Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig-Holstein (German: [ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪn]) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg.

Also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish. The Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, and the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig; now part of the Region of Southern Denmark) in Denmark.

Schleswig-Holstein
Flag of Schleswig-Holstein
Flag
Coat of arms of Schleswig-Holstein
Coat of arms
Coordinates: 54°28′12″N 9°30′50″E / 54.47000°N 9.51389°E
CountryGermany
CapitalKiel
Government
 • BodyLandtag of Schleswig-Holstein
 • Minister-PresidentDaniel Günther (CDU)
 • Governing partiesCDU / Greens / FDP
 • Bundesrat votes4 (of 69)
Area
 • Total15,763.18 km2 (6,086.20 sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeDE-SH
Vehicle registrationformerly: S (1945–1947), SH (1947), BS (1948–1956)[1]
GDP (nominal)€86 billion (2015)[2]
GDP per capita€30,000 (2015)
NUTS RegionDEF
Websiteschleswig-holstein.de

History

AreasSettlementSchleswig-HolsteinText
The historic settlement areas in present-day Schleswig-Holstein
Limes.saxoniae.wmt
The Limes Saxoniae border between the Saxons and the Obotrites, established about 810 in present-day Schleswig-Holstein
KielerInnenFoerdeLuftaufnahme
Kiel is the state's capital and largest city.
Lubeck panorama
The city of Lübeck was the centre of the Hanse, and its city centre is a World Heritage Site today. Lübeck is the birthplace of the author Thomas Mann.
Luftaufnahmen Nordseekueste 2013-09 by-RaBoe 072
World Heritage Site German Wadden Sea
Rape-fieldSH
A rapeseed field in Schleswig-Holstein — agriculture continues to play an important role in parts of the state.
13-09-29-nordfriesisches-wattenmeer-RalfR-05
Schleswig-Holstein's islands, beaches, and cities are popular tourist attractions (here: Isle of Sylt).

The term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land, (Holz and Holt mean wood in modern Standardised German and in literary English, respectively). Originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi (Dithmarschen), Holstein and Sturmarii (Stormarn). The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein (and thus the Empire) was marked by the River Eider.

The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, and linguistically identical (cognate) with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain.

The Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was originally an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.

Duchies in the Danish realm

Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, or have been virtually independent of both nations. The exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, and the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, and consequently Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part. This would later prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen (from 1523 by the German Chancellery which was in 1806 renamed Schleswig-Holstein Chancellery).[3]

Schleswig-Holstein Question

The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig. This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes (and Germans) living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig (the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century).

A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation. These demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled. This began the First Schleswig War (1848–51), which ended in a Danish victory at Idstedt.

In 1863, conflict broke out again when Frederick VII died without legitimate issue. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX. The transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the (German-oriented) branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein. The promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig, which ended in Danish defeat. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, and Denmark lost Schleswig (Northern and Southern Schleswig), Holstein, and Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria.

Province of Prussia

Contrary to the hopes of German Schleswig-Holsteiners, the area did not gain its independence, but was annexed as a province of Prussia in 1867. Also following the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague stipulated that the people of Northern Schleswig would be consulted in a referendum on whether to remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule. This condition, however, was never fulfilled by Prussia. During the decades of Prussian rule within the German Empire, authorities attempted a Germanisation policy in the northern part of Schleswig, which remained predominantly Danish. The period also meant increased industrialisation of Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Kiel and Flensburg as important Imperial German Navy locations. The northernmost part and west coast of the province saw a wave of emigration to America, while some Danes of North Schleswig emigrated to Denmark.

Plebiscite in 1920

Following the defeat of Germany in World War I, the Allied powers arranged a plebiscite in northern and central Schleswig. The plebiscite was conducted under the auspices of an international commission which designated two voting zones to cover the northern and south-central parts of Schleswig. Steps were taken to also create a third zone covering a southern area, but zone III was cancelled again and never voted, as the Danish government asked the commission not to expand the plebiscite to this area.

In zone I covering Northern Schleswig (10 February 1920), 75% voted for reunification with Denmark and 25% voted for Germany. In zone II covering central Schleswig (14 March 1920), the results were reversed; 80% voted for Germany and just 20% for Denmark. Only minor areas on the island of Föhr showed a Danish majority, and the rest of the Danish vote was primarily in the town of Flensburg.[4]

Abstimmung-schleswig-1920
Results of the 1920 plebiscites in North and Central Schleswig (Slesvig)
Electorate German name Danish name For Germany For Denmark
percent votes percent votes
Zone I (Northern Schleswig), 10 February 1920 25.1 % 25,329 74.9 % 75,431
District of Hadersleben Haderslev 16.0% 6,585 84.0% 34,653
Town of Hadersleben Haderslev 38.6% 3,275 61.4% 5,209
District of Apenrade Aabenraa 32.3% 6,030 67.7% 12,653
Town of Apenrade Aabenraa 55.1% 2,725 44.9% 2,224
District of Sonderburg Sønderborg 22.9% 5,083 77.1% 17,100
Town of Sonderburg Sønderborg 56.2% 2,601 43.8% 2,029
Town of Augustenburg Augustenborg 48.0% 236 52.0% 256
Northern part of District of Tondern Tønder 40.9% 7,083 59.1% 10,223
Town of Tondern Tønder 76.5% 2,448 23.5% 750
Town of Hoyer Højer 72.6% 581 27.4% 219
Town of Lügumkloster Løgumkloster 48.8% 516 51.2% 542
Northern part of District of Flensburg Flensborg 40.6% 548 59.4% 802
Zone II (Central Schleswig), 14 March 1920 80.2 % 51,742 19.8 % 12,800
Southern part of District of Tondern Tønder 87.9% 17,283 12.1% 2,376
Southern part of District of Flensburg Flensborg 82.6% 6,688 17.4% 1,405
Town of Flensburg Flensborg 75.2% 27,081 24.8% 8,944
Northern part of District of Husum Husum 90.0% 672 10.0% 75

On 15 June 1920, Northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. The Danish/German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I which was never challenged by Adolf Hitler.

In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), where the nearby Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg was expanded, to encompass towns that had formally belonged to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. To compensate Prussia for these losses (and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for Lübeck[5]), the 711-year-long independence of the Hansestadt Lübeck came to an end, and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein.

State of Federal Germany

After World War II, the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein came under British occupation. On 23 August 1946, the military government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate Land.[6]

Because of the forced migrations of Germans in 1944 to 1950, the population of Schleswig-Holstein increased by 33% (860,000 people).[7] A pro-Danish political movement arose in Schleswig, with transfer of the area to Denmark as an ultimate goal. This was supported neither by the British occupation administration nor the Danish government. In 1955, the German and Danish governments issued the Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations confirming the rights of the ethnic minorities on both sides of the border. Conditions between the nationalities have since been stable and generally respectful.

Geography

Schleswig-Holstein
Geography

Schleswig-Holstein lies on the base of Jutland Peninsula between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Strictly speaking, "Schleswig" refers to the German Southern Schleswig (German: Südschleswig or Landesteil Schleswig, Danish: Sydslesvig), whereas Northern Schleswig is in Denmark (South Jutland County, Region of Southern Denmark). The state of Schleswig-Holstein further consists of Holstein, as well as Lauenburg and the formerly independent city of Lübeck.

Schleswig-Holstein borders Denmark (Southern Denmark) to the north, the North Sea to the west, the Baltic Sea to the east, and the German states of Lower Saxony, Hamburg, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern to the south.

In the western part of the state, the lowlands have virtually no hills. The North Frisian Islands, as well as almost all of Schleswig-Holstein's North Sea coast, form the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (Nationalpark Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer) which is the largest national park in Central Europe. Germany's only high-sea island, Heligoland, is situated in the North Sea.

The Baltic Sea coast in the east of Schleswig-Holstein is marked by bays, fjords, and cliff lines. Rolling hills (the highest elevation is the Bungsberg at 168 metres or 551 feet) and many lakes are found, especially in the eastern part of Holstein called the Holstein Switzerland and the former Duchy of Lauenburg (Herzogtum Lauenburg). Fehmarn is the only island off the eastern coast. The longest river besides the Elbe is the Eider; the most important waterway is the Kiel Canal which connects the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

Administration

Schleswig-Holstein Kreise (nummeriert)
Districts

Schleswig-Holstein is divided into 11 Kreise (districts):

  1. Dithmarschen
  2. Lauenburg (formally Herzogtum Lauenburg or "Duchy of Lauenburg")
  3. Nordfriesland
  4. Ostholstein
  5. Pinneberg
  6. Plön
  7. Rendsburg-Eckernförde
  8. Schleswig-Flensburg
  9. Segeberg
  10. Steinburg
  11. Stormarn

Furthermore, the four separate urban districts are:

  1. KI   - Kiel
  2. HL   - Hansestadt ("Hanseatic town") Lübeck
  3. NMS - Neumünster
  4. FL   - Flensburg

Demographics

Schleswig-Holstein has an aging population. Since 1972 the natural increases have been negative. In 2016 the total fertility rate reached 1.61, highest value in 40 years (the average value being 1.4). In 2016 there were 25,420 births and 33,879 deaths, resulting in a natural decrease of -8,459.

Vital statistics

[8]

  • Births from January-September 2016 = Increase 19,138
  • Births from January-September 2017 = Decrease 19,086
  • Deaths from January-September 2016 = Positive decrease 25,153
  • Deaths from January-September 2017 = Negative increase 25,832
  • Natural growth from January-September 2016 = Increase -6,015
  • Natural growth from January-September 2017 = Decrease -6,746

Religion

The region has been strongly Protestant since the time of the Protestant Reformation. Percentage-wise it is the most Protestant of the 16 modern states. In 2016, members of the Evangelical Church in Germany make up 46.5% of the population, while members of the Catholic Church comprise 5.9%.[9] 47.6% of the population is not religious or adherent of other religions.


Largest groups of foreign residents by 31 December 2017

 Syria 29,615
 Turkey 27,895
 Poland 27,090
 Afghanistan 13,475
 Romania 12,420
 Iraq 10,720
 Russia 8,075
 Denmark 7,070
 Bulgaria 6,715
 Italy 5,315

Culture

Rote Grütze mit Vanillesoße
Shared with neighboring Denmark: Rødgrød served in Schleswig-Holstein with milk or custard

Schleswig-Holstein combines Danish and German aspects of culture. The castles and manors in the countryside are the best example for this tradition; some dishes like Rødgrød (German: Rote Grütze, literal English "red grits" or "red groats") are also shared, as well as surnames such as Hansen.

The most important festivals are the Kiel Week, Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, an annual classic music festival all over the state, and the Lübeck Nordic Film Days, an annual film festival for movies from Scandinavian countries, held in Lübeck.

The annual Wacken Open Air festival is considered to be the largest heavy metal rock festival in the world.

The state's most important museum of cultural history is in Gottorf Castle in Schleswig.

The Wagnerian tenor Klaus Florian Vogt is from Schleswig - Holstein.

Symbols

The coat of arms shows the symbols of the two duchies united in Schleswig-Holstein, i.e., the two lions for Schleswig and the leaf of a nettle for Holstein. Supposedly, Otto von Bismarck decreed that the two lions were to face the nettle because of the discomfort to their bottoms which would have resulted if the lions faced away from it.

The motto of Schleswig-Holstein is "Up ewich ungedeelt" (Middle Low German: "Forever undivided", modern High German: "Auf ewig ungeteilt"). It goes back to the Vertrag von Ripen or Handfeste von Ripen (Danish: Ribe Håndfæstning) or Treaty of Ribe in 1460. Ripen (Ribe) is a historical small town at the North Sea coast in Northern Schleswig. See History of Schleswig-Holstein.

The anthem from 1844 is called "Wanke nicht, mein Vaterland" ("Don't falter, my fatherland"), but it is usually referred to with its first line "Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen" (i.e., "Schleswig-Holstein embraced by the seas") or "Schleswig-Holstein-Lied" (Schleswig-Holstein song).

The old city of Lübeck is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Languages

Helgoland Hummerbuden 21955
Helgoland island in the North Sea

Danish, German, Low German and North Frisian are the official languages of the state.[10]

Historically, Low German (in Holstein and the South of Schleswig), Danish (in Schleswig), and North Frisian (in North Frisia in Western Schleswig) were spoken. During the language change in the 19th century some Danish and North Frisian dialects in Southern Schleswig were replaced by German.[11][12] [13]

Low German is still used in many parts of the state, a pidgin of Low and standardised German (Missingsch) is used in most areas, and a pidgin of German and Danish (Petuh) is used in the Flensburg-Area. Danish is used by the Danish minority in Southern Schleswig, and North Frisian is spoken by the North Frisians of the North Sea Coast and the Northern Frisian Islands in Southern Schleswig. The North Frisian dialect called Heligolandic (Halunder) is spoken on the island of Heligoland.

High German was introduced in the 16th century, mainly for official purposes, but is today the predominant language.

Economy

Schleswig-Holstein is a leader in the country's growing renewable energy industry.[14] In 2014, Schleswig-Holstein became the first German state to cover 100% of its electric power demand with renewable energy sources (chiefly wind, solar, and biomass).[15]

The unemployment rate stood at 5.0% in October 2018 and was marginally higher than the German average.[16]

Year[17] 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Unemployment rate in % 8.5 8.4 8.7 9.7 9.8 11.6 10.0 8.4 7.6 7.8 7.5 7.2 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.0

Education

Compulsory education starts for children who are six years old on 30 June.[18] All children attend a "Grundschule", which is Germany's equivalent to primary school, for the first 4 years and then move on to a secondary school.[18] In Schleswig-Holstein there are "Gemeinschaftsschulen", which is a new type of comprehensive school. The regional schools, which go by the German name "Regionalschule" have been done away with as of 1 January 2014.[18] The option of a Gymnasium is still available.[18]

There are three universities in Kiel, Lübeck and Flensburg.[19] Also, there are four public Universities of Applied Sciences in Flensburg, Heide, Kiel, and Lübeck.[19] There is the Conservatory in Lübeck and the Muthesius Academy of Fine Arts in Kiel. There are also three private institutions of higher learning.[19]

Politics

Schleswig-Holstein has its own parliament and government which are located in the state capital Kiel.[20] The Minister-President of Schleswig-Holstein is elected by the Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein.[20]

Current executive branch

Position Minister Party Source
Minister-President Daniel Günther CDU [21]
Minister of Education, Science and Cultural Affairs Karin Prien CDU [21]
Minister of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment, Nature and Digitalization Robert Habeck Greens [21]
Minister of Finances Monika Heinold Greens [21]
Minister of Interior, Rural Areas an Integration Hans-Joachim Grote CDU [21]
Minister of Justice, European Affairs, Consumer Protection and Equality Sabine Sütterlin-Waack CDU [21]
Minister of Social Affairs, Health, Youth, Family and Senior Citizens Heiner Garg FDP [21]
Minister of Economic Affairs, Transport, Employment, Technology and Tourism Bernd Klaus Buchholz FDP [21]

Recent elections

The most recent Schleswig-Holstein state elections were held on 7 May 2017. The governing parties consisting of the Social Democrats, the Green Party, and the South Schleswig Voters' Association lost their majority.

List of Minister-Presidents of Schleswig-Holstein

See also

References

  1. ^ By the federal vehicle registration reform of 1 July 1956 distinct prefixes were given for every district.
  2. ^ "Regional GDP per capita in the EU28 in 2013". Retrieved 2015-09-10.
  3. ^ German Chancellery (in Danish), The Great Danish Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Schwedler, Frank: Historischer Atlas Schleswig-Holstein 1867 bis 1945, Wachholtz Verlag, Neumünster
  5. ^ "Lübeck: The town that said no to Hitler", Simon Heffer, www.telegraph.co.uk, Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  6. ^ Ordinance No. 46, "Abolition of the Provinces in the British Zone of the Former State of Prussia and Reconstitution thereof as Separate Länder" (PDF). (218 KB)
  7. ^ Flucht und Vertreibung at Haus der Geschichte (in German)
  8. ^ "Bevölkerung". Statistische Ämter des Bundes Und der Länder. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  9. ^ Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland - Kirchemitgliederzahlen Stand 31.12.2016 EKD, April 2018
  10. ^ Nygaard, Jørgen (14 May 2015). "Dansk er blevet officielt sprog i Slesvig". tvsyd.dk (in Danish).
  11. ^ Bock, Karl N. (1948). Mittelniederdeutsch und heutiges Plattdeutsch im ehemaligen Dänischen Herzogtum Schleswig. Studien zur Beleuchtung des Sprachwechsels in Angeln und Mittelschleswig. Det Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab.
  12. ^ Hinrichsen, Manfred (1984). Die Entwicklung der Sprachverhältnisse im Landesteil Schleswig. Wachholtz.
  13. ^ http://www.nordfriiskinstituut.de/index.html
  14. ^ Gero Rueter (2013-09-10). "Northern Germany spearheads energy transition". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
  15. ^ Lisa Waselikowski (2015-01-08). "Highlight of the Month: The First German State Achieves 100% Renewable Energy". Worldwatch Institute. Retrieved 2015-08-21.
  16. ^ "Arbeitslosenquote nach Bundesländern in Deutschland 2018 | Statista". Statista (in German). Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  17. ^ (Destatis),, © Statistisches Bundesamt (2018-11-13). "Federal Statistical Office Germany - GENESIS-Online". www-genesis.destatis.de. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  18. ^ a b c d "Education in Schleswig-Holstein". State of Schleswig-Holstein. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  19. ^ a b c "Institutions of Higher Education in Schleswig-Holstein". State of Schleswig-Holstein. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  20. ^ a b "Responsibilities of the Government". State of Schleswig-Holstein. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h "State Government". Retrieved 28 June 2017.

External links

Altenhof, Schleswig-Holstein

Altenhof (Low German: Oldenhave, Danish: Celmerstorp) is a municipality in the district of Rendsburg-Eckernförde, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein

Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein (Auguste Viktoria Friederike Luise Feodora Jenny; 22 October 1858 – 11 April 1921) was the last German empress and queen of Prussia by marriage to Wilhelm II, German Emperor.

Brügge

Brügge is a municipality in the district of Rendsburg-Eckernförde, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

Its small church and market square are noted for their beauty.

Christian IX of Denmark

Christian IX (8 April 1818 – 29 January 1906) was King of Denmark from 1863 until his death in 1906. From 1863 to 1864, he was concurrently Duke of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg.

Growing up as a prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a junior branch of the House of Oldenburg which had ruled Denmark since 1448, Christian was originally not in the immediate line of succession to the Danish throne. However, in 1852, Christian was chosen as heir to the Danish monarchy in light of the expected extinction of the senior line of the House of Oldenburg. Upon the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark in 1863, Christian (who was both Frederick's uncle and cousin) acceded to the throne as the first Danish monarch of the House of Glücksburg.The beginning of his reign was marked by the Danish defeat in the Second Schleswig War and the subsequent loss of the duchies of Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg which made the king immensely unpopular. The following years of his reign were dominated by political disputes as Denmark had only become a constitutional monarchy in 1849 and the balance of power between the sovereign and parliament was still in dispute. In spite of his initial unpopularity and the many years of political strife, where the king was in conflict with large parts of the population, his popularity recovered towards the end of his reign, and he became a national icon due to the length of his reign and the high standards of personal morality with which he was identified.

Christian married his second cousin, Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel, in 1842. Their six children married into other royal families across Europe, earning him the sobriquet "the father-in-law of Europe". Margrethe II of Denmark, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Philippe of Belgium, Harald V of Norway, Felipe VI of Spain, Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Constantine II of Greece, Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, Queen Sofia of Spain, and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, are among his descendants.

Duchy of Holstein

The Duchy of Holstein (German: Herzogtum Holstein, Danish: Hertugdømmet Holsten) was the northernmost state of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the present German state of Schleswig-Holstein. It was established when King Christian I of Denmark had his County of Holstein-Rendsburg elevated to a duchy by Emperor Frederick III in 1474. Holstein was ruled jointly with the Duchy of Schleswig by members of the Danish House of Oldenburg for its entire existence.

From 1490 to 1523 and again from 1544 to 1773 the Duchy was partitioned between various Oldenburg branches, most notably the dukes of Holstein-Glückstadt (identical with the Kings of Denmark) and Holstein-Gottorp. The Duchy ceased to exist when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866 after the Second Schleswig War.

Duke of Holstein-Gottorp

Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, also known as Ducal Holstein, that were ruled by the dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. Other parts of the duchies were ruled by the kings of Denmark.

The territories of Gottorp are located in present-day Denmark and Germany. The main seat of the dukes was Gottorf Castle in the city of Schleswig in the duchy of Schleswig. It is also the name of the ducal house, which ascended to several thrones. For this reason, genealogists and historians sometimes use the name of Holstein-Gottorp for related dynasties of other countries.

The formal title adopted by these rulers was "Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Dithmarschen and Stormarn", but that title was also used by his kinsmen, the kings of Denmark and their cadet branches, as it was the common property of all these agnates. The Gottorp branch held Landeshoheit (territorial superiority) over the duchy of Holstein in the Holy Roman Empire and over the duchy of Schleswig in the kingdom of Denmark. For the sake of convenience, the name Holstein-Gottorp is used instead of the technically more correct "Duke of Schleswig and Holstein in/at Gottorp".The oldest of the ducal titles was that of Schleswig, which had been confirmed in fief to a royal kinsman by the regent Queen Margaret I of Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1386 on behalf of her son, Olaf II of Denmark. The kings of Denmark were granted Holstein as an imperial fief by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III in 1474.

Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein

Duke Frederick VIII (Danish: Frederik Christian August af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Augustenborg; German: Friedrich Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg) (July 6, 1829 – January 14, 1880) was the German pretender to the throne of Schleswig-Holstein from 1863, although in reality Prussia took overlordship and real administrative power.

Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Paul Leopold; 4 January 1785 – 17 February 1831) inherited the title of Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck in 1816. He subsequently changed his title to Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg in 1825 and founded a line that includes the Royal Houses of Denmark, Greece, Norway, and the Commonwealth realms.

Holstein

Holstein (German pronunciation: [ˈhɔlʃtaɪn]; Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen; Danish: Holsten; Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost state of Germany.

Holstein once existed as the German County of Holstein (German: Grafschaft Holstein; 811–1474), the later Duchy of Holstein (German: Herzogtum Holstein; 1474–1866), and was the northernmost territory of the Holy Roman Empire. The history of Holstein is closely intertwined with the history of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig (Danish: Slesvig). The capital of Holstein is Kiel.

Holstein's name comes from the Holcetae, a Saxon tribe mentioned by Adam of Bremen as living on the north bank of the Elbe, to the west of Hamburg. The name means "dwellers in the wood" (Northern Low Saxon: Hol(t)saten; German: Holzsassen).

Holstein-Glückstadt

Holstein-Glückstadt or Schleswig-Holstein-Glückstadt is the historiographical name, as well as contemporary shorthand name, for the parts of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein that were ruled by the Kings of Denmark in their function as dukes of Schleswig and Holstein, thus also known as Royal Schleswig-Holstein. Other parts of the duchies were ruled by the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. The territories of Holstein-Glückstadt are located in present-day Denmark and Germany. The main centre of administration was Segeberg and from 1648 Glückstadt (founded in 1617) on the River Elbe.

Holstein Kiel

Holstein Kiel (KSV Holstein or Kieler SV Holstein) is a German association football and sports club based in the city of Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein. Through the 1900s till 1960s the club was one of the most dominant side in northern Germany. Holstein appear regular in the national playoffs, finishing as vice-champions in 1910 and 1930 before capturing their most important title, the German football championship in 1912. Holstein also winning six regional titles and finishing as runners-up another nine times. They remained a first division side until the formation of the Bundesliga in 1963.

House of Glücksburg

The House of Glücksburg (also spelled Glücksborg), shortened from House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, is a Dano-German branch of the House of Oldenburg, members of which have reigned at various times in Denmark, Norway, Greece and several northern German states.

Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, King Harald V of Norway, King Constantine II of Greece, Queen Sofía of Spain and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (and his eldest son and heir to the British throne Prince Charles) are patrilineal members of cadet branches of the Glücksburg dynasty.

Lüchow, Schleswig-Holstein

Lüchow is a municipality in the district of Lauenburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

Mölln, Schleswig-Holstein

Mölln is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is surrounded by several small lakes (Stadtsee, Schulsee, Ziegelsee, Hegesee, Schmalsee, Lütauer See, Drüsensee, and Pinnsee). The Elbe-Lübeck Canal flows through the town. Mölln belongs to the district of Herzogtum Lauenburg.

Neumünster

Neumünster (German pronunciation: [nɔʏˈmʏnstɐ]) is an urban municipality in the middle of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. With more than 79,000 registered inhabitants, it is the fourth-largest municipality in Schleswig-Holstein (behind Kiel, Lübeck and Flensburg).

Province of Schleswig-Holstein

The Province of Schleswig-Holstein (German: Provinz Schleswig-Holstein [ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪn]) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia (subsequently the Free State of Prussia after 1918) from 1868 to 1946.

SMS Schleswig-Holstein

SMS Schleswig-Holstein (pronounced [ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪn]) was the last of the five Deutschland-class battleships built by the German Kaiserliche Marine. The ship, named for the province of Schleswig-Holstein, was laid down in the Germaniawerft dockyard in Kiel in August 1905 and commissioned into the fleet nearly three years later. The ships of her class were already outdated by the time they entered service, being inferior in size, armor, firepower and speed to the new generation of dreadnought battleships.

Schleswig-Holstein fought in both World Wars. During World War I, she saw front-line service in the II Battle Squadron of the High Seas Fleet, culminating in the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916. Schleswig-Holstein saw action during the engagement, and was hit by one large-caliber shell. After the battle, Schleswig-Holstein was relegated to guard duty in the mouth of the Elbe River before being decommissioned in late 1917. As one of the few battleships permitted for Germany by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Schleswig-Holstein was again pressed into fleet service in the 1920s. In 1935, the old battleship was converted into a training ship for naval cadets.

Schleswig-Holstein fired the first shots of World War II when she bombarded the Polish base at Danzig's Westerplatte in the early morning hours of 1 September 1939. The ship was used as a training vessel for the majority of the war, and was sunk by British bombers in Gotenhafen in December 1944. Schleswig-Holstein was subsequently salvaged and then beached for use by the Soviet Navy as a target. As of 1990, the ship's bell was on display in the Bundeswehr Military History Museum in Dresden.

Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival

The Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival is a classical music festival held each summer throughout the state of Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany.

Stormarn (district)

Stormarn is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is bounded by (from the north and clockwise) the districts of Segeberg and Ostholstein, the city of Lübeck, the district of Lauenburg, and the city-state of Hamburg.

Fluctuations 1970–2015
Year Birthsd[›] Deaths Influx Outflux Balance TFR
1970 35,171 32,990 100,586 76,572 24,014
1975 24,282 32,993 75,949 69,169 – 1,931
1980 24,545 31,278 80,137 61,123 +12,281
1985 23,099 31,330 65,537 56 951 +355
1990 29,046 31,461 153,275 119,339 +31,521 1,47
1995 27,430 31,288 114,799 93,872 +17,069 1,33
2000 26,920 29,821 79,416 64,029 +12,486 1,43
2005 23,027 29,669 74,534 63,786 +4,106 1,37
2010 22,578 31,201 76,032 65,209 +2,200 1,45
2015 23,549 33,663 111,661 74,317 +27,230 1,51
States
City-states
Former states
Flag of Schleswig-Holstein Urban and rural districts in the state of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany Flag of Germany
Urban districts
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