish institutions such as the Church of Scotland, local government and the education and legal systems.

Scottish Standard English is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with focused broad Scots at the other.[6] Scottish English may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.[7][8] Many Scots speakers separate Scots and Scottish English as different registers depending on social circumstances.[9] Some speakers code switch clearly from one to the other while others style shift in a less predictable and more fluctuating manner.[9] Generally there is a shift to Scottish English in formal situations or with individuals of a higher social status.[10]

Scottish English
Native toUnited Kingdom
Early forms
Latin (English alphabet)
Language codes
ISO 639-3


Scottish English resulted from language contact between Scots and the Standard English of England after the 17th century. The resulting shifts to English usage by Scots-speakers resulted in many phonological compromises and lexical transfers, often mistaken for mergers by linguists unfamiliar with the history of Scottish English.[11] Furthermore, the process was also influenced by interdialectal forms, hypercorrections and spelling pronunciations.[12] (See the section on phonology below.)


King David Book of Psalms from the reign of James VI
A Book of Psalms printed in the reign of James VI and I

Convention traces the influence of the English of England upon Scots to the 16th-century Reformation and to the introduction of printing.[13] Printing arrived in London in 1476, but the first printing press was not introduced to Scotland for another 30 years.[14] Texts such as the Geneva Bible, printed in English, were widely distributed in Scotland in order to spread Protestant doctrine.

King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603. Since England was the larger and richer of the two Kingdoms, James moved his court to London in England. The poets of the court therefore moved south and "began adapting the language and style of their verse to the tastes of the English market".[15] To this event McClure attributes "the sudden and total eclipse of Scots as a literary language".[15] The continuing absence of a Scots translation of the Bible meant that the translation of King James into English was used in worship in both countries.

The Acts of Union 1707 amalgamated the Scottish and English Parliaments. However the church, educational and legal structures remained separate. This leads to important professional distinctions in the definitions of some words and terms. There are therefore words with precise definitions in Scottish English which have either no place in English English or have a different definition.


The speech of the middle classes in Scotland tends to conform to the grammatical norms of the written standard, particularly in situations that are regarded as formal. Highland English is slightly different from the variety spoken in the Lowlands in that it is more phonologically, grammatically, and lexically influenced by a Gaelic substratum. Similarly, the English spoken in the North-East of Scotland tends to follow the phonology and grammar of Doric.

Although pronunciation features vary among speakers (depending on region and social status), there are a number of phonological aspects characteristic of Scottish English:

  • Scottish English is a rhotic accent, meaning /r/ is typically pronounced in the syllable coda. The phoneme /r/ may be a postalveolar approximant [ɹ], as in Received Pronunciation or General American, but speakers have also traditionally used for the same phoneme a somewhat more common alveolar tap [ɾ] or, now very rare, the alveolar trill [r][16] (hereafter, ⟨r⟩ will be used to denote any rhotic consonant).
    • Although other dialects have merged non-intervocalic /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ʌ/ before /r/ (fern–fir–fur merger), Scottish English makes a distinction between the vowels in fern, fir, and fur.
    • Many varieties contrast /o/ and /ɔ/ before /r/ so that hoarse and horse are pronounced differently.
    • /or/ and /ur/ are contrasted so that shore and sure are pronounced differently, as are pour and poor.
    • /r/ before /l/ is strong. An epenthetic vowel may occur between /r/ and /l/ so that girl and world are two-syllable words for some speakers. The same may occur between /r/ and /m/, between /r/ and /n/, and between /l/ and /m/.
  • There is a distinction between /w/ and /hw/ in word pairs such as witch and which.
  • The phoneme /x/ is common in names and in SSE's many Gaelic and Scots borrowings, so much so that it is often taught to incomers, particularly for "ch" in loch. Some Scottish speakers use it in words of Greek origin as well, such as technical, patriarch, etc. (Wells 1982, 408).
  • /l/ is usually velarised (see dark l) except in borrowings like "glen" (from Scottish Gaelic "gleann"), which had an unvelarised l in their original form. In areas where Scottish Gaelic was spoken until relatively recently (such as Dumfries and Galloway) and in areas where it is still spoken (such as the West Highlands), velarisation of /l/ may be absent in many words in which it is present in other areas, but remains in borrowings that had velarised /l/ in Gaelic, such as "loch" (Gaelic "loch") and "clan" (Gaelic "clann").
  • /p/, /t/ and /k/ are not aspirated in more traditional varieties,[17] but are weakly aspirated currently.
  • The past ending -ed may be realised with /t/ where other accents use /d/, chiefly after unstressed vowels: ended [ɛndɪt], carried [karɪt]
  • Vowel length is generally regarded as non-phonemic, although a distinctive part of Scottish English is the Scots vowel length rule (Scobbie et al. 1999). Certain vowels (such as /i/, /u/, and /aɪ/) are generally long but are shortened before nasals and voiced plosives. However, this does not occur across morpheme boundaries so that need contrasts with kneed, crude with crewed and side with sighed.
  • Scottish English has no /ʊ/, instead transferring Scots /u/. Phonetically, this vowel may be pronounced [ʉ] or even [ʏ]. Thus pull and pool are homophones.
  • Cot and caught are not differentiated in most Central Scottish varieties, as they are in some other varieties.[18]
  • In most varieties, there is no /æ/-/ɑː/ distinction; therefore, bath, trap, and palm have the same vowel.[18]
  • The happY vowel is most commonly /e/ (as in face), but may also be /ɪ/ (as in kit) or /i/ (as in fleece).[19]
  • /θs/ is often used in plural nouns where southern English has /ðz/ (baths, youths, etc.); with and booth are pronounced with /θ/. (See Pronunciation of English th.)
  • In colloquial speech, the glottal stop may be an allophone of /t/ after a vowel, as in [ˈbʌʔər]. These same speakers may "drop the g" in the suffix -ing and debuccalise /θ/ to [h] in certain contexts.
  • /ɪ/ may be more open [ë̞] for certain speakers in some regions, so that it sounds more like [ɛ] (although /ɪ/ and /ɛ/ do not merge). Other speakers may pronounce it as [ɪ], just as in many other accents, or with a schwa-like ([ə]) quality. Others may pronounce it almost as [ʌ] in certain environments, particularly after /w/ and /hw/.
Scottish English monophthongs chart
Monophthongs of Scottish English (from Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7))
Scottish English vowels[20] (many individual words do not correspond)
Pure vowels
Lexical set Scottish English Examples
KIT [ë̞~ɪ] bid, pit
FLEECE [i] bead, peat
DRESS [ɛ~ɛ̝] bed, pet
FACE [e(ː)] bay, hey, fate
TRAP [ä] bad, pat
PALM balm, father, pa
LOT [ɔ] bod, pot, cot
THOUGHT bawd, paw, caught
GOAT [o(ː)]
road, stone, toe
FOOT [ʉ~ʏ] good, foot, put
GOOSE booed, food
STRUT [ʌ~ɐ] bud, putt
PRICE [ɐi~ɜi~əi] buy, ride, write
MOUTH [ɐʉ~ɜʉ~əʉ]
how, pout
CHOICE [oi] boy, hoy
Vowels followed by /r/ (these do not exist in Scots)
NEAR [i(ː)ə̞r] beer, mere
SQUARE [e(ː)ə̞r] bear, mare, Mary
NORTH [ɔ(ː)r] born, for
FORCE [oː(ə̞)r] boar, four, more
CURE [ʉr] boor, moor
NURSE 3-way distinction:
[ɪr], [ɛ̝r], [ʌr]
bird, herd, furry
Reduced vowels
COMMA [ə] Rosa's, cuppa
LETTER [ər] runner, mercer


Scotticisms are idioms or expressions that are characteristic of Scots, especially when used in English.[21] They are more likely to occur in spoken than written language.[22]

Examples include:

  • What a dreich day! meaning "What a dull, miserable, overcast day" (of weather)
  • I'm feeling quite drouthy meaning "I'm feeling quite thirsty"
  • That's a right (or real) scunner! meaning "That's extremely off-putting"
  • It's a fair way to Skye from here meaning "It's a good distance to Skye from here"
  • The picture still looks squint meaning "The picture still looks askew/awry"
  • You'd better just caw canny meaning "You'd better just go easy/Don't overdo it"
  • His face is tripping him meaning "He's looking fed up"
  • Just play the daft laddie meaning "Act ingenuously/feign ignorance"
  • You're looking a bit peely-wally meaning "You're looking a bit off-colour"
  • That's outwith my remit meaning "It's not part of my job to do that"
  • It depends on what the high heid yins think meaning "It depends on what the heads of the organisation/management think"
  • I'll come round (at) the back of eight meaning "I'll come round just after eight o'clock"
  • We're all Jock Tamson's bairns, stock phrase meaning "None of us is better than anyone else" (i.e. socially superior)
  • I kent his faither, stock phrase meaning "he started off as humbly as the rest of us before achieving success"
  • You're standing there like a stookie meaning "you stand there as if incapable of stirring yourself" (like a plaster statue, a stucco figure)[23]
  • He's a right sweetie-wife meaning "He likes a good gossip"
  • I didn't mean to cause a stooshie meaning "I didn't mean to cause a major fuss/commotion"
  • She was a bit pit oot when I told her meaning "She was a bit upset when I told her"
  • I'm swithering whether to go meaning "I'm in two minds/uncertain as to whether to go"
  • Ach, away ye go! stock phrase meaning "Oh, I don't believe you"

Scotticisms are generally divided into two types:[24] covert Scotticisms, which generally go unnoticed as being particularly Scottish by those using them, and overt Scotticisms, usually used for stylistic effect, with those using them aware of their Scottish nature.


An example of "outwith" on a sign in Scotland

Scottish English has inherited a number of lexical items from Scots,[25] which are less common in other forms of standard English.

General items are wee, the Scots word for small (also common in New Zealand English, probably under Scottish influence); bairn for child (from Common Germanic,[26] cf modern Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese barn, West Frisian bern and also used in Northern English dialects); bonnie for pretty, attractive, (or good looking, handsome, as in the case of Bonnie Prince Charlie); braw for fine; muckle for big; spail for splinter, snib for bolt, pinkie for little finger, janitor for school caretaker (these last two are also standard in American English), outwith, meaning 'outside of'; cowp for tip or spill, fankle for a tangled mess. Kirk for church has parallels in other Germanic languages (cf kirche which was also found in archaic names of some ancient churches in e.g. London). Examples of culturally specific items are Hogmanay; caber, haggis, bothy; scone; oatcake; tablet; rone (roof gutter); teuchter, ned, numpty (witless person; now more common in the rest of the UK) and landward (rural); It's your shot for "It's your turn"; and the once notorious but now redundant tawse.

The diminutive ending "-ie" is added to nouns to indicate smallness, as in laddie and lassie for a young boy and young girl. Other examples are peirie (child's wooden spinning top) and sweetie (piece of confectionery). The ending can be added to many words instinctively, e.g. bairn (see above) can become bairnie, a small shop can become a wee shoppie.

The use of "How?" meaning "Why?" is distinctive of Scottish, Northern English and Northern Irish English. "Why not?" is often rendered as "How no?".

There is a range of (often anglicised) legal and administrative vocabulary inherited from Scots[27] e.g. depute /ˈdɛpjut/ for deputy, proven /ˈproːvən/ for proved (standard in American English), interdict for '"injunction"[28][29] and sheriff-substitute for "acting sheriff'". In Scottish education a short leet is a list of selected job applicants, and a remit is a detailed job description. Provost is used for "mayor" and procurator fiscal for "public prosecutor".

Often, lexical differences between Scottish English and Southern Standard English are simply differences in the distribution of shared lexis, such as stay for "live" (as in: where do you stay?).


The progressive verb forms are used rather more frequently than in other varieties of standard English, for example with some stative verbs (I'm wanting a drink). The future progressive frequently implies an assumption (You'll be coming from Glasgow?).

In some areas perfect aspect of a verb is indicated using "be" as auxiliary with the preposition "after" and the present participle: for example "He is after going" instead of "He has gone" (this construction is borrowed from Scottish Gaelic).

The definite article tends to be used more frequently in phrases such as I've got the cold/the flu, he's at the school, I'm away to the kirk.

Speakers often use prepositions differently. The compound preposition off of is often used (Take that off of the table). Scots commonly say I was waiting on you (meaning "waiting for you"), which means something quite different in Standard English.

In colloquial speech shall and ought are scarce, must is marginal for obligation and may is rare. Here are other syntactical structures:

  • What age are you? for "How old are you?"
  • My hair is needing washed or My hair needs washed for "My hair needs washing" or "My hair needs to be washed".[30]
  • I'm just after telling you for "I've just told you".
  • Amn't I invited? for Am I not invited?

Note that in Scottish English, the first person declarative I amn't invited and interrogative Amn't I invited? are both possible.

See also


  1. ^ "SCOTS - Corpus Details". Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech.
  2. ^ "... Scottish Standard English, the standard form of the English language spoken in Scotland", Ordnance Survey
  3. ^ "Teaching Secondary English in Scotland - Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech". Retrieved 2010-04-30.
  4. ^ McClure (1994), pp. 79-80
  5. ^
  6. ^ Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.47
  7. ^ Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.48
  8. ^ Macafee C. Scots in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 11, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005. p.33
  9. ^ a b Aitken A.J. Scottish Speech in Languages of Scotland, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Paper 4, Edinburgh:Chambers 1979. p.85
  10. ^ Aitken A.J. Scottish Speech in Languages of Scotland, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Paper 4, Edinburgh:Chambers 1979. p.86
  11. ^ Macafee, C. (2004). "Scots and Scottish English." in Hikey R.(ed.),. Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: CUP. p. 60-61
  12. ^ Macafee, C. (2004). "Scots and Scottish English.". in Hikey R.(ed.),. Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: CUP. p.61
  13. ^ McClure (1994), pp. 33ff
  14. ^ "Place in history - First Scottish Books - National Library of Scotland".
  15. ^ a b McClure (1994), p. 36
  16. ^ Lodge, Ken (2009). A Critical Introduction to Phonetics. A & C Black. p. 180
  17. ^ "Wir Ain Leid". section "Consonants". Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  18. ^ a b Wells, pp. 399 ff.
  19. ^ Wells, p. 405.
  20. ^ Heggarty, Paul et al., eds. (2013). "Accents of English from Around the World". University of Edinburgh. Explicit use of et al. in: |editors= (help)CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  21. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2008-04-21. An idiom or mode of expression characteristic of Scots; esp. as used by a writer of English.
  22. ^ Aitken A.J. Scottish Speech in Languages of Scotland, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Paper 4, Edinburgh:Chambers 1979. p.105
  23. ^ stookie in the Dictionary of the Scots Language (see sense 2)
  24. ^ Aitken, A.J. Scottish Accents and Dialects in Trudgil, P. Language in the British Isles. 1984. p.105-108
  25. ^ Aitken A.J. Scottish Speech in Languages of Scotland, Association for Scottish Literary Studies, Occasional Paper 4, Edinburgh:Chambers 1979. p.106-107
  26. ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary".
  27. ^ Murison, David (1977, ²1978) The Guid Scots Tongue, Edinburgh, William Blackwood, pp. 53-54
  28. ^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language :: SND :: Interdict n., v". Retrieved 2015-12-25.
  29. ^ "interdict - definition of interdict in English from the Oxford dictionary". Retrieved 2015-12-25.
  30. ^ "Scottish Standard English".


  • Abercrombie, D. (1979). "The accents of Standard English in Scotland.". In A. J. Aitken; T. McArthur (eds.). Languages of Scotland. Edinburgh: Chambers. pp. 65–84.
  • Aitken, A. J. (1979) "Scottish speech: a historical view with special reference to the Standard English of Scotland" in A. J. Aitken and Tom McArthur eds. Languages of Scotland, Edinburgh: Chambers, 85-118. Updated in next.
  • Corbett, John, J. Derrick McClure, and Jane Stuart-Smith (eds.) (2003). Edinburgh Student Companion to Scots. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1596-2.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Foulkes, Paul; & Docherty, Gerard. J. (Eds.) (1999). Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold. ISBN 0-340-70608-2.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Hughes, A., Trudgill, P. & Watt, D. (Eds.) (2005). English Accents and Dialects (4th Ed.). London: Arnold. ISBN 0-340-88718-4.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Macafee, C. (2004). "Scots and Scottish English.". In Hikey R. (ed.). Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects. Cambridge: CUP.
  • McClure, J. Derrick (1994) "English in Scotland", in Burchfield, Robert (1994). The Cambridge History of the English Language, volume v. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-26478-2.
  • Scobbie, James M.; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006). "Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview". Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers.
  • Scobbie, James M., Nigel Hewlett, and Alice Turk (1999). "Standard English in Edinburgh and Glasgow: The Scottish Vowel Length Rule revealed.". In Paul Foulkes; Gerard J. Docherty (eds.). Urban Voices: Accent Studies in the British Isles. London: Arnold. pp. 230–245.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Scobbie, James M., Olga B. Gordeeva, and Benjamin Matthews (2007). "Scottish English Speech Acquisition.". In Sharynne McLeod (ed.). The International Guide to Speech Acquisition. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. pp. 221–240.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22919-7. (vol. 1). ISBN 0-521-24224-X (vol. 2)., ISBN 0-521-24225-8 (vol. 3).

Further reading

External links

Anglo-Scottish border

The border between England and Scotland runs for 96 miles (154 km) between Marshall Meadows Bay on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. It is Scotland's only land border with another country, and one of England's two (the other being with Wales).

The Firth of Forth was the border between the Picto-Gaelic Kingdom of Alba and the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria in the early 10th century. It became the first Anglo-Scottish border with the annexation of Northumbria by Anglo-Saxon England in the mid 10th century. In 973, Kenneth, King of Scots attended the English king, Edgar the Peaceful, at his council in Chester. After Kenneth had reportedly done homage, Edgar rewarded Kenneth by granting him Lothian. Despite this transaction, the control of Lothian was not finally settled and the region was taken by the Scots at the Battle of Carham in 1018 and the River Tweed became the de facto Anglo-Scottish border. The Solway–Tweed line was legally established in 1237 by the Treaty of York between England and Scotland. It remains the border today, with the exception of the Debatable Lands, north of Carlisle, and a small area around Berwick-upon-Tweed, which was taken by England in 1482. It is thus one of the oldest extant borders in the world, although Berwick was not fully annexed into England until 1746, by the Wales and Berwick Act 1746.For centuries until the Union of the Crowns the region on either side of the boundary was a lawless territory suffering from the repeated raids in each direction of the Border Reivers.

Following the Treaty of Union 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united Scotland with England and Wales to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Border continues to form the boundary of two distinct legal jurisdictions as the treaty between the two countries guaranteed the continued separation of English law and Scots law.The age of legal capacity under Scots law is 16, while it was previously 18 under English law. The border settlements of Gretna Green to the west, and Coldstream and Lamberton to the east, were convenient for elopers from England who wanted to marry under Scottish laws, and marry without publicity.

The marine boundary was adjusted by the Scottish Adjacent Waters Boundaries Order 1999 so that the boundary within the territorial waters (up to the 12-mile (19 km) limit) is 0.09-kilometre (0.056 mi) north of the boundary for oil installations established by the Civil Jurisdiction (Offshore Activities) Order 1987.

Bungi Creole

Bungi (also Bungee, Bungie, Bungay, or the Red River Dialect) is a creole language of Scottish English, the Orcadian dialect of Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Cree, and Ojibwe. It is spoken by the Red River Métis in present-day Manitoba, Canada.

Bungi has been categorized as a post-creole, with the distinctive features of the language gradually abandoned by successive generations of speakers in favour of standard Canadian English. Today, the creole mostly survives in the speech of a few elders, and the use of non-standard pronunciations and terminology by a wider population.

Burn (landform)

A burn is a watercourse (in size from a large stream to a small river).

Court shoe

A court shoe (British English), coort shoe (Scottish English), or pump (American English), is a shoe with a low-cut front, or vamp, and without a fastening. For the traditional formal menswear, the style is sometimes called an opera slipper or patent leather pump.

The construction of pumps is simple, using a whole-cut leather top with a low vamp, lined with either quilted silk or plain leather, trimmed with braid at the opening. The full leather sole is either glued onto the bottom, common on cheaper styles, or sewn, as on more costly bespoke styles still made traditionally, using a shallow slit to lift a flap of leather around the edge to recess and hide the stitching. The sole is, as on ordinary shoes, several layers of leather put together. The bow is made of grosgrain silk or rayon, in a pinched or flat form.

For women, pumps with a strap across the instep are called Mary Janes. Pumps may have an ankle strap.

Crisp sandwich

A crisp sandwich (in British English or Hiberno-English), piece and crisps (in Scottish English), chip sandwich, chipwich, potato chip sandwich, crisp sarnie, crisp butty, or chippy sandwich (Australian English) is a sandwich that includes crisps (potato chips) as one of the fillings. In addition to the crisps, any other common sandwich ingredient may be added.

Crisp sandwiches are particularly popular in Britain and Ireland. There are crisp sandwich shops in West Yorkshire as well as Belfast, both of which opened in 2015.

Glasgow patter

The speech of Glaswegians, popularly known as the Glasgow patter or Glaswegian, varies from Scottish English at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with the local dialect of West Central Scots at the other. Therefore the speech of many Glaswegians can draw on a "continuum between fully localised and fully standardised". Additionally the Glasgow dialect has Highland English and Hiberno-English influences, owing to the speech of Highlanders and Irish people, who migrated in large numbers to the Glasgow area in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Glasgow vernacular also exerts considerable influence on the vernacular of the surrounding towns such as Clydebank, Paisley, Renfrew and Rutherglen, and increasingly gaining influence around the Firth of Clyde in Cambeltown, Dumbarton, Gourock, Greenock and Rothesay. An east Lanarkshire variety is spoken in Airdrie, Coatbridge, Cumbernauld, Denny, Motherwell, Strathaven and Wishaw. An Ayrshire variety is spoken in Carstairs, Irvine, Kilmarnock, Leadhills and Prestwick.As with other dialects, the Patter is subject to dialect levelling where particularly Scots vocabulary is replaced by Standard English words and, in particular, words largely from colloquial English. However, Glaswegians do continue to create new euphemisms as well as nicknames for well-known local figures and buildings.

Highland English

Highland English or Highland and Island English is the variety of Scottish English spoken by many in the Scottish Highlands and the Hebrides. It is more strongly influenced by Gaelic than other forms of Scottish English.

International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects

This chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.

See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic transcriptions used in different dictionaries.

AuE, Australian English

CaE, Canadian English

GA, General American

InE, Indian English

IrE, Irish English

NZE, New Zealand English

RP, Received Pronunciation (Standard in the United Kingdom)

ScE, Scottish English

SAE, South African English

SSE, Standard Singapore English

WaE, Welsh English


A janitor (American English, Scottish English), janitress (female), custodian, porter, cleaner or caretaker is a person who cleans and maintains buildings such as hospitals, schools, and residential accommodation. Janitors' primary responsibility is as a cleaner. In some cases, they will also carry out maintenance and security duties. A similar position, but usually with more managerial duties and not including cleaning, is occupied by building superintendents in the United States (and occasionally in Canada). Cleaning is one of the most commonly outsourced services.

Languages of Scotland

The languages of Scotland are the languages spoken or once spoken in Scotland. Each of the numerous languages spoken in Scotland during its recorded linguistic history falls into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. The classification of the Pictish language was once controversial, but it is now generally considered a Celtic language. Today, the main language spoken in Scotland is English, while Scots and Scottish Gaelic are minority languages. The dialect of English spoken in Scotland is referred to as Scottish English.

Links (golf)

A links is the oldest style of golf course, first developed in Scotland. The word "links" comes via the Scots language from the Old English word hlinc : "rising ground, ridge" and refers to an area of coastal sand dunes and sometimes to open parkland. Links land is typically characterised by dunes, an undulating surface, and a sandy soil unsuitable for arable farming but which readily supports various indigenous browntop bent and red fescue grasses, that result in the firm turf associated with links courses and the 'running' game (the hard surface typical of the links-style course allows balls to "run" out much farther than on softer turf course after a fairway landing- often players will land the ball well before the green and allow it to run up onto the green rather than landing it on the green in the more targeted-landing style used on softer surfaces. It also retains this more general meaning in standard Scottish English. It can be treated as singular even though it has an "s" at the end and occurs in place names that precede the development of golf, for example Lundin Links, Fife.


Loch () is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet. It is cognate with the Manx lough, Cornish logh, and one of the Welsh words for lake, llwch.

In English English and Hiberno-English, the anglicised spelling lough is commonly found in place names; in Lowland Scots and Scottish English, the spelling "loch" is always used.

Some lochs could also be called firths, fjords, estuaries, straits or bays. Sea-inlet lochs are often called sea lochs or sea loughs. Many loughs are connected to stories of lake-bursts, signifying their mythical origin.

Morell, Prince Edward Island

Morell is a municipality that holds community status in Prince Edward Island, Canada. It is located in Kings County east of Bristol.

Morell is located on St. Peter’s Bay, two kilometres inland from St. Peter's Bay, a sub-basin of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The local economy is centred on farming (wild blueberry farms), fishing (Lobster), aquaculture (Mussels), and tourism.

Incorporated in 1953, the community covers a land area of 1.27 km² and has a permanent population of 313.

Most of the area residents are of Scottish, English, Irish, or French descent. The first inhabitants of the community of Morell were Maritime Archaeic Indians followed by the Mi'kmaq Nation. The Morell River was known to the Mi'kmaq as Pogooseemkekseboo, meaning "clam ground river".

The community was named for Jean Francois Morel who settled in the area in 1720-21 having arrived from St. Malo, France. Attractions include the nearby Rodd Crowbush Golf & Beach Resort.

O (Cyrillic)

O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.

O commonly represents the close-mid back rounded vowel /o/, like the pronunciation of ⟨o⟩ in Scottish English "go".


Scots may refer to:

The Scottish people, those whose origin is in Scotland

The Scots language, spoken in the Lowlands of Scotland (also known as "Lowland Scots" to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic)


Scottish English

Scots pine, a conifer tree named after Scotland

Short for Pound Scots

For the Scots, an ethnic group of the late Iron age, the historical people of Dalriada, a Gaelic-speaking kingdom in northeastern Ireland and western Scotland, see Gaels and Scoti

Scots' Church, Melbourne

Scots Church, Sydney

The Scots College (TSC or Scots), a private school in Sydney, Australia

Scot's Lo-Cost, a warehouse type Grocery store owned by Weis marketsSCOTS may refer to:

The abbreviated term for the Battalions of the Royal Regiment of Scotland

Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech, a linguistic resource

Southern Culture on the Skids, an American music group

Scots Wikipedia

The Scots Wikipedia (Scots: Scots Wikipaedia) is the Scots language version of Wikipedia, and is run by the Wikimedia Foundation. It was established on 23 June 2005, and first reached 1,000 articles in February 2006, and 5,000 articles in November 2010. As of April 2019, it has about 54,000 articles. The Scots Wikipedia is one of eight Wikipedias written in an Anglic language or English-based pidgin/creole, the others being the English Wikipedia, the Simple English Wikipedia, the Old English Wikipedia, the Pitkern-Norfuk Wikipedia, the Tok Pisin Wikipedia, the Jamaican Patois Wikipedia, and the Sranan Tongo Wikipedia.

Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster in Ireland (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots). It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language which was historically restricted to most of the Highlands, the Hebrides and Galloway after the 16th century. The Scots language developed during the Middle English period as a distinct entity.As there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing a language from a dialect, scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of Scots and particularly its relationship to English. Although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects exist, they often render contradictory results. Broad Scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with Scottish Standard English at the other. Scots is often regarded as one of the ancient varieties of English, but it has its own distinct dialects. Alternatively, Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language, in the way that Norwegian is closely linked to but distinct from Danish.In the 2011 Scottish Census, 1.5 million people in Scotland reported to be able to speak Scots.

Trainspotting (novel)

Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh, first published in 1993. It takes the form of a collection of short stories, written in either Scots, Scottish English or British English, revolving around various residents of Leith, Edinburgh who either use heroin, are friends of the core group of heroin users, or engage in destructive activities that are implicitly portrayed as addictions that serve the same function as heroin addiction. The novel is set in the late 1980s and has been described by The Sunday Times as "the voice of punk, grown up, grown wiser and grown eloquent".The novel has since achieved a cult status, added to by the global success of the film based on it, Trainspotting (1996), directed by Danny Boyle. Welsh wrote a sequel, Porno, in 2002. Skagboys, a novel that serves as a prequel, was published in April 2012.


Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant.

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, velarization is transcribed by one of four diacritics:

A tilde or swung dash through the letter U+0334 ̴ COMBINING TILDE OVERLAY (HTML ̴) covers velarization, uvularization and pharyngealization, as in [ɫ] (the velarized equivalent of [l])

A superscript Latin gamma U+02E0 ˠ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL GAMMA (HTML ˠ) after the letter standing for the velarized consonant, as in ⟨tˠ⟩ (a velarized [t])

To distinguish velarization from a velar fricative release, ⟨ᵚ⟩ may be used instead of ⟨ˠ⟩

A superscript ⟨w⟩ U+02B7 ʷ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL W indicates either simultaneous velarization and labialization, as in ⟨sʷ⟩ or ⟨pʷ⟩, or labialization of a velar consonant, as in ⟨kʷ⟩.Although electropalatographic studies have shown that there is a continuum of possible degrees of velarization, the IPA does not specify any way to indicate degrees of velarization, as the difference has not been found to be contrastive in any language. However, the IPA convention of doubling diacritics to indicate a greater degree can be used: ⟨ˠˠ⟩.

Scotland articles
Dialects and accents of Modern English by continent
North and

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