Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
The site was founded by married couple Dan and Michele Hogan in 1995; Dan Hogan formerly worked in the public affairs department of Jackson Laboratory writing press releases. The site makes money from selling advertisements. As of 2010, the site said that it had grown "from a two-person operation to a full-fledged news business with worldwide contributors" but at the time, it was run out of the Hogans' home, had no reporters, and only reprinted press releases. In 2012, Quantcast ranked it at 614 with 2.6 million U.S. visitors.
Type of site
|Press release distribution|
Meanwhile, sites like ScienceDaily, Eurekalert and PhysOrg provide the pretence of journalism while actually acting as staging grounds for PR.
In cases where the scientists are not contacted about their research, we have "churnalism" — news released based largely if not totally on press release alone. We also have pres-release farms such as PhysOrg and ScienceDaily that seem to me to do little else but repackage press releases one can find on science press releases sites such as EurekAlert.
Asimov Crater is an impact crater in the Noachis quadrangle of Mars, located at 47.0° S and 355.05° W. It is 84.0 km in diameter and was named after Isaac Asimov (1920–1992), an American biochemist and writer. The name was officially adopted on May 4, 2009.Bamberg (crater)
Bamberg is an impact crater in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle of Mars, located at 39.71 N and 356.9 E. It is 55.7 km in diameter and is named after the town Bamberg in Germany. CTX images and HiRISE images from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have shown that the crater contains gullies. Martian gullies are believed to have formed through rather recent flows of liquid water.
Gullies are visible in the pictures below. On the basis of their form, aspects, positions, and location amongst and apparent interaction with features thought to be rich in water ice, many researchers believed that the processes carving the gullies involve liquid water. However, this remains a topic of active research.
As soon as gullies were discovered, researchers began to image many gullies over and over, looking for possible changes. By 2006, some changes were found. Later, with further analysis it was determined that the changes could have occurred by dry granular flows rather than being driven by flowing water. With continued observations many more changes were found in Gasa Crater and others.
With more repeated observations, more and more changes have been found; since the changes occur in the winter and spring, experts are tending to believe that gullies were formed from dry ice. Before-and-after images demonstrated the timing of this activity coincided with seasonal carbon-dioxide frost and temperatures that would not have allowed for liquid water. When dry ice frost changes to a gas, it may lubricate dry material to flow especially on steep slopes. In some years frost, perhaps as thick as 1 meter.Bifocals
Bifocals are eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers. Bifocals are commonly prescribed to people with presbyopia who also require a correction for myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism.Cannabis consumption
Cannabis consumption refers to the variety of ways cannabis is consumed, among which inhalation (smoking and vaporizing) and ingestion are most common. Salves and absorption through the skin (transdermal) are increasingly common in medical uses, both of CBD, THC, and other cannabinoids. Each method leads to subtly different psychoactive effects due to the THC and other chemicals being activated, and then consumed through different administration routes. It is generally considered that smoking, which includes combustion toxins, comes on quickly but lasts for a short period of time, while eating delays the onset of effect but the duration of effect is typically longer. In a 2007 ScienceDaily report of research conducted at the University of California–San Francisco, researchers reported that vaporizer users experience the same biological effect, but without the toxins associated with smoking.Catacombs
Catacombs are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice. Any chamber used as a burial place is a catacomb, although the word is most commonly associated with the Roman Empire.Copernicus (Martian crater)
Copernicus is a large crater on Mars, with a diameter close to 300 km. It is located south of the planet's equator in the heavily cratered highlands of Terra Sirenum in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 48.8°S and 191.2°E. Its name was approved in 1973, and it was named after Nicolaus Copernicus.Human outpost
Human outposts are artificially-created, controlled human habitats located in environments inhospitable for humans, such as on the ocean floor, in space or on another planet.
The logistics and difficulties inherent in such ventures have been heavily explored in science fiction.Jahai language
Jahai (Jehai) is an aboriginal Mon–Khmer language spoken by the Jahai people living in Taman Negeri Diraja Belum of Perak, Malaysia. The small number of speakers is increasing.
Jahai vocabulary includes a series of words for describing odors.M60-UCD1
M60-UCD1 is an ultracompact dwarf galaxy. It is 54 million light years from Earth, close to Messier 60 (M60, NGC 4649) in the Virgo Cluster. Half of its stellar mass is in the central sphere 160 light years in diameter.Newton (Martian crater)
Newton is a large crater on Mars, with a diameter close to 300 km. It is located south of the planet's equator in the heavily cratered highlands of Terra Sirenum in the Phaethontis quadrangle. The crater was named in 1973 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) in honor of British physicist Sir Isaac Newton.Niger Vallis
Niger Vallis is a valley on Mars that appears to have been carved by water. It has been identified as an outflow channel. It merges with Dao Vallis which runs southwestward into Hellas Planitia from the volcanic Hadriacus Mons. Like Dao, it was formed around the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian Epochs. It is named after the Niger River in Africa.Penticton (crater)
Penticton is an impact crater in the Hellas quadrangle of Mars, located at 38.35° south latitude and 263.35° west longitude. Penticton is on the eastern rim of the Hellas impact crater. It is 8 kilometers in diameter and was named after Penticton, a Town in British Columbia, Canada, nearby the little town of Okanagan Falls where is located the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory. Images with HiRISE show gullies which were once thought to be caused by flowing water.Pesticides in the United States
Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector, but approximately a quarter of them are used in houses, yards, parks, golf courses, and swimming pools.Ptolemaeus (Martian crater)
Ptolemaeus is a crater on Mars, found in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 46.21° south latitude and 157.6° west longitude. It measures approximately 165 kilometers in diameter and was named after Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy), the Greco-Egyptian astronomer (c. AD 90-160). Mantle material that is believed to have fallen from the sky is visible in the crater.
The Soviet probe Mars 3 is thought to have successfully landed in Ptolemaeus Crater in 2 December 1971, but contact was lost seconds after landing due do a dust storm occurring at the time. On 11 April 2013, NASA announced that the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) may have imaged the Mars 3 lander hardware on the surface of Mars. The HiRISE camera on the MRO took images of what may be the parachute, retrorockets, heat shield and lander.Slipher (Martian crater)
Slipher is an impact crater in the Thaumasia quadrangle of Mars, located at 47.3°S latitude and 84.6°W longitude. It measures 127 kilometers in diameter and was named after American astronomers Vesto and Earl Slipher. The naming was approved by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature in 1973.Tader Valles
Tader Valles is a set of small channels in the Phaethontis quadrangle found at
49.1° south latitude and 152.5° west longitude. it is named after the ancient name for present Segura River, Spain.Terrain
Terrain or relief (also topographical relief) involves the vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface. The term bathymetry is used to describe underwater relief, while hypsometry studies terrain relative to sea level. The Latin word terra (the root of terrain) means "earth."
In physical geography, terrain is the lay of the land. This is usually expressed in terms of the elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Terrain affects surface water flow and distribution. Over a large area, it can affect weather and climate patterns.Toba catastrophe theory
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is one of the Earth's largest known eruptions. The Toba catastrophe theory holds that this event caused a global volcanic winter of six to ten years and possibly a 1,000-year-long cooling episode.
In 1993, science journalist Ann Gibbons posited that a population bottleneck occurred in human evolution about 70,000 years ago, and she suggested that this was caused by the eruption. Geologist Michael R. Rampino of New York University and volcanologist Stephen Self of the University of Hawaii at Manoa support her suggestion. In 1998, the bottleneck theory was further developed by anthropologist Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. Both the link and global winter theories are highly controversial.
The Toba event is the most closely studied supereruption.Very (Martian crater)
Very is a crater on Mars, located south of the planet's equator in the heavily cratered highlands of Terra Sirenum in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 49.2°S and 177.1°W. It measures approximately 115 kilometers in diameter. The crater was named after American astronomer Frank Washington Very.