Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission

The Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission was a strategic bombing mission during World War II. Carried out by Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers of the U.S. Army Air Forces on August 17, 1943, it was an ambitious plan to cripple the German aircraft industry. The mission was also known as the "double-strike mission" because it entailed two large forces of bombers attacking separate targets in order to disperse fighter reaction by the Luftwaffe, and was the first American "shuttle" mission, in which all or part of a mission landed at a different field and later bombed another target before returning to its base.

After being postponed several times by unfavorable weather, the operation, known within the Eighth Air Force as "Mission No. 84", was flown on the anniversary of the first daylight raid by the Eighth Air Force.

Mission No. 84 was a strike by 376 bombers of sixteen bomb groups against German heavy industry well beyond the range of escorting fighters. The mission inflicted heavy damage on the Regensburg target, but at catastrophic loss to the force, with 60 bombers lost and many more damaged beyond economical repair. As a result, the Eighth Air Force was unable to follow up immediately with a second attack that might have seriously crippled German industry. When Schweinfurt was finally attacked again two months later, the lack of long-range fighter escort had still not been addressed and losses were even higher. As a consequence, deep penetration strategic bombing was curtailed for five months.

As soon as the reconnaissance photographs were received on the evening of the 17th, Generals Eaker and Anderson knew that the Schweinfurt raid had been a failure. The excellent results at Regensburg were small consolation for the loss of 60 B-17s. The results of the bombing were exaggerated, and the high losses were well disguised in after-mission reports. Everyone who flew the mission stressed the importance of the escorts in reducing losses; the planners grasped only that Schweinfurt would have to be bombed again, soon, in another deep-penetration, unescorted mission[5]

— Donald Caldwell
Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission
Part of Operation Pointblank
B-17F formation over Schweinfurt, Germany, August 17, 1943

1st Bomb Wing B-17s over Schweinfurt, Germany
DateAugust 17, 1943
Location
Schweinfurt and Regensburg, Germany
Result German victory
Belligerents
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Nazi Germany
Commanders and leaders
United States Curtis LeMay
United States Robert B. Williams
Nazi Germany Adolf Galland
Units involved
United States Eighth Air Force
United Kingdom RAF Fighter Command
Nazi Germany Luftwaffe
Strength
376 B-17 heavy bombers
268 P-47 fighter sorties
191 Spitfire fighter sorties
Approx. 400 Bf 109, Bf 110, Fw 190 and other fighters
Casualties and losses
60 bombers, 3 P-47s, and 2 Spitfires lost
58-95 bombers heavily damaged[note 1][1][2][3][4]
7 KIA, 21 WIA, 557 MIA or POW
25–27 fighters[1][2][3]
203 civilians killed

The mission plan

B-17
Boeing B-17F-27-BO Flying Fortress nicknamed "The Careful Virgin" (OR-W) of the 323rd Bomb Squadron, based at RAF Bassingbourn over the UK in late '43 (later used as a flying bomb on 4 Aug 44).

Because of diversions of groups to the invasion of North Africa, the bomber force in England had been limited in size to four groups of B-17s and two of B-24s until May 1943. At that time, and in conjunction with the Pointblank Directive to destroy the Luftwaffe in preparation for Operation Overlord, the B-17 force had expanded fourfold and was organized into the 1st and 4th Bombardment Wings (which due to their large size would soon be re-designated Bomb Divisions). The 1st Bombardment Wing, which included all of the original B-17 groups, was based in the English Midlands while the 4th Bombardment Wing stations were located in East Anglia.

Pointblank operations in April and July 1943 had concentrated solely on the production of the Fw 190 at factories in Bremen, Kassel, and Oschersleben, and although serious losses to the bomber forces had occurred, the attacks had been successful enough to warrant attacking those manufacturing Messerschmitt Bf 109s.

The production of Bf 109s (and almost half of all German fighters) was located in Regensburg and in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. To attack these in sufficient force, "Operation Juggler" was conceived,[6] in which the fighter production plants in Wiener Neustadt were targeted for attack by B-24 Liberators of the Ninth Air Force based in Libya, and Regensburg by B-17s of the Eighth Air Force. The original mission date of August 7 could not be met because of bad weather, and the B-24s flew Operation Juggler on August 13 without participation by the Eighth Air Force, which was still hampered by unacceptable weather conditions.

To successfully complete its portion of the attack, the Eighth Air Force decided to attack a target in central Germany as well as Regensburg to divide and confuse German air defenses.[8] The 4th Bombardment Wing, using B-17s equipped with "Tokyo (fuel) tanks" for longer range, would attack the Messerschmitt Bf 109 plants in Regensburg and then fly on to bases in Bône, Berteaux and Telergma (French Algeria).[9] The 1st Bombardment Wing, following it, would turn northeast and bomb the ball-bearing factories of Schweinfurt (where almost the entire production of bearings was centralized) and by doing so catch German fighter aircraft on the ground re-arming and refueling. Because of limited range thanks to (inexplicably) not employing drop tanks,[10] escorting P-47 Thunderbolt fighters would be able to protect the bombers only as far as Eupen, Belgium, which was roughly an hour's flying time from both of the targets.[11]

Two supporting attacks were also made a part of the overall mission plan. The first, a diversionary attack, involved the bombing of three locations along the French and Dutch coast: the German airfields at Bryas-Sud and Marck by American B-26 Marauder and Royal Air Force Mitchell medium bombers, and the marshalling yards at Dunkirk by other Mitchells, all timed to coincide with the Regensburg strike.[12]

The second was a series of attacks on Luftwaffe fighter fields at Poix, Lille-Vendeville, and Woensdrecht by Hawker Typhoons of the RAF simultaneous with the diversionary attack, and Poix by two groups of B-26s in the afternoon as the Schweinfurt force was returning.

Weather delays

Eighth Air Force bomber operations were calculated with one to two hours of climb and assembly into formations factored into mission lengths. In addition the mission length for the Regensburg force was anticipated to be of eleven hours' duration, so that commanders had only a 90-minute "window" in which to launch the mission and still allow the 4th Bombardment Wing B-17s to reach North Africa in daylight. Mission 84 planning indicated a takeoff window from dawn (approximately 06:30 British Double Summer Time) to approximately 08:00 without cancelling the mission.

At dawn of August 17, after airmen had gone to their airplanes, England was covered in fog. The mission takeoff was delayed until 08:00, when the fog had cleared sufficiently over East Anglia to allow the 4th Bombardment Wing to take off using instruments, a technique they had practiced. Although attacking both targets simultaneously was deemed critical to success of the mission without prohibitive loss, the Regensburg force was ordered to take off, even though the 1st Bombardment Wing remained grounded at its bases by the adverse weather. By the time the fog had sufficiently cleared over the Midlands, the Regensburg force had already reached the coast of the Netherlands, which indicated that reacting German fighters would have sufficient time to land, replenish, and attack the second task force. Consequently the launch of the Schweinfurt force was further delayed to allow U.S. escort fighters sufficient time to return to base to rearm for a second escort mission. In all the 1st Wing was delayed more than three hours behind the 4th Wing.

Regensburg strike force

The Regensburg task force was led by the 4th Bombardment Wing commander, Colonel Curtis E. LeMay. This mission would make LeMay's name as a combat leader. The task force consisted of seven B-17 Groups totalling 146 aircraft, each group but one flying a 21-aircraft combat box tactical formation. The groups were organized into three larger formations termed "provisional combat wings", three groups in a Vee formation wing box leading the procession, followed in trail by two wing boxes of two groups each in echelon formation with one group leading and the second trailing at lower altitude.

Regensburg Task Force organization[13]
Prov. Wing Group UK airfield Sent Losses
403d PCBW 96th Bomb Group Snetterton Heath 21 0
388th Bomb Group Knettishall 21 1
390th Bomb Group Framlingham 20 6
401st PCBW 94th Bomb Group Bury St. Edmunds 21 1
385th Bomb Group Great Ashfield 21 3
402nd PCBW 95th Bomb Group Horham 21 4
100th Bomb Group Thorpe Abbotts 21 9
Fighter escort support
Times Group Leg Sent Claims
1005—1020 353rd Fighter Group Haamstede to Diest 37 P-47 1
1030—1045 56th Fighter Group Herentals to Eupen 50 P-47 0

Approximately fifteen minutes after it crossed the coast at 10:00, the Regensburg force encountered the first German fighter interception, which continued with growing intensity nearly all the way to the target area. Several factors weighed against the Regensburg force in this air battle. The arrangement of two groups instead of three in the two following provisional wings meant a third fewer guns available to each for their mutual defense and made them more likely targets. The overall length of the task force was too great for effective fighter support. The last wing formation of bombers was fifteen miles behind the first and nearly out of visual range. Of the two groups of P-47s (87 aircraft) tasked to escort the force to the German border, only one arrived at the rendezvous point on time, covering only the lead wing, and the second arrived fifteen minutes late. Finally, both P-47 groups were forced to turn back to base after only fifteen minutes of escort duty, without engaging any German interceptors. The last provisional wing in the task force was left without any fighter protection at all.

After ninety minutes of combat the German fighter force broke off the engagement, low on fuel and ammunition. By then at least 15 bombers had been shot down or fatally damaged, 13 from the trailing formation. However anti-aircraft fire ("flak") was light over Regensburg and visibility clear, and of the remaining 131 bombers, 126 dropped 298.75 tons of bombs on the fighter aircraft factories with a high degree of accuracy at 11:43 British time.

The Regensburg force then turned south to cross the Alps, confronted by only a few twin-engined fighters soon forced to disengage by lack of range. The German force had not been prepared for this contingency, but they were also in the process of re-arming to meet the Schweinfurt force, then forming over East Anglia. Even so, two damaged B-17s turned away from the Regensburg task force and landed in neutral Switzerland, where their crews were interned and the bombers confiscated. Colonel LeMay ordered the formation to perform two 10-minute turns over Switzerland, allowing damaged aircraft to rejoin the formation before flying to North Africa. Another crash-landed in Italy and five more were forced down by lack of fuel into the Mediterranean Sea. In all 24 bombers were lost and more than 60 of the 122 survivors landing in Tunisia had suffered battle damage.

Schweinfurt strike force

The 1st Bombardment Wing, commanded by Brigadier General Robert B. Williams, was made up of nine B-17 groups. Previously, because of this large number of groups, "provisional combat bomb wings" had been formed in April to control the groups tactically during large missions. To achieve a "maximum effort" against Schweinfurt, the 1st Bomb Wing, with sufficient aircraft and crews to employ four wing-sized boxes, formed provisional groups as well as wings, accomplished by eight groups providing a squadron or spare aircraft to form the "composite groups" needed to form a fourth combat wing. The Schweinfurt force in all had 230 bombers comprising 12 groups divided into two task forces, each with two wings, each wing composed of a three group formation, and was more than twenty miles in length. Williams personally led the mission, flying as co-pilot in an aircraft of the lead formation, as wingman to the commander of the 91st Bomb Group.[14]

Schweinfurt mission organization[15]
Prov. Wing Group UK base Sent Losses
(first task force)
201st PCBW 91st Bomb Group Bassingbourn 18 7
"101st Composite Group"[note 2] 19 6
381st Bomb Group Ridgewell 20 9
202d PCBW 351st Bomb Group Polebrook 21 1
306th Composite Group 20 0
384th Bomb Group Grafton Underwood 18 5
(second task force)
203d PCBW 306th Bomb Group Thurleigh 21 0
305th Bomb Group Chelveston 20 2
92nd Bomb Group Alconbury 20 2
204th PCBW 379th Bomb Group Kimbolton 18 0
103rd Composite Group 17 4
303rd Bomb Group Molesworth 18 0
WWII Schweinfurt Raid
United States Army Air Forces strategic bombing raid on the ball bearing works at Schweinfurt, Germany.

The Schweinfurt task forces followed the same route as the Regensburg force. Because of the delayed start of the mission, eight squadrons of RAF Spitfire fighters (96 aircraft) from 11 Group and 83 Group had been added to escort the Schweinfurt force as far as Antwerp, where P-47s would take over and escort it to Eupen. The field order for the mission specified that the B-17s would fly at altitudes between 23,000 and 26,500 feet (7,000-8,000 m), but approaching the coast of the Netherlands at 13:30, it was confronted with developing cloud masses not present earlier in the day. The commander of the first task force estimated that the bombers would not be able to climb over the clouds and elected to fly under them at 17,000 feet (5,000 m), increasing the vulnerability of the bombers to fighter attacks.

The first German attacks began almost immediately and employed different tactics from the morning mission. The lead wing was attacked continuously in head-on attacks by both Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighters, and although the RAF escorts claimed eight victories they were forced to return to base early in the engagement. The two groups of P-47s (88 aircraft) arrived five and eight minutes late, and despite some individual combats, they too were forced to break off virtually as soon as they arrived.

Inside German airspace, the Bf 109 G-6 fighters of 5 Staffel/JG 11, which had pioneered the fitment of the Werfer-Granate 21 unguided air-to-air rocket weapon system to the Luftwaffe's single engine day fighter force the previous day, as well as the similarly armed rocket-launching twin-engined Bf 110 Zerstörer heavy fighters, including night fighters, joined the battle as more than 300 fighters from 24 bases opposed the raid. At 14:36 the force diverged from the morning's route at Worms, Germany, alerting the German defenders that the target was Schweinfurt. Losses among the 57 B-17's of the lead wing were so severe that many among its airmen considered the possibility that the wing might be annihilated before reaching the target. However fifteen miles from Schweinfurt the opposing fighters, after shooting down 22 bombers, disengaged and landed to refuel and re-arm in order to attack the force on its way out. Five miles from Schweinfurt German anti-aircraft guns began firing an effective flak barrage into the path of the bomber force.[16]

At 14:57 approximately 40 B-17s remained of the lead wing when it dropped its bombs on the target area containing five factories and 30,000 workers, followed over a 24-minute span by the remainder of the force. Each wing found increasingly heavy smoke from preceding bomb explosions a hindrance to accuracy. 183 bombers dropped 424.3 tons of bombs, including 125 tons of incendiary bombs.[17]

Three B-17s were shot down by flak over Schweinfurt. Fifteen minutes after leaving the target each task force circled over the town of Meiningen to reassemble its formations, then continued west toward Brussels. At approximately 15:30 German fighters renewed their attacks, concentrating now on damaged bombers. Between 16:20 and 17:00 a covering force of 93 P-47s and 95 Spitfires[note 3] arrived to provide withdrawal support, claiming 21 fighters shot down, but eight more bombers were lost before the force reached the North Sea, where three more crash-landed. The Schweinfurt force lost a total of 36 bombers.[18]

Schweinfurt fighter escort support[13]
Times Group Leg Sent Claims Losses
Penetration support
1336—1355 11 Group RAF Walcheren to Antwerp 72 Spitfire 8 0
1336—1355 83 Group RAF Walcheren to Antwerp 24 Spitfire 0 0
1353—1410 78th Fighter Group Antwerp to Eupen 40 P-47 2 0
1355—1409 4th Fighter Group Diest to Eupen 48 P-47 0 0
Withdrawal support
1621—1651 56th Fighter Group Nideggen to Sint-Niklaas 51 P-47 16 3
1641—1700 353rd Fighter Group Mechelen to Sint-Niklaas 42 P-47 0 0
1647—1715 11 Group RAF Sint-Niklaas to England 72 Spitfire 3 0
1720—1740 83 Group RAF Sint-Niklaas to England 23 Spitfire 2 2

Results and losses

The Americans listed 55 of their bombers with 552 crewmen as missing after the August 17 double-target mission. About half of those became prisoners-of-war, and 20 were interned. Sixty aircraft were lost over German-controlled territory, in Switzerland, or ditched at sea, with five crews rescued. Seven aircrew were killed aboard bombers safely returning to base, and 21 wounded.

The 60 aircraft lost on a single mission more than doubled the highest previous loss at that time. There were also 55-95 additional aircraft badly damaged. Of those damaged, many were stranded in North Africa and never repaired.[1][2][4] Three P-47 Thunderbolts of the 56th Fighter Group and two RAF Spitfires were shot down attempting to protect the Schweinfurt force.

Spitfire pilots claimed 13 German fighters shot down and P-47 pilots claimed 19.[19][20] Gunners on the bombers claimed 288 fighters shot down,[21][22] but Luftwaffe records showed only 25-27 were lost.[1][2][3]

In Regensburg all six main workshops of the Messerschmitt factory were destroyed or severely damaged, as were many supporting structures including the final assembly shop. In Schweinfurt the destruction was less severe but still extensive. The two largest factories, Kugelfischer & Company and Vereinigte Kugellager Fabrik I, suffered 80 direct hits.[23] 35,000 m² (380,000 square feet) of buildings in the five factories were destroyed, and more than 100,000 m² (1,000,000 square feet) suffered fire damage.[24] All the factories except Kugelfischer had extensive fire damage to machinery when incendiaries ignited the machine oil used in the manufacturing process.[25]

Albert Speer reported an immediate 34 percent loss of production,[26] but both the production shortfall and the actual loss of bearings were made up for by extensive surpluses found throughout Germany in the aftermath of the raid. The industry's infrastructure, while vulnerable to a sustained campaign, was not vulnerable to destruction by a single raid. Speer indicated that the two major flaws made by the USAAF in the August strike were first in dividing their force instead of all striking the ball-bearing plants, and second, failing to follow up the first strike with repeated attacks.[27][28][29]

203 civilians were also killed in the strike.[30]

The Schweinfurt mission in particular foretold the failure of deep penetration raids of Germany without adequate long-range escort. The 1st Bomb Wing was over German-occupied territory for three hours and thirty minutes, of which two hours and ten minutes, including all of the time spent over Germany itself, saw no fighter support whatsoever. When the second attack on Schweinfurt came on October 14, the loss of more than 20% of the attacking force (60 out of 291 B-17s) resulted in the suspension of deep raids for five months.

This mission was enshrined in fiction as the 'Hambrucken raid' in Beirne Lay and Sy Bartlett's novel, Twelve O'Clock High. It provides a reasonably accurate view of the thinking behind the planners' intention and the decisions that led to the abandonment of the goal of launching a double strike in such a way that the second strike would meet no aerial opposition; and of the action in the air itself. The Schweinfurt portion of the mission also formed the framework for the novel The War Lover, by John Hersey. In the early 1990s, the raid was depicted for the first time in a video game, as a playable mission in Secret Weapons of the Luftwaffe.

Notes

footnotes
  1. ^ Sources vary as the number lost. Most of the damaged aircraft were stranded in French Algeria and some never returned to service, due to the lack of repair facilities there.
  2. ^ The 101 CG was made up of B-17s from the 381st (7), 351st (6), and 91st (6) BG. The 306 CG had 9 each from the 306th and 305th BG, and 2 from the 92d. The 103 CG had 11 from the 303d and 6 from the 379 BG.
  3. ^ RAF Fighter Command squadrons participating were: No. 129 Squadron RAF, No. 222 Squadron RAF, No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron , No. 316 Polish Fighter Squadron, No. 331 (Norwegian) Squadron RAF, No. 332 (Norwegian) Squadron RAF, No. 403 Squadron RCAF, and No. 421 Squadron RCAF.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d Price (2005), p. 129
  2. ^ a b c d Bowman & Boiten (2001), p. 64
  3. ^ a b c Jablonski (1974), p. 186
  4. ^ a b Miller (2006), p. 201
  5. ^ Caldwell & Muller 2007, p. 114.
  6. ^ Ramsey, John F. Air Force Historical Study No. 110 The War Against the Luftwaffe: AAF Counter-Air Operations April 1943 - June 1944, Air Force Historical Research Agency
  7. ^ Miller, Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War Against Nazi Germany, p.195.
  8. ^ Freeman, The Mighty Eighth, p.67; Miller, Masters of the Air, p.195; Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.3.
  9. ^ Bombardiers lourds de la dernière guerre : B-17, forteresse volante, Avro Lancaster, B-24 Liberator. Editions Atlas. 1980. ISBN 2731200316.
  10. ^ Terdoslavich, William. "Raids on Ploesti and Schweinfurt: August 1943 and October 1943", in Fawcett, Bill, ed. How To Lose WWII (New York: Harper, 2010), p.147.
  11. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, pp. 7, 19, 56, and 59.
  12. ^ Woods, "Combat Claims and Casualties", 17 August 43, "Ramrod 206 Part III" and "Ramrod 206 Part IV", p.111-112.
  13. ^ a b Decision Over Schweinfurt, Mighty Eighth War Diary
  14. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.22, 40.
  15. ^ Decision Over Schweinfurt
  16. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.49.
  17. ^ Freeman, Mighty Eighth War Diary, pp. 89-90.
  18. ^ Freeman, Mighty Eighth War Diary, p.90; Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.234.
  19. ^ Freeman, Mighty Eighth War Diary, p. 90; Woods, VIII Fighter Command transcription of 17 August 43, pp.110 and 111; Air Force Historical Study 85, p.229, actual credits awarded. All break down the claims as 16 for the 56th FG, 2 for the 78th FG, and one for the 353rd FG.
  20. ^ Caldwell & Muller 2007, p. 113, state 16 claims.
  21. ^ Miller, Masters of the Air, p.200 and 202.
  22. ^ Freeman, The Mighty Eighth, p.69. Freeman states that the gunners' claims were later reduced to 148, and that actual German loss was "only 27 fighters".
  23. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.235.
  24. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.54.
  25. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.74. as reported by Speer to Hitler.
  26. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.72; Miller (Masters of the Air, p.200) put the loss at 38%.
  27. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, pp.74-75.
  28. ^ Miller, Masters of the Air, P.201.
  29. ^ Hansell, Haywood S. Jr. "Balaklava Redeemed". Air University Review. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
  30. ^ Coffey, Decision Over Schweinfurt, p.54, citing 70 men, 77 women, 48 children, and 8 foreign workers. Miller rounded the figure at 200. (Masters of the Air p.200),

Sources

  • Bishop, Cliff T.(1986). Fortresses of the Big Triangle First, ISBN 1-869987-00-4
  • Bowman, Martin W.; Boiten, Theo (2001). Battles With The Luftwaffe: The Bomber Campaign Against Germany 1942-45. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-711363-3.
  • Caldwell, Donald & Muller, Richard (2007). The Luftwaffe over Germany: Defense of the Reich. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-712-0
  • Coffey, Thomas M.(1977). Decision Over Schweinfurt. David McKay Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-679-50763-5
  • Freeman, Roger A. (1993). The Mighty Eighth. ISBN 978-0-87938-638-2
  • Freeman, Roger A. (1990). The Mighty Eighth War Diary. ISBN 978-0-87938-495-1
  • Jablonski, Edward (1974). Double strike: the epic air raids on Regensburg-Schweinfurt, August 17. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-07540-5
  • Miller, Donald L. (2006), Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War Against Nazi Germany. Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-3544-4
  • Overy, Richard. (1995) Why the Allies won. W.W Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31619-3
  • "Combat Claims & Casualties", transcriptions of RAF and VIII Fighter Command summaries by Tony Woods
  • Price, Alfred (2005). Battle over the Reich - The strategic air offensive over Germany. Hersham, Surrey: Classic Publications. ISBN 1-903223-47-4.

External links

305th Operations Group

The 305th Operations Group is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the 305th Air Mobility Wing. It is stationed at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, New Jersey.

During World War II, the group's predecessor unit, the 305th Bombardment Group was one of the first VIII Bomber Command Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress units in England, and, was one of the most-decorated USAAF heavy-bombardment groups in the European Theater. 1st Lt William R. Lawley, Jr. and 1st Lt Edward S. Michael, pilots in the 364th Bomb Squadron, each received the Medal of Honor.

While commanded by Colonel Curtis LeMay the 305th Bomb Group pioneered many bomber flying formations and bombing procedures that became the standard operating procedures in the Eighth Air Force.

The group suffered the heaviest loss of the 14 October 1943 Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission, and for this reason, was given a Nazi flag found flying in the city when it was captured by U.S. troops in April 1945.

381st Training Group

The United States Air Force 381st Training Group at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California provides training for the United States Air Force's space forces, intercontinental ballistic missile forces, and missile maintenance forces. This Air Education and Training Command (AETC) organization is a tenant unit located on an 80-acre (32 ha) site at Vandenberg. The group was activated in the fall of 1994, when it replaced a provisional group as missile training activities at Vandenberg were transferred to AETC.

During World War II, the group's first predecessor, the 381st Bombardment Group was an Eighth Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress unit, which flew strategic bombing missions from RAF Ridgewell. The group had the highest losses of all groups on first Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission on 17 August 1943. It flew 296 combat missions, earning two Distinguished Unit Citations. It flew its last mission on 25 April 1945 before returning to the United States, where it was inactivated. The group was activated in the reserve in 1947, but was not fully manned or equipped before inactivating in 1949.

The group's second predecessor is the 381st Strategic Missile Wing. During the Cold War, the wing maintained and operated LGM-25C Titan II missiles for the Strategic Air Command at sites near McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas. The wing and group were consolidated into a single unit in 1984. The consolidated unit was inactivated in 1986 as the Titan II was withdrawn from operational service.

August 17

August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 136 days remain until the end of the year.

Beirne Lay Jr.

Beirne Lay Jr., (September 1, 1909 – May 26, 1982) was an American author, aviation writer, Hollywood screenwriter, and combat veteran of World War II with the U.S. Army Air Forces. He is best known for his collaboration with Sy Bartlett in authoring the novel Twelve O'Clock High and adapting it into a major film.

Bud Mahurin

Colonel Walker Melville "Bud" Mahurin (December 5, 1918 – May 11, 2010) was a United States Air Force officer and aviator. During World War II, while serving in the United States Army Air Forces, he was a flying ace.

Mahurin was the first American pilot to become a double ace in the European Theater. He was the only United States Air Force pilot to shoot down enemy planes in both the European and Pacific Theaters and the Korean War. During World War II he was credited with 20.75 aerial victories, making him the sixth-highest American P-47 ace. He was credited with shooting down 3.5 MiG-15s in Korea, giving him a total of 23.25 aircraft destroyed in aerial combat.

Confirmation and overclaiming of aerial victories during World War II

In aerial warfare, the term overclaiming describes a combatant (or group) that claims the destruction of more enemy aircraft than actually achieved. The net effect is that the actual losses and claimed victories are unequal.

Overclaiming by individuals can occur when more than one person attacks the same target and each claims its destruction, when an aircraft appears to be no longer in a flying condition but manages to land safely, or when an individual simply wishes to claim unjustified credit for downing an opponent. In some instances of combat over friendly territory a damaged aircraft may have been claimed as an aerial victory by its opponent while the aircraft was later salvaged and restored to an operational status. In this situation the loss may not appear in the records while the claim remains confirmed.Overclaiming can also occur for political or propaganda reasons. It was common for both sides to inflate figures for "kills" or deflate figures for losses in broadcasts and news reports. Overclaiming during World War II has been the centre of much scrutiny, partly because of the significant amount of air combat relative to other conflicts.

Half a Wing, Three Engines and a Prayer

Half a Wing, Three Engines and a Prayer, is a book about B-17 crews and missions in World War II, written by Brian D. O'Neill. He is also the author of 303rd Bombardment Group, on the same subject.

During Vietnam, O'Neill served with the U.S. Navy as a destroyer gunner officer and shipyard repair officer. Since then he became an attorney and the General Counsel of Curtiss-Wright Corporation, the aviation company that had manufactured the P-40 Warhawk fighter and the Cyclone B-17 engines during World War II.The narrative relies heavily on crew diaries and Eighth Air Force registry. The author usually gives a brief description of the upcoming events and the event itself is shown through the tales of various crew members. Each downed Fortress or enemy fighter shot down was usually witnessed by various people, since each B-17 carried ten crew members, including four officers (pilot, co-pilot, navigator and bombardier) and six enlisted men (engineer, ball turret gunner, radioman, tail gunner and two waist gunners).

The story centers around the crew of pilot Lt. Robert J. Hullar, from the 303d Bombardment Group. Each crew was put together and trained since before going to the European Theater of Operations, and sometimes concluding the 25-mission tour at the same time.

Index of World War II articles (S)

S-1 Uranium Committee

S-50

S-mine

S-Phone

S. A. Ayer

S. J. Warmington

S.L.A. Marshall

S.S. Doomtrooper

S.S. Pink Star

Sławomir Maciej Bittner

Sōkichi Takagi

Sōsaku Suzuki

Søren Kam

S1 Scout Car

Sa vz. 58

Saar Offensive

Sabine Ulibarrí

Sabine Zlatin

Saboteur (2008 video game)

Sabu Dastagir

Saburō Kurusu

Saburo Sakai

Sachsenburg (concentration camp)

Sachsenhausen concentration camp

Sackville Pelham, 5th Earl of Yarborough

Sacramento Mather Airport

Sacred Band (World War II)

Sadae Inoue

Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes

Sadako Kurihara

Sadako Sasaki

Sadamichi Kajioka

Sadao Araki

Sadao Munemori

Sadatoshi Tomioka

Sadayoshi Yamada

Sadeq Hedayat

Safeguarding Military Information

Saga (singer)

Saga of the Franklin

Sahara (1943 American film)

Sahtu

Said bin Taimur

Sailor of the King

Saint-Étienne-du-Mont

Saint-Ambroise (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin (Paris Métro)

Saint-Augustin Church (Paris)

Saint-Denis - Université (Paris Métro)

Saint-Fargeau (Paris Métro)

Saint-François-Xavier (Paris Métro)

Saint-Georges (Paris Métro)

Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris Métro)

Saint-Germain-des-Prés

Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois

Saint-Jacques (Paris Métro)

Saint-Jacques Tower

Saint-Julien-le-Pauvre

Saint-Lazare (Paris Métro)

Saint-Leu-d'Esserent

Saint-Louis-en-l'Île Church

Saint-Mandé (Paris Métro)

Saint-Marcel (Paris Métro)

Saint-Merri

Saint-Michel (Paris Métro)

Saint-Nicolas-du-Chardonnet

Saint-Paul (Paris Métro)

Saint-Philippe du Roule (Paris Métro)

Saint-Placide (Paris Métro)

Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse (Paris RER)

Saint-Sulpice (Paris Métro)

Saint-Sébastien - Froissart (Paris Métro)

Saint-Séverin (Paris)

Saint-Vincent-de-Paul church, Paris

Saint-Vincent Cemetery

Saint-George Ashe

Saint Julien Memorial

Saint Pierre de Montmartre

Sainte-Chapelle

Sainte-Pélagie

Saints and Soldiers

Saints Innocents Cemetery

Saitō Makoto

Saitō Takao

Sajmište concentration camp

Sakae Oba

Sakhalin Koreans

Sakuma Samata

Sakurakai

Salah Assad

Salamaua-Lae campaign

Salerno landings

Salerno Mutiny

Salim Jay

Salinas Municipal Airport

Salinas Sports Complex

Salle du Manège

Sally-Anne Stapleford

Sally B

Salmon-class submarine

Salo Landau

Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch

Salome Zourabichvili

Salomon Gluck

Salomon Isacovici

Salomon James de Rothschild

Salomon Olembé

Salon (Paris)

Salon d'Automne

Salon Kitty

Salote Tupou III of Tonga

Salpa Line

Saltash Passage

Salute to the Marines

Salvador Bacarisse

Salvatore John Cavallaro

Salvatore Scarpitta

Salvatore Tripoli

Salzburg

Sam Barry

Sam Chapman

Sam Dalrymple

Sam Davis Presley

Sam Dente

Sam Edwards (physicist)

Sam Ferris

Sam Francis (American football)

Sam Gibbons

Sam Goldman

Sam Kydd

Sam Walton

Sam West

Samisdat Publishers

Sammy Davis, Jr.

Sammy Traoré

Samochód pancerny wz. 29

Samochód pancerny wz. 34

Samson (1961 Polish film)

Samson Siasia

Samuel A. Goldblith

Samuel Abraham Goudsmit

Samuel Adams (naval officer)

Samuel Adler (composer)

Samuel B. Griffith

Samuel B. Roberts

Samuel Beckett

Samuel Bing

Samuel Bowers

Samuel C. Phillips

Samuel Chappuzeau

Samuel T. Cohen

Samuel D. Sturgis, Jr.

Samuel D. Waksal

Samuel David Dealey

Samuel E. Anderson

Samuel Fuller

Samuel G. Fuqua

Samuel Glasstone

Samuel Hahnemann

Samuel Jaskilka

Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita

Samuel Kahanamoku

Samuel King Allison

Samuel L. Gravely, Jr.

Samuel Meekosha

Samuel Murray Robinson

Samuel Pearson Goddard, Jr.

Samuel Ramos

Samuel Sharman

Samuel Stockton Miles

Samuel Underhill

Samuel V. Wilson

Samuel Vance (sport shooter)

Samuel W. Koster

San Andreas (novel)

San Marcos Army Air Field

Sandakan Death Marches

Sandro Pertini

Sands of Iwo Jima

Sandweiler German war cemetery

Sandy Jack

Sandy Pearson

Saneyoshi Yasuzumi

Saneyuki Akiyama

Sangamon-class escort carrier

Sankt Georgen an der Gusen

Sannō Shrine

Sano Tsuneha

Sansei Japanese American

Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre

Santa Ana Army Air Base

Santa Anita Park

Santa Maria al Bagno

Santa Maria Public Airport

Santiago Amat

Santos-Dumont 14-bis

Santos Urdinarán

Sapper army

Sara Payne Hayden

Sara Yorke Stevenson

Sarah Bernhardt

Sarah Monette

Sarah Churchill (daughter of Winston Churchill)

Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport

Sarath Amunugama

Sardar-e-Jung

Sargent Shriver

Sargo-class submarine

Sark during the German occupation of the Channel Islands

Sarmiza Bilcescu

Sarny Fortified Area

Sasebo Naval Arsenal

Sasha Fillipov

Sat Okh

Satō Tetsutarō

Satchel charge

Satsuma-class battleship

Sauer 38H

Saul Amarel

Saul Friedländer

Saul Zaentz

Saunders-Roe SR.A/1

Saunders-Roe Lerwick

Sauwastika

Sava Kovačević (Yugoslav partisan)

Savari

Savić Marković Štedimlija

Saving Private Ryan

Saving the Port

Savitri Devi

Savoia-Marchetti heavy fighter prototypes

Savoia-Marchetti S.74

Savoia-Marchetti S.83

Savoia-Marchetti SM.73

Savoia-Marchetti SM.79

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 operational history

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81 propulsion

Savoia-Marchetti SM.81

Savoia-Marchetti SM.82

Savoia-Marchetti SM.89

SB2A Buccaneer

SB2C Helldiver

SB2U Vindicator

SBD Dauntless

SC convoys

SC Seahawk

SC250 bomb

Scalphunter (Marvel Comics)

Scammell Pioneer Semi-trailer

Scammell Pioneer

Scarlat Callimachi (communist activist)

Schalburg Corps

Schalburg Cross

Scharführer

Scharnhorst-class battleship

Schiller International University

Schindler's List

Schindlerjuden

Schlachtgeschwader 2

Schloss Hartheim

Schmetterling

Schnellbomber

Schnellboot

Schütze

Schofield tank

Schola Cantorum

Schrödinger (Hellsing)

Schräge Musik

Schutzstaffel unit insignia

Schutzstaffel

Schuyler Enck

Schwarze Kapelle

Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission

Schweizerischer Vaterländischer Verband

Schwerbelastungskörper

Schwere Wehrmachtschlepper

Schwerer Gustav

Schwerer Panzerspähwagen

Science and technology in Nazi Germany

Scots College (Paris)

Scott Atran

Scott Corbett

Scouting in displaced persons camps

SCR-268 radar

SCR-270 radar

SCR-536

SCR-584 radar

Scrap Iron Flotilla

Screamin' Jay Hawkins

Scribner Army Airfield

Scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon

Sd.Kfz. 10

Sd.Kfz. 11

Sd.Kfz. 2

Sd.Kfz. 250

Sd.Kfz. 251

Sd.Kfz. 252

Sd.Kfz. 253

Sd.Kfz. 254

Sd.Kfz. 4

Sd.Kfz. 6

Sd.Kfz. 7

Sea of Azov coastal advance

Sea of Sand

Seabees in World War II

Seagoing cowboys

Search for HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation

Sebastian Haffner

Sebring Regional Airport

Sechsschartenturm, Heavy MG bunker, La Mare Mill

Second Air Force

Second anti-Partisan offensive

Second Army (Australia)

Second Army (United Kingdom)

Second Artillery Corps

Second Australian Imperial Force

Second Battle of El Alamein order of battle

Second Battle of El Alamein

Second Battle of Kharkov

Second Battle of Sirte

Second Battle of the Java Sea

Second Cairo Conference

Second East Turkestan Republic

Second Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign against Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

Second Encirclement Campaign

Second French Indochina Campaign

Second Great Fire of London

Second Guangxi Campaign

Second Happy Time

Second Infantry Fusiliers Division

Second Philippine Republic

Second Quebec Conference

Second Raid on Schweinfurt

Second Sino-Japanese War

Second Taiwan Strait Crisis

Second United Front

Second United States Army

Second Vienna Award

Second World War at Sea series

Secret Agent (1947 film)

Secret Agent X-9 (1945 serial)

Secret Army (Belgium)

Secret Army (TV series)

Secret Polish Army

Secret Service in Darkest Africa

Secret Weapons Over Normandy

Security Battalions

Security Division (Germany)

Sedgley OSS .38

Sedjenane

Seeds of Destiny

Seehund

Seetakt radar

Seeteufel

Sefanaia Sukanaivalu

Seigo Kosaku

Seiichi Itō

Seiichi Kuno

Seiji Yoshida

Seine

Seishirō Itagaki

Sekula Drljević

Selarang Barracks Incident

Selbstopfer

Selbstschutz

Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

Self-Government Guiding Board

Self-portrait with a friend (Raphael)

Self determination

Selim Ben Achour

Selma Meerbaum-Eisinger

Selvino children

Selâhattin Ülkümen

Semitan

Semovente 105/25

Semovente 47/32

Semovente 75/18

Semovente 75/34

Semovente 90/53

Semovente da 149/40

Semyon Krivoshein

Semyon Rudniev

Semyon Timoshenko

Senate of France

Sendai-class cruiser

Senger Line

Senio

Senjūrō Hayashi

Senjinkun military code

Senninbari

Sentai

Sentarō Ōmori

Sentier (Paris Métro)

Sentimental Journey (aircraft)

Sentinel tank

Sentosa

Sepp Dietrich

Seppo Lindström

September Massacres

Serbia (1941-1944)

Serbian State Guard

Serbian Volunteer Corps

Serge and Beate Klarsfeld

Serge Elisséeff

Serge Gainsbourg

Serge Le Dizet

Serge Moscovici

Serge Nigg

Serge Thion

Serge Weinberg

Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov

Sergei Khudyakov

Sergei Semak

Sergey Belavenets

Sergey Biryuzov

Sergey Kavtaradze

Sergio Osmeña

Sergio Parisse

Sergio Pignedoli

Series E bond

Serjeant's Inn

Serrate radar detector

Service d'ordre légionnaire

Service for Poland's Victory

Servicemen's Readjustment Act (USA)

Services Reconnaissance Department

Seán Russell

Seth Neddermeyer

Settela Steinbach

Seven anti-Partisan offensives

Seven Beauties

Seven Wise Dwarfs

Seventeen Moments of Spring

Seventeenth Air Force

Seventeenth Army (Japan)

Seventh Air Force

Seventh United States Army

Severin Louis Rombach

Severodvinsk

Seweryn Franciszek Czetwertyński-Światopełk

Sexton (artillery)

Sexual enslavement by Nazi Germany in World War II

Seymour Benzer

Seymour W. Terry

Sfarmă-Piatră

SG-43 Goryunov

SGH War Memorial

Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos

Sgt. Rock (comics)

Sh'erit ha-Pletah

Shōji Nishimura

Shōjirō Iida

Shōwa Restoration

Shōzō Murata

Shaanxi Y-8

Shaanxi Y-9

Shadi Air Base

Shadow of Suribachi: Raising the Flags on Iwo Jima

Shadows of Memory

Shafter Airport

Shag Crawford

Shah Nawaz Khan (general)

Shah Seyyed Ali Kazemi

Shahid-e-Bharat

Shakespeare and Company (bookstore)

Shakhbut Bin Sultan Al Nahyan

Shalom Yoran

Shalva Maghlakelidze

Shang Zhen

Shangdang Campaign

Shangguan Yunxiang

Shanghai Campaign

Shanghai Expeditionary Army

Shanghai ghetto

Shanlin

Shantou-class gunboat

Shaukat Malik

Shchuka-class submarine

Sheffield Blitz

Shefqet Verlaci

Shek Kong Airfield

Shelby Storck

Shell Shock

Shelling of Mainila

Shenton Thomas

Shenyang J-11

Shenyang J-5

Shenyang J-6

Shenyang J-8

Shenyang Military Region

Sher-e-Hind

Sher Bahadur Thapa

Sher Shah (VC)

Sheriff Andy Taylor

Sherman Firefly

Sherman W. Tribbitt

Sherwood H. Hallman

Sherwood Lett

Sherwood Schwartz

Shetland bus boats

Shetland bus

Shevah Weiss

Shi-Ki

Shi Yousan

Shiba Gorō

Shibayama Yahachi

Shigekazu Shimazaki

Shigematsu Sakaibara

Shigenori Tōgō

Shigeru Fukudome

Shigeru Honjō

Shigetarō Shimada

Shigeyoshi Inoue

Shigeyoshi Miwa

Shigiyasu Suzuki

Shiing-Shen Chern

Shikata ga nai

Shikishima-class battleship

Shimamura Hayao

Shimane Maru-class escort aircraft carrier

Shimushu-class coastal defense ship

Shimushu escort

Shin guntō

Shin Onna Tachiguishi-Retsuden

Shinkolobwe

Shinozaki Mamoru

Shintarō Hashimoto

Shinyei Nakamine

Shinyo (suicide boat)

Shinzo Hamai

Ship of Fools (painting)

Ships of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Shipyard Railway

Shirō Ishii

Shiratsuyu-class destroyer

Shiro Azuma

Shiva N'Zigou

Shizo Kanakuri

Shizuichi Tanaka

Shizuo Yokoyama

Shizuya Hayashi

Shlomo Carlebach (rabbi)

Shmuel Alexandrov

Shmuel Dovid Ungar

Shmuel Tamir

Sho Ito

Shoah (film)

Shoah Foundation

Shocker (Kamen Rider)

Shoes on the Danube Promenade

Shohatsu-class landing craft

Shoichi Yokoi

Shony Alex Braun

Shoo Shoo Baby (aircraft)

SHORAN

Shoreham Aircraft Museum

Short Seaford

Short Sunderland

Showa Steel Works

Shozo Sakurai

Shuangduiji Campaign

Shukri al-Quwatli

Shunji Isaki

Shunkichi Kikuchi

Shunroku Hata

Shyaulyay Offensive Operation

Sibiu Literary Circle

Sicherheitsdienst

Sicherheitspolizei

Sichuan invasion

Sid Luckman

Sid McMath

Sid Scales

Sidney Bates

Sidney Cotton

Sidney Dillon Ripley

Sidney Drell

Sidney George Rogerson

Sidney Hinds

Sid Jelinek

Sidney Keyes

Sidney Kirkman

Sidney Mashbir

Sidney R. Yates

Sidney Sheldon

Siebel Si 204

Sieg Heil

Sieg im Westen

Siege of Bastogne

Siege of Breslau

Siege of Calais (1940)

Siege of Changchun

Siege of Dunkirk

Siege of Malta (World War II)

Siege of Mogilev

Siege of Odessa (1941)

Siege of Sevastopol (1941-1942)

Siege of Tobruk

Siege of Warsaw (1939)

Siegfried Alkan

Siegfried Flesch

Siegfried Freytag

Siegfried Gumbel

Siegfried Handloser

Siegfried Hecker

Siegfried Kasche

Siegfried Knappe

Siegfried Line

Siegfried Müller (mercenary)

Siegfried Rasp

Siegfried Rädel

Siegfried Seidl

Siegfried Uiberreither

Siegfried Verbeke

Siegfried Wolfgang Fehmer

Siegmund Sredzki

Siemens-Schuckert D.I

Siemens-Schuckert D.III

Siemens-Schuckert D.IV

Siemens and Halske T52

Sieradz National Defence Brigade

Sig Rune

SIGABA

Sigfrid Lindberg

Siggie Nordstrom

Sigismund-Helmut von Dawans

Sigismund Payne Best

Sigmaringen

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Rascher

Sigmund Sobolewski

Signe Johansson-Engdahl

Sigrid Hunke

Sigrid Schultz

Sikorski-Mayski Agreement

Sikorsky Memorial Airport

Silas Rhodes

Silbervogel

Silent Hunter 4: Wolves of the Pacific

Silent Hunter II

Silent Hunter III

Silent Hunter

Silent Raiders

Silent Running: My Years on a World War II Attack Submarine

Silent Service (video game)

Silent Service II

Silesian Offensives

Silver Star

Silverplate

Silvestre de Sacy

Silvestre S. Herrera

Silvio Cator

Simcha Rotem

Simcha Zorin

Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Šimun Katalinić

Simion Stoilow

Simmon Latutin

Simo Dubajić

Simo Häyhä

Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.

Simon Dubnow

Simon Emil Koedel

Simon François Ravenet

Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat

Simon Kitson

Simon Sabiani

Simon Sheppard (far-right activist)

Simon Srebnik

Simon Vouet

Simon Wiesenthal

Simon Wilton Phipps

Simon Zimny

Simone and Cino Del Duca Foundation

Simone Del Duca

Simone Signoret

Simone Veil

Simone Weil

Simplon (Paris Métro)

Sin (Marvel Comics)

Sinan Hasani

Since You Went Away

Sinclair Ross

Sink the Bismarck!

Sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse

Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941)

Sino-Japanese relations (1931-1937)

Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)

Siping Campaign

Sippenhaft

Sir Alfred Rawlinson, 3rd Baronet

Sir Charles Madden, 2nd Baronet

Sir Edmund Bacon, 13th Baronet

Sir Edmund Paston-Bedingfeld, 9th Baronet

Sir George Dick-Lauder, 12th Baronet

Sir Godfrey Nicholson, 1st Baronet

Sir Guy Campbell, 5th Baronet

Sir Henry Aubrey-Fletcher, 6th Baronet

Sir Hugh Barrett-Lennard, 6th Baronet

Sir Ivar Colquhoun, 8th Baronet

Sir James Hutchison, 1st Baronet

Sir John Arbuthnot, 1st Baronet

Sir John Aubrey-Fletcher, 7th Baronet

Sir John Dick-Lauder, 11th Baronet

Sir John Gilmour, 3rd Baronet

Sir John Smyth, 1st Baronet

Sir Louis Spears, 1st Baronet

Sir Martin Lindsay, 1st Baronet

Sir Max Aitken, 2nd Baronet

Sir Peter Proby, 2nd Baronet

Sir Richard Wallace, 1st Baronet

Sir Robert Cary, 1st Baronet

Sir Ronald Ross, 2nd Baronet

Sir Rupert Clarke, 3rd Baronet

Sir Standish O'Grady Roche, 4th Baronet

Sir Stephen Bull, 2nd Baronet

Sir William Gladstone, 7th Baronet

Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet

Sir Winston Churchill High School

Sir Winston Churchill Secondary School (Vancouver)

Siracourt

Sisak children's concentration camp

Sisters in Resistance

Site A/Plot M Disposal Site

Situation Hopeless ... But Not Serious

Situation Hopeless... But Not Serious

Sixteenth Air Force

Sixteenth Army (Japan)

Sixth anti-Partisan offensive

Sixth United States Army Group

Sixth United States Army

SJ radar

Skink anti-aircraft tank

Skip bombing

Skitch Henderson

Skoda 100 mm Model 16/19

Skoda 100 mm Model 1916

Skoda 105 mm Model 1939

Skoda 150 mm Model 1918

Skoda 37 mm A7

Skoda 37 mm Model 1934

Skoda 37 mm Model 1937

Skoda 75 mm Model 15

Skoda 75 mm Model 1928

Skoda 75 mm Model 1936

Skoda 75 mm Model 1939

Skoda K-series

Skokie (film)

Skorpa, Møre og Romsdal

Skorpa prisoner of war camp

Skåne Line

Slaughterhouse-Five (film)

Slaughterhouse-Five

Slavko Šlander

Slavko Kvaternik

Slavko Stanzer

Sliač Airport

Slim Aarons

Sloan Doak

Sloan Wilson

Slobodan Jovanović

Slovak-Hungarian War

Slovak Insurgent Air Force

Slovak invasion of Poland

Slovak National Uprising

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Slovene Home Guard

Slovenská pospolitosť - Národná strana

Slutsk Affair

Small Box Girder

Small Scale Raiding Force

Smatchet

SMERSH

Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz

Smith & Wesson M&P

Smith Gun

SMK tank

Smoky (dog)

Smyth Report

SN machine gun

SNCF Class Z 20500

Sniper's Badge

Sniper! (board game)

SNOS

Snow White's Scary Adventures

So Proudly We Hail!

SO3C Seamew

Soap made from human corpses

Sobhuza II of Swaziland

Sobibor extermination camp

Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany

Social Pact

Society of Red Tape Cutters

Sociétaires of the Comédie-Française

SOE F Section networks

SOE F Section timeline

Soemu Toyoda

Sofiane Feghouli

Soldau concentration camp

Soldier of Orange

Soldier, what did you see?

Soldiers at War

Soldiers: Heroes of World War II

Solférino (Paris Métro)

Solko van den Bergh

Solomon Blatt, Jr.

Solomon Islands campaign

Solomon Islands Labour Corps

Solothurn S-18/1000

Solovyovo, Priozersky District, Leningrad Oblast

Solveig Dommartin

Some Punkins

Somerset Arthur Maxwell

SOMUA MCG

Somua S35

Sonderaktion 1005

Sonderaktion Krakau

Sonderkommando Elbe

Sonderkommando

Sonderkraftfahrzeug

Sonderweg

Song of Russia

Song Xilian

Song Zheyuan

Songs of the Third Reich

Sonja Morgenstern

Sonja Mugoša

Sonkrai

Sonnenstein castle

Sonny Bupp

Sonya Butt

Sonya Olschanezky

Soobrazitelny-class destroyer

Sook Ching massacre

Soong Mei-ling

Sophie's Choice (film)

Sophie Gengembre Anderson

Sophie Scholl

Sophie Zawistowski

Sophoklis Venizelos

Sorbonne

Sorley MacLean

Sotirios Versis

Sotnia

Souleymane Bamba

Soup Nazi

South-East Asian theatre of World War II

South-East Asian Theatre of World War II

South Alberta Regiment

South Atlantic air ferry route in World War II

South Atlantic Station

South by Java Head

South East Asia Command

South Manchuria Railway

South Pacific Combat Air Transport Command

South Pacific Scouts

South Quay Estate

South Sea Fleet

South Seas Detachment

South Seas Force

South West Pacific Area (command)

South West Pacific Area

South West Pacific theatre of World War II

Southampton Blitz

Southeast Area Fleet

Southern California Logistics Airport

Southern Expeditionary Army Group

Southern Front (Soviet Union)

Southern Jiangsu Campaign

Southern Rhodesia in World War II

Southwest Area Fleet

Southwestern Front (Soviet Union)

Souviens-toi du jour

Soviet-Japanese Border Wars

Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact

Soviet Air Forces Order of Battle 1 May 1945

Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II

Soviet battleship Sovetskaya Ukraina

Soviet cruiser Kirov

Soviet cruiser Krasnyi Krym

Soviet cruiser Maxim Gorky

Soviet deportations from Bessarabia

Soviet deportations from Estonia

Soviet destruction battalion 1941

Soviet gunboat Krasnoye Znamya

Soviet helmets during World War II

Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

Soviet occupation of Hungary

Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940

Soviet occupation of Romania

Soviet occupation zone

Soviet order of battle for invasion of Poland in 1939

Soviet partisan brigade 1941-1944

Soviet partisan detachment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan group 1941-1944

Soviet partisan regiment 1941-1944

Soviet partisan united formation 1941-1944

Soviet partisans in Poland

Soviet partisans

Soviet propaganda during World War II

Soviet repressions of Polish citizens (1939-1946)

Soviet S-class submarine

Soviet special camps

Soviet submarine L-3

Soviet tank production during World War II

Soviet Tankmen's Song

Soviet Union

Soviet VHF transceiver A7

Soviet Volunteer Group

Soviet war crimes

Soviet women in the Great Patriotic War

Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

Sovremenny-class destroyer

Space Mountain (Disneyland, Paris)

Space Mountain: Mission 2

Space Nazis

Spain in World War II

Spallation Neutron Source

Spandau Prison

Spanish Cross

Sparrow Force

SPARS

Spartacus Educational

Spear of Destiny (video game)

Spearhead (novel)

Special Bureau for India

Special Courts

Special Engineering Detachment

Special Intelligence Service

Special Interrogation Group

Special Operations Executive

Special Repair Service

Specifications for World War II infantry weapons

Speculation about Mona Lisa

Speer und Er

Spica-class torpedo boat

Spike Milligan

Spirit of the Winter War

Spiru Haret

Spiv

Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes

Spook Louder

Sportpalast speech

Spring 1945 offensive in Italy

Springbok Club

Springer (tank)

Spyforce

Squad Leader Scenarios

Squad Leader

Squander Bug

Square Montholon

Squid (weapon)

SR West Country and Battle of Britain Classes

Srbe na vrbe!

Srbosjek (knife)

Sreten Žujović

Srul Bronshtein

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers

SS-Dienstalterslisten

SS-Ehrenring

SS-GB

SS-Hauptamt

SS-Leitheft

SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers

SS-Sturmbrigade Dirlewanger

SS-Totenkopfverbände

SS-Verfügungstruppe

SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt

SS A. B. Hammond

SS A. Frank Lever

SS A. J. Cermak

SS A. Mitchell Palmer

SS Abner Doubleday

SS Abraham Clark

SS Admiral Nakhimov

SS Adolph Woermann

SS Aenos (1910)

SS Aenos (1944)

SS Albert M. Boe

SS Alexander Macomb

SS Amelia Earhart

SS American Victory

SS Amerigo Vespucci

SS and Police Leader

SS Andrew Furuseth

SS Annie Oakley

SS Antenor (1924)

SS Assyrian (1914)

SS Athenia

SS Audacious (1913)

SS Beatus

SS Benjamin Harrison

SS Bessemer Victory

SS Blairspey

SS blood group tattoo

SS Booker T. Washington

SS Brigade Westfalen

SS British Premier

SS Caribou

SS Castilian

SS Ceramic (1912)

SS Charles Bulfinch

SS Charles H. Cugle

SS Charles H. Herty

SS Chivalry

SS City of Benares

SS City of Cairo

SS City of Flint (1919)

SS City of Johannesburg

SS City of Nagpur

SS City of Paris (1922)

SS City of Pretoria

SS City of Venice

SS Clan Alpine

SS Clan Campbell (1937)

SS Clan Chisholm

SS Clan Forbes

SS Clan Fraser

SS Clan Macwhirter

SS Clara Barton

SS Clearton

SS Commissaire Ramel

SS Corinthic (1924)

SS Daniel Webster

SS David E. Hughes

SS Davidson Victory

SS Deutschland (1923)

SS Donau (1929)

SS Duchess of York

SS Eaglescliffe Hall

SS Emidio

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List of air operations during the Battle of Europe

This World War II timeline of European Air Operations lists notable military events in the skies of the European Theater of Operations of World War II from the Invasion of Poland to Victory in Europe Day. The list includes combined arms operations, defensive anti-aircraft warfare, and encompasses areas within the territorial waters of belligerent European states.1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945

List of military engagements of World War II

This is a list of military engagements of World War II encompassing land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges. Campaigns generally refer to broader strategic operations conducted over a large bit of territory and over a long period. Battles generally refer to short periods of intense combat localised to a specific area and over a specific period. However, use of the terms in naming such events is not consistent. For example, the Battle of the Atlantic was more or less an entire theatre of war, and the so-called battle lasted for the duration of the entire war. Another misnomer is the Battle of Britain, which by all rights should be considered a campaign, not a mere battle.

Martin Middlebrook

Martin Middlebrook, (born 1932 in Boston, Lincolnshire) is an English military historian and author.

Regensburg

Regensburg (US: , German: [ˈʁeːɡn̩sbʊɐ̯k] (listen); older English: Ratisbon; Austro-Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg. The city is the political, economic and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate.

The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany.

Schweinfurt

Schweinfurt ( SHVYNE-foort, German: [ˈʃvaɪnfʊɐ̯t] (listen); lit. 'swine ford') is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the navigable Main River, which is spanned by several bridges here, 44 km northeast of Würzburg.

Second Raid on Schweinfurt

The second Schweinfurt raid was a World War II air battle that took place on 14 October 1943, over Nazi Germany between forces of the United States 8th Air Force and German Luftwaffe fighter arm (Jagdwaffe). The American bombers conducted a strategic bombing raid on ball bearing factories to reduce production of these vital parts for all manner of war machines. This was the second attack on the factories at Schweinfurt. American wartime intelligence claimed the first Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission in August had reduced bearing production by 34 percent but had cost many bombers. A planned follow-up raid had to be postponed to rebuild American forces.As the squadrons rebuilt, plans for the return mission were modified based on the lessons learned. Planners added additional fighter escorts to cover the outward and return legs of the operation and sent the entire force against Schweinfurt alone, instead of splitting the force. Despite these tactical modifications, a series of minor mishaps combined with the ever-increasing efficiency of the German anti-aircraft effort proved to be devastating. Of the 291 B-17 Flying Fortresses sent on the mission, 60 were lost outright, another 17 damaged so heavily that they had to be scrapped and another 121 had varying degrees of battle damage. Outright losses represented over 26 percent of the attacking force. Losses in aircrew were equally heavy, with 650 men lost of 2,900, 22 percent of the bomber crews. The American Official History of the Army Air Forces in the Second World War acknowledged losses had been so great that the USAAF would not return to the target for four months, "The fact was that the Eighth Air Force had for the time being lost air superiority over Germany".The operation was a failure, there were no Merlin engined P-51 Mustangs available for USAAF fighter squadrons to provide long-range escort until the winter of 1943–44), while the P-47 Thunderbolt was inadequate. The bomber formations were left exposed to unrelenting attacks by German fighters and the improper preparations for the creation of reserves in the summer of 1943 meant that such costly operations could not be sustained. The intelligence of the Allied air forces was also flawed. Arthur Harris, Air Officer Commanding RAF Bomber Command questioned the intelligence that claimed ball bearings to be vital to the German war economy. Harris refused to cooperate with the Americans, believing ball bearing targets to be a "panacea". Post-war analysis has shown Harris's objections to be correct. An escort of 24 squadrons of Spitfires equipped with drop tanks was provided on the first and last leg of the mission. The Germans had built up enormous reserves of ball bearings and were receiving supplies from all over Europe, particularly Italy, Sweden and Switzerland. The operation against these industries would, even if successful, have achieved little. By 1945, the Germans had assembled more reserves than ever.

Shuttle bombing

Shuttle bombing is a tactic where bombers fly from their home base to bomb a first target and continue to a different location where they are refuelled and rearmed. The aircraft may then bomb a second target on the return leg to their home base. Some examples of operations which have used this tactic are:

Operation Bellicose, June 1943: The first shuttle bombing mission of World War II, flown by the Royal Air Force (RAF). On the night of 20/21 June the RAF bombers departed from their bases in the United Kingdom and bombed Friedrichshafen, landing in Algeria, where they refuelled and rearmed. On the return leg they bombed the Italian naval base at La Spezia.

Schweinfurt–Regensburg mission, 17 August 1943: The 4th Bombardment Wing of the Eighth Air Force using B-17s equipped with "Tokyo (fuel) tanks" for longer range, attacked the Messerschmitt Bf 109 plants in Regensburg and then flew on to bases in Bône, Berteaux and Telergma (French Algeria). Most of the aircraft that had been damaged were stranded due to the poor repair facilities in Algeria and some of them were never returned to service. Eight days later, on 24 August, on the way back to their bases in Great Britain, the surviving B-17s bombed targets in Bordeaux.

Operation Frantic, from June to September 1944: This was a series of air raids conducted by United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) bombers based in Britain or the Mediterranean which then landed at bases built by the Americans in Ukraine in the Soviet Union. As a military operation it made possible eighteen strong attacks on important strategic targets in Germany which would otherwise have been immune.

The Warsaw Airlift, August to September 1944: During the Warsaw Uprising the Frantic airbases were used for an airdrop to the Poles fighting in the city. On 17 September 1944 70 B-17s and 57 P-51s flew without bombs from Italy and landed safely in the United Kingdom. On 18 September 107 of 110 B-17s dropped 1,248 containers of supplies to Polish forces in Warsaw and flew on to the USSR losing one B-17 with seven more damaged. The next day 100 B-17s and 61 P-51s left the USSR and bombed the marshalling yard at Szolnok in Hungary as they returned to bases in Italy.

Operation Paravane, September 1944: A variation on the concept. On 11 September 1944 No. 9 Squadron RAF and No. 617 Squadron RAF flew from their home bases in Scotland to a temporary base at Yagodnik, near Archangel in the Soviet Union. From there, on 15 September, they bombed the German battleship Tirpitz in a Norwegian fjord and continued on back to Scotland.While shuttle bombing offered several advantages, allowing distant targets to be hit and complicating the Axis defence arrangements, it posed a number of practical difficulties, not least the awkward relations between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union. The operations were concluded in September 1944 after a three-month period and not repeated.

Timeline of World War II (1943)

This is a timeline of events that occurred during World War II in 1943.

Wilhelm-Ferdinand Galland

Wilhelm-Ferdinand "Wutz" Galland (23 October 1914 – 17 August 1943) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator and fighter ace during World War II. He is credited with 55 aerial victories achieved in 186 combat missions. All his victories were claimed over the Western Front and in Defense of the Reich. This figure included seven four-engine bombers and 37 Supermarine Spitfire fighters.

Born in Bochum, Galland grew up in the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. He joined the military service in the Wehrmacht in 1935, initially serving with the anti-aircraft artillery of the Luftwaffe. Upon his request in late 1940, he transferred to the Jagdwaffe (fighter force). Following flight training, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 26 "Schlageter" (JG 26—26th Fighter Wing) in June 1941. Flying with this wing, Galland claimed his first aerial victory on 23 July 1941 on the Western Front over a Royal Air Force fighter aircraft. He was made Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of 5. Staffel (5th squadron) of JG 26 in May 1942 and in January 1943, Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of II. Gruppe of JG 26. Following his 34th aerial victory, he was nominated and awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 18 May 1943. Galland claimed his last aerial victory on 12 August 1943. On 17 August 1943, during the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission, he was killed in action following combat with Republic P-47 Thunderbolt fighters from the 56th Fighter Group.

Wilhelm Lemke

Wilhelm Lemke (27 September 1920 – 4 December 1943) was a Luftwaffe flying ace of World War II. Lemke was credited with 131 aerial victories—that is, 131 aerial combat encounters resulting in the destruction of the enemy aircraft. All but six of his victories were claimed over the Soviet Air Forces in 617 combat missions.Born in Arnswalde, Lemke joined the military service in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany in 1939. Following flight training, he was posted to 9. Staffel (squadron) of Jagdgeschwader 3 (JG 3—3rd Fighter Wing). He flew his first combat missions in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, and claimed his first aerial victory on 26 June 1941. There, after 59 aerial victories, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 12 September 1942. He was given command as Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of 9. Staffel on 11 August 1942. On 16 March 1943, he was credited with his 100th aerial victory. Four months later, on 28 July 1943, he claimed his 125th and last victory on the Eastern Front.

Lemke was subsequently relocated to the Western Front, where he flew in the Defense of the Reich and claimed six further victories. In mid-November 1943, he was appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of the II. Gruppe (2nd group) of JG 3 "Udet"; he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 25 November. Lemke was killed in action on 4 December 1943 northwest of Nijmegen in combat with United States Army Air Forces fighters.

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