|The Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor) from the family Cecidomyiidae|
Bolitophila is the sole genus in the Bolitophilidae, a family of Diptera, with around 40 Palaearctic and about 20 Nearctic species, and three species from the Oriental region (Taiwan). They are small (6–9 mm.)Cecidomyia
Cecidomyia is a genus of gall midges in the tribe Cecidomyiini.Cecidomyiini
Cecidomyiini is a tribe of gall midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 220 described species in Cecidomyiini.Diadocidiidae
The Diadocidiidae are a family of flies (Diptera).
Two genera with over 20 species are described. Diadocidiidae are found worldwide, except in Africa and Antarctica. They are usually considered close to the Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae, and Ditomyiidae, and used to be included in the Mycetophilidae. They are woodland flies. The larvae spin silken tubes under bark or in dead logs.Ditomyia
Ditomyia is a genus of fungus gnats in the family Ditomyiidae.Ditomyiidae
The Ditomyiidae are a small (90 species) family of flies (Diptera).They are found worldwide (except in the Afrotropical Region), most species are found in the Australasian and Neotropical realms. There are only two genera in Europe Ditomyia Winnertz, 1846 and Symmerus Walker, 1848 Ditomyia is found in Central Europe Symmerus in Northern Europe
Symmerus is endemic to the Palaearctic.Fungus gnat
Fungus gnats are small, dark, short-lived gnats, of the families Sciaridae, Diadocidiidae, Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae, and Mycetophilidae (order Diptera); they comprise six of the seven families placed in the superfamily Sciaroidea.Hessian fly
The Hessian fly or barley midge, Mayetiola destructor, is a species of fly that is a significant pest of cereal crops including wheat, barley and rye. Though a native of Asia it was transported into Europe and later into North America, supposedly in the straw bedding of Hessian troops during the American Revolution (1775–83), thus the origin of its common name. There are usually two generations a year but may be up to five. In the spring the dark-coloured female lays about 250 to 300 reddish eggs on plants, usually where the stems are covered by leaves; the larvae feed on the sap and weaken the plants so that they cannot bear grain.
The Hessian fly was described by Thomas Say in 1817. It is a very harmful insect. It mainly attacks the stem, although if it is especially hungry it will eat any part of the plant it can find.
In 1836, a severe infestation of Hessian flies resulted in a crop shortage aggravating the financial problems of farmers prior to the Panic of 1837.Keroplatidae
The Keroplatidae are a family of small flies known as fungus gnats. About 950 species are described, but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher. They are generally forest dwellers found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi.They notably include the genus Arachnocampa; the larvae of which are known as "glowworms" in Australia and New Zealand.Keroplatus
Keroplatus is a genus of predatory fungus gnats in the family Keroplatidae. Several species are bioluminescent.Lasioptera
Lasioptera is a genus of gall midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 140 described species in Lasioptera.Lasiopteridi
The Lasiopteridi is a supertribe of flies from the family Cecidomyiidae. They are often called gall midges or gall gnats.Leptomorphus
Leptomorphus is a genus of fungus gnats in the family Mycetophilidae. There are about 8 described species in Leptomorphus.Lygistorrhinidae
Lygistorrhinidae is a family of long-beaked fungus gnats in the order Diptera. There are about 7 genera and at least 30 described species in Lygistorrhinidae.Mycetophila
Mycetophila is a genus of fungus gnats in the family Mycetophilidae. There are at least 740 described species in Mycetophila.Mycomya
Mycomya is a genus of fungus gnats in the family Mycetophilidae. There are at least 400 described species in Mycomya.Neoempheria
Neoempheria is a genus of fungus gnats in the family Mycetophilidae. There are at least 140 described species in Neoempheria.Rhopalomyia
Rhopalomyia is a genus of gall midges, insects in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 220 described species in Rhopalomyia.Symmerus
Symmerus is a genus of fungus gnats and gall midges in the family Ditomyiidae. There are about five described species in Symmerus.
Extant Diptera families