Schaffhausen

Schaffhausen (German: [ˈʃafˌhaʊzn̩] (listen); Alemannic German: Schafuuse; French: Schaffhouse; Italian: Sciaffusa; Romansh: Schaffusa; English: Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality in northern Switzerland, and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 36,000 as of December 2016. It is located right next to the shore of the High Rhine; it is one of four Swiss towns located on the northern side of the Rhine, along with Neuhausen a. Rhf., the historic Neunkirch, and Stein a. Rh..

The old portion of the town has many fine Renaissance era buildings decorated with exterior frescos and sculpture, as well as the old canton fortress, the Munot. Schaffhausen is also a railway junction of Swiss and German rail networks. One of the lines connects the town with the nearby Rhine Falls in Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Europe's largest waterfall, a tourist attraction.

The official language of Schaffhausen is (the Swiss variety of Standard) German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect.

Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen in 2012
Schaffhausen in 2012
Location of Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen is located in Switzerland
Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen is located in Canton of Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
Coordinates: 47°42′N 8°38′E / 47.700°N 8.633°ECoordinates: 47°42′N 8°38′E / 47.700°N 8.633°E
CountrySwitzerland
CantonSchaffhausen
District(None in canton of Schaffhausen)
Government
 • ExecutiveStadtrat
with 5 members
 • MayorStadtpräsident (list)
Peter Neukomm SPS/PSS
(as of January 2017)
 • ParliamentGrosser Stadtrat
with 36 members
Area
 • Total41.78 km2 (16.13 sq mi)
Elevation
(Bahnhofstrasse)
403 m (1,322 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31)[2]
 • Total36,582
 • Density880/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Postal code
8200, 8203, 8207, 8208, 8231 Hemmental
SFOS number2939
LocalitiesSchaffhausen, Breite, Gruben, Buchthalen, St. Niklausen, Herblingen, Hauental, Hemmental
Surrounded byBeringen, Büsingen am Hochrhein (DE-BW), Büttenhardt, Dörflingen, Feuerthalen (ZH), Flurlingen (ZH), Merishausen, Neuhausen am Rheinfall, Stetten, Thayngen
Twin townsSindelfingen (Germany), Singen am Hohentwiel (Germany), Dobrich (Bulgaria)
Websitewww.stadt-schaffhausen.ch
Profile ‹See Tfd›(in German), SFSO statistics
Imperial City of Schaffhausen

Reichsstadt Schaffhausen
1190 or 1218–1330
1415–1501
StatusFree Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
CapitalSchaffhausen
GovernmentRepublic
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Gained Reichsfreiheit
betw 1190 and 1218
• Pledged to Habsburgs
1330
• Bought independence
1415
 
1454
• Joined Switzerland
1501
 
1648
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Imperial Abbey of All Saints in Schaffhausen All Saints' Abbey (Switzerland)
Canton of Schaffhausen Canton of Schaffhausen
Imperial Abbey of All Saints in Schaffhausen

Reichskloster Allerheiligen, Schaffhausen
1080–1529
StatusImperial Abbey of the Holy Roman Empire
CapitalSchaffhausen
GovernmentPrincipality
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Consecrated (Leo IX)
22 November 1049
• Papal grant of
    Nellenburg lands
  1080
• Gained Hiltensweiler
    lands
 
1122–1389
• City became
    Swiss Associate
 
1454
• City joined Switz.
1501
• Converted to
    monastery and
    cathedral church
 
 
1524
• Disestablished in
    Reformation
  1529
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Landgraviate of Nellenburg Landgraviate of Nellenburg
Canton of Schaffhausen Canton of Schaffhausen

Etymology

The town is first mentioned in 1045 as Villa Scafhusun. There are at least two theories on the origin of this name:

  • One relates to a mention of a "ford" across the Rhine that first occurs in 1050. This "ford" may actually refer to a scapha or skiff which was used to disembark goods coming from Constance to move them around the Rhine Falls. The name Scafhusun then arose from the scapha used at that point.[3]
  • Another theory is that Scafhusun comes from Schaf (a sheep), as a ram (now a sheep) formed the ancient arms (traceable to 1049) of the town, derived from those of its founders, the counts of Nellenburg.[4]

History

Schaffhausen was a city state in the Middle Ages, documented to have struck its own coins from 1045.[5] About 1050 the counts of Nellenburg founded the Benedictine monastery of All Saints, which became the centre of the town. Perhaps as early as 1190, certainly in 1208, it was an imperial free city, while the first seal dates from 1253. The powers of the abbot were gradually limited and in 1277 the Emperor Rudolf I gave the town a charter of liberties. In 1330 the emperor Louis of Bavaria pledged it to the Habsburgs. In the early 15th century, Habsburg power over the city waned. By 1411 the guilds ruled the city. Then, in 1415 the Habsburg Duke Frederick IV of Austria sided with the Antipope John XXIII at the Council of Constance, and was banned by the Emperor Sigismund. As a result of the ban and Frederick's need of money, Schaffhausen was able to buy its independence from the Habsburgs in 1418. The city allied with six of the Swiss confederates in 1454 and allied with a further two (Uri and Unterwalden) in 1479. Schaffhausen became a full member of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1501.

The Reformation was adopted, initially, in 1524 and completely in 1529. The town was heavily damaged during the Thirty Years' War by the passage of Swedish (Protestant) and Bavarian (Roman Catholic) troops and the very important bridge was burnt down. It was not until the early 19th century that the arrested industrial development of the town made a fresh start.[5] In 1857 the first railroad, the Rheinfallbahn running from Winterthur, reached Schaffhausen.[6]

Schaffhausen is located in a finger of Swiss territory surrounded on three sides by Germany. On 1 April 1944 Schaffhausen suffered a bombing raid by United States Army Air Forces aircraft which strayed from German airspace into neutral Switzerland due to navigation errors. Air raid sirens had often sounded in the past, without an actual attack, so many residents ignored the sirens that day. A total of 40 civilians were killed in the raid. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt sent a personal letter of apology to the mayor of Schaffhausen and the United States quickly offered four million US dollars in reparations.[7]

Geography and climate

Topography

The town of Schaffhausen stands on the right bank of the river Rhine. It has an area, (as of the 2004/09 survey) of 41.85 km2 (16.16 sq mi).[8] Of this area, about 20.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 53.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 24.8% is settled (buildings or roads) and 1.6% is unproductive land. Over the past two decades (1979/85-2004/09) the amount of land that is settled has increased by 95 ha (230 acres) and the agricultural land has decreased by 117 ha (290 acres).[9]

In 1947 it merged with the former municipality of Buchthalen. Its area expanded again in 1964 when Herblingen was absorbed and for a third time in 2009 when Hemmental joined the municipality.[10]

Schaffhausen shares an international border with the German village of Büsingen am Hochrhein, an exclave entirely surrounded by Switzerland.

Climate

Schaffhausen has an average of 122.5 days of rain or snow per year and on average receives 907 mm (35.7 in) of precipitation. The wettest month is July during which time Schaffhausen receives an average of 95 mm (3.7 in) of rain. During this month there is precipitation for an average of 11.3 days. The driest month of the year is February with an average of 59 mm (2.3 in) of precipitation over 8.4 days.[11]

Politics

Coat of arms

The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or on a Base Vert issuant from sinister a Semi Castle Argent with tower with entrance from which is issuing a Semi Ram Sable.[12] The canting coat of arms refers to the second interpretation of the name, sheep-house.

Government

The City Council (de: Stadtrat) constitutes the executive government of the town of Schaffhausen and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of five councilors (German: Stadtrat/Stadträtin), each presiding over a department (Referat), which each consists of several administrative districts. The president of the executive department acts as mayor (Stadtpräsident(in)). In the mandate period January 2017 – December 2020 (Amtsdauer) the City Council is presided by Stadtpräsident Peter Neukomm. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Grand City Council (parliament) are carried by the City Council. The regular election of the City Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Schaffhausen allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The mayor is elected as such as well by public election while the heads of the other directorates are assigned by the collegiate. The mayor as well as the delegates are elected by means of a system of Majorz.[13]

As of 2017, Schaffhausen's City Council is made up of one representative of the SP (Social Democratic Party, who is also the mayor), one representative of the AL (Alternative List), one of the FDP (The Liberals), one of the SVP (Swiss People's Party), and one of the GLP (Green Liberal Party), giving the right parties a majority of three out of five seats. The last regular election was held on 28 August 2016.[14]

Stadtrat of Schaffhausen[13]
City Councillor
(Stadtrat/ Stadträtin)
Party Title Head of department (Referat, since) of elected since
Peter Neukomm[CC 1]      PS Stadtpräsident Mayor's Office (Präsidialreferat, 2017) 2012
Simon Stocker[CC 2]      AL Vizepräsident, Sozial- und Sicherheitsreferent Social Services and Security (Sozial- und Sicherheitsreferat, ) <=08
Dr. Raphaël Rohner      FDP Bildungsreferent Education (Bildungsreferat, ) 2012
Daniel Preisig      SVP Finanzreferent Finances (Finanzreferat, 2017) 2016
Dr. Katrin Bernath      GLP Baureferentin Construction and Civil Engineering (Baureferat, 2017) 2016
  1. ^ Mayor (de: Stadtpräsident)
  2. ^ Vice-Mayor (de: Vizepräsident)

Christian Schneider is Town Chronicler (Stadtschreiber) since xxxx.

Parliament

The Grosse Stadtrat of Schaffhausen for the mandate period of 2017-2020

  AL (11.1%)
  JUSOplus (2.8%)
  SP (22.2%)
  ÖBS-Grüne (5.6%)
  glp (8.3%)
  EVP (2.8%)
  CVP (2.8%)
  JFSH (13.9%)
  FDP (2.8%)
  SVP (25%)
  EDU (2.8%)

The Grand City Council (Grosser Stadtrat) holds legislative power. It is made up of 36 members, with elections held every four years. The Grand City Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the City Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of Proporz.

The sessions of the Grand City Council are public. Unlike members of the City Council, members of the Grand City Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Schaffhausen allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Grand City Council. The parliament holds its meetings in the Kantonsratsaal (Cantonal Council Hall) am Kornmarkt.[15]

The last regular election of the Grand City Council was held on 27 November 2016 for the mandate period (German: Legislatur) from January 2017 to December 2020. Currently the Grand City Council consist of 9 Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC), 8 members of the Social Democratic Party (SP/PS) and one of its junior section, the JUSOplus, 5 The Liberals (FDP/PLR) and one of its junior section, the JFSH, 4 Alternative List (AL), 3 Green Liberal Party (GLP/PVL), 2 ÖBS-Grüne (an alliance of the Ökoliberale Bewegung Schaffhausen (ÖBS) and the Green Party (GPS/PES)), and one each of Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP/PDC), Evangelical People's Party (EVP/PES), and Federal Democratic Union (EDU/UDF).[16]

National elections

National Council

In the 2015 federal election the most popular party was the SVP with 39.0% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP (34.0%), the FDP (12.7%) and the others (6.7%). In the federal election, a total of 13,754 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 60.7%. The 2015 election saw a change in the voting when compared to 2011. The percentage that the SP received dropped from 41.6% to 34.0% while the SVP increased from 31.9% in 2011 to 39.0% in 2015.[17]

Demographics

Schaffhausen old town 1
Views of old town, Schaffhausen

Population

Schaffhausen has a population (as of December 2017) of 36,332.[18] As of 2014, 27.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals.[19] Of the foreign population, (as of 2008), 21% are from Germany, 13.3% are from Italy, 8.8% are from Croatia, 13.3% are from Serbia, 6% are from Macedonia, 9% are from Turkey, and 28.6% are from other countries.[20] Most of the population (as of 2000) speaks German (84.3%), with Serbo-Croatian being second most common (3.4%) and Italian being third (3.2%).[21]

Over the last 4 years (2010-2014) the population has changed at a rate of 2.82%. The birth rate in the municipality, in 2014, was 9.6, while the death rate was 10.1 per thousand residents.[9]

As of 2014, children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 17.8% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) are 61.7% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 20.5%.[9] In 2015 there were 15,288 single residents, 15,287 people who were married or in a civil partnership, 2,119 widows or widowers, 3,253 divorced residents and 1 people who did not answer the question.[22]

In 2014 there were 16,723 private households in Schaffhausen with an average household size of 2.10 persons. Of the 5,863 inhabited buildings in the municipality, in 2000, about 51.5% were single family homes and 29.7% were multiple family buildings. Additionally, about 22.1% of the buildings were built before 1919, while 7.6% were built between 1991 and 2000.[23] In 2013 the rate of construction of new housing units per 1000 residents was 1.29. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2015, was 0.71%.[9]

Historic population

The historical population is given in the following chart:[24]

Religion

As of 2000, 27.4% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and 43.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church,[20] later organized in the parish St. Johann – Münster.[25]

Education

In Schaffhausen about 69.8% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education (either university or a Fachhochschule (university of applied sciences)).[21] In Schaffhausen, as of 2007, 1.73% of the population attend kindergarten or another pre-school, 5.65% attend a Primary School, 2.98% attend a lower level Secondary School, and 2.49% attend a higher level Secondary School.[20]

Economy

As of  2013, there were a total of 25,749 people employed in the municipality. Of these, a total of 103 people worked in 24 businesses in the primary economic sector. A majority (61.2%) of the primary sector employees worked in very small businesses (less than ten employees). The remainder worked in 2 small businesses with a total of 40 employees. The secondary sector employed 6,403 workers in 371 separate businesses. In 2014 a total of 2,433 employees worked in 358 small companies (less than 50 employees). There were 13 mid sized businesses with 1,631 employees and 3 large businesses which employed 2,333 people (for an average size of 777.7). Finally, the tertiary sector provided 19,243 jobs in 2,626 businesses. In 2014 the tertiary sector numbers had increased by 606 and 20 respectively. In 2014 a total of 12,890 employees worked in 2,597 small companies (less than 50 employees). There were 45 mid sized businesses with 4,938 employees and 4 large businesses which employed 2,021 people (for an average size of 505.3).[26]

In 2014 a total of 1.3% of the population received social assistance.[9]

In 2015 local hotels had a total of 102,537 overnight stays, of which 52.6% were international visitors.[27] In 2015 there were two movie theaters in the municipality, with a total of 10 screens and a total of 1,816 available seats.[28] As of 2008, there are 102 restaurants, and 11 hotels with 445 beds. The catering industry in Schaffhausen employs 924 people.[20]

As of 2008 the mid year average unemployment rate was 2.5%. There were 1,879 non-agrarian businesses in the municipality and 29.9% of the (non-agrarian) population was involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 70.1% were involved in the third. At the same time, 67.1% of the working population was employed full-time, and 32.9% was employed part-time. There were 21,841 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which women made up 46.6% of the workforce. As of 2000 there were 10,019 residents who worked in the municipality, while 5,724 residents worked outside Schaffhausen and 8,026 people commuted into the municipality for work.[20]

Schaffhausen has an unemployment rate, as of 2007, of 2.67%. As of 2005, there were 196 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 33 businesses involved in this sector. 6,488 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 293 businesses in this sector. 14,019 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 1,486 businesses in this sector.[21]

Transportation

The town of Schaffhausen is served by two railway stations. Schaffhausen railway station is jointly owned by the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) and Deutsche Bahn (DB), and is served by trains of both nation's networks. The station is served by long distance passenger trains running between Frankfurt and Zurich and between Basel and Ulm. Trains of Zurich S-Bahn services S16, S22 and S33 serve the station, although only the S16 provides a direct service to Zurich. Services S3 and S8 of the St. Gallen S-Bahn operate over the Lake line to St. Gallen and Rorschach respectively. Herblingen railway station is called at by local trains linking Schaffhausen station and Singen.

Schaffhausen also has a bus network of six lines, including the Schaffhausen trolleybus system, linking it with nearby places such as Herblingen and Neuhausen am Rheinfall.

Culture

Heritage sites of national significance

There are 35 buildings or sites in Schaffhausen that are listed as Swiss heritage sites of national significance. This includes the entire old town of Schaffhausen, the city walls, the Giesserei +GF+ Werk I factory, the town and cantonal archives, the Schweizersbild Paleolithic cave and the Herblingen and Grüthalde Neolithic settlements. Additionally, there are four former guild houses and seven listed houses. There are only two listed religious buildings, the former Benedictine All Saints Abbey and the Church of St. John.[29]

Schaffhausen - Kloster Allerheiligen IMG 2705

All Saints Abbey (German: Allerheiligen) as seen from Munot

Schaffhausen - Kloster Allerheiligen IMG 2690

Church portal of Münster Schaffhausen

Schaffhausen Münster Hauptschiff 1

Cathedral interior of Münster Schaffhausen

Schaffhausen IMG 2689

Restaurant Thiergarten and Munot tower

Zum Ritter Schaffhausen

House zum Ritter at Vordergasse 65, one of the listed houses

Schaffhausen 1

View of the Altstadt with the Münster

Economy

Schaffhausen hosts some well-known industrial companies like Georg Fischer (piping systems, machine tools and automotives), an internationally reputed manufacturer of watches (IWC), pharmaceutical industry (Cilag, founded by Bernhard Joos) and BB Biotech (biotechnologies). Tyco International, Garmin, and cyber protection company Acronis are also incorporated in Schaffhausen.

Sport

The town has two football teams, SV Schaffhausen of the fourth tier, the Swiss 1. Liga, and FC Schaffhausen of the Swiss Challenge League. There is a football stadium in Breite, Schaffhausen which seats 4200 persons, known as the Breitestadion. It is also the training headquarters for local children's football teams.

There is a handball team in Schaffhausen which plays in the first Swiss division : Kadetten Schaffhausen. They are centered at the BBC Arena on Schweizersbildstrasse. It seats 3600 persons, and was built in 2011.

The Shotokan Karate Klub Schaffhausen is one of the oldest karate clubs of Switzerland.[30]

Notable people

Johann Jakob Wepfer. Engraving by H. Pfenninger. Wellcome V0006227
Johann Jakob Wepfer, engraving
Lorentz Spengler
Lorentz Spengler, 1751
Emil Ermatinger
Emil Ermatinger, 1921
Christoph Blocher (Bundesrat, 2004)
Christoph Blocher, 2007
Irene Schweizer (Annamarie Ursula) P1120606
Irene Schweizer, 2014
Juerg Froehlich
Juerg Froehlich, 2005
Roberto Di Matteo S04 2015 (cropped)
Roberto Di Matteo, 2015
Florence Schelling 2011 WM Winterthur
Florence Schelling, 2011
early times
17th C
18th C
19th C
20th C
  • Richard Meili (1900-1991) a scientist in practical psychology, diagnostics, personality development and intelligence
  • Conrad Beck (1901–1989) a Swiss composer and head of the music department of Radio Basel 1933-1963
  • Carl Alfred Meier (1905–1995) a Swiss psychiatrist, Jungian psychologist, scholar, and first president of the C. G. Jung Institute in Zürich
  • Cardinal Gilberto Agustoni (1922–2017) a Swiss prelate of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Ernst Hess (1912–1968) a Swiss conductor, composer and musicologist
  • Bruno Meyer (born 1938) a Swiss religious leader of a fundamentalist Christian, evangelical congregation; convicted in 2010 for rape and child sexual abuse
  • Markus Werner (1944–2016) a Swiss writer, author of the novels Zündels Abgang
  • Christoph Blocher (born 1940) a Swiss politician, industrialist and former member of the Swiss Federal Council
  • Pia Gyger (1940-2014) a Swiss specialist for special education and psychologist a co-initiator of the Jerusalem-Project
  • Irène Schweizer (born 1941) a Swiss jazz and free improvising pianist [37]
  • Jürg Fröhlich (born 1946) a Swiss mathematician and theoretical physicist
  • Giorgio Behr (born 1948) a Swiss businessman, lawyer, accountant and university professor
  • Beat Furrer (born 1954) a Swiss-born Austrian composer and conductor
  • Philipp Landmark (born 1966) a Swiss journalist and former editor-in-chief of the St. Galler Tagblatt
Sport

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeinden nach 4 Hauptbereichen". Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Ständige Wohnbevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeitskategorie Geschlecht und Gemeinde; Provisorische Jahresergebnisse; 2018". Federal Statistical Office. 9 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  3. ^ Compare:  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schaffhausen (town)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. "[...] in 1050 we hear of the “ford” there across the Rhine. Hence it is probable that the name is really derived from scapha, a skid, as here goods coming from Constance were disembarked in consequence of the falls of the Rhine a little below."
  4. ^ Compare:  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schaffhausen (town)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. "Some writers, however, prefer the derivation from Schaf (a sheep), as a ram (now a sheep) formed the ancient arms of the town, derived from those of its founders, the counts of Nellenburg."
  5. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schaffhausen (town)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 312.
  6. ^ Canton Schaffhausen website-Numbers and facts accessed 18 April 2009. ‹See Tfd›(in German)
  7. ^ "70th anniversary of mistaken US attack". SWI swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  8. ^ Arealstatistik Standard - Gemeindedaten nach 4 Hauptbereichen
  9. ^ a b c d e Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Regional portraits accessed 27 October 2016
  10. ^ Schaffhausen in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  11. ^ a b "Climate normals Schaffhausen, Reference period 1981−2010" (PDF). Zurich Airport, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology - MeteoSwiss. 2 July 2014. Retrieved 2015-11-21.
  12. ^ Flags of the World.com accessed 22-December-2009
  13. ^ a b "Stadtrat" (official site) (in German). Schaffhausen, Switzerland: Stadt Schaffhausen. 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
  14. ^ "Volksabstimmung vom 28. August 2016: Stadtpräsidium/ Stadtrat" (official site) (in German). Schaffhausen, Switzerland: Stadt Schaffhausen. 28 August 2016. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
  15. ^ "Zusammensetzung: Grosser Stadtrat" (official site) (in German). Schaffhausen, Switzerland: Stadt Schaffhausen. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
  16. ^ "Parteien und Sitzverteilung nach Parteien im Grossen Stadtrat" (official site) (in German). Schaffhausen, Switzerland: Stadt Schaffhausen. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
  17. ^ "Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Nationalratswahlen 2015: Stärke der Parteien und Wahlbeteiligung nach Gemeinden" (in German, French, and Italian). Archived from the original on 2016-08-02. Retrieved 2017-05-29.
  18. ^ "STAT-TAB – Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit" (online database) (official site) (in German and French). Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Federal Statistical Office - FSO. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  19. ^ Federal Statistical Office - Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geburtsort und Staatsangehörigkeit (Land) accessed 31 October 2016
  20. ^ a b c d e Statistical Office of the Canton of Schaffhausen ‹See Tfd›(in German) accessed 2 December 2009
  21. ^ a b c Swiss Federal Statistical Office Archived 2016-01-05 at the Wayback Machine accessed 22 December 2009
  22. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, Geschlecht, Zivilstand und Geburtsort ‹See Tfd›(in German) accessed 8 September 2016
  23. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB - Thema 09 - Bau- und Wohnungswesen ‹See Tfd›(in German) accessed 5 May 2016
  24. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB Bevölkerungsentwicklung nach institutionellen Gliederungen, 1850-2000 ‹See Tfd›(in German) accessed 27 April 2016
  25. ^ "Die neue Kirchgemeinde St.Johann-Münster". St. Johann, Schaffhausen. Archived from the original on 2015-01-01. Retrieved 2015-01-01.
  26. ^ Federal Statistical Office -Arbeitsstätten und Beschäftigte nach Gemeinde, Wirtschaftssektor und Grössenklasse accessed 31 October 2016
  27. ^ Federal Statistical Office - Hotellerie: Ankünfte und Logiernächte der geöffneten Betriebe accessed 31 October 2016
  28. ^ Swiss Federal Statistical Office - Kinoinfrastruktur nach Gemeinde und Kinotyp Archived 2016-09-26 at the Wayback Machine ‹See Tfd›(in German) accessed 9 August 2016
  29. ^ Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance Archived 2009-05-01 at the Wayback Machine 21.11.2008 version, ‹See Tfd›(in German) accessed 22-December–2009
  30. ^ Shotokan Karate Klub Schaffhausen
  31. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 11, Geiler von Kaisersberg, Johann retrieved 21 November 2018
  32. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 1, Amman, Johann Conrad retrieved 21 November 2018
  33. ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 50, Schalch, Andrew retrieved 21 November 2018
  34. ^ Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 39, Moser, George Michael retrieved 21 November 2018
  35. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 18, Müller, Johannes von retrieved 21 November 2018
  36. ^ The American Cyclopædia, Hurter, Friedrich Emanuel von retrieved 21 November 2018
  37. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 21 November 2018

External links

Bombings of Switzerland in World War II

Bombings of Switzerland in World War II consisted of initially sporadic bombing events that became more frequent during the later stage of World War II.Switzerland was a neutral country during World War II, but adjacent to and at times almost completely surrounded by Axis, or Axis-occupied, countries. On several occasions, Allied bombing raids hit targets in Switzerland resulting in fatalities and property damage. Such events led to diplomatic exchanges. While Allied forces explained the causes of violations as navigation errors, equipment failure, weather conditions, and pilots' errors, in Switzerland fear was expressed that some neutrality violations were intended to exert pressure on the country to end its economic cooperation with Nazi Germany. In addition to bombing raids, air attacks by individual fighter planes strafed Swiss targets toward the end of the war. The Swiss military, in turn, attacked Allied aircraft overflying Switzerland with fighters and anti-aircraft cannons.

Canton of Schaffhausen

The canton of Schaffhausen, also canton of Schaffouse (German: Schaffhausen ) is the northernmost canton of Switzerland. The principal city and capital of the canton is Schaffhausen. The canton's territory is divided into three non-contiguous segments, where German territory reaches the Rhine. The large central part, which includes the capital, in turn separates the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein from the rest of Germany.

Districts of Switzerland

In contrast to centrally organised states, in the federally constituted Switzerland each canton is

completely free to decide its own internal organisation. Therefore, there exists a variety of structures and terminology for the subnational entities between canton and municipality, loosely termed districts.

Most cantons are divided into Bezirke (German for districts, singular Bezirk). They are also termed Ämter (Lucerne, singular Amt), Amtsbezirke (Bern, Amtsbezirk), district (in French) or distretto (Ticino and part of Graubünden). The Bezirke generally provide only administration and court organization. However, for historical reasons districts in cantons Graubünden and Schwyz are their own legal entities with jurisdiction over tax and often have their own Landsgemeinde.

Seven of the 26 cantons – Uri, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Glarus, Zug, Basel-City and Geneva – have always existed without the district level of government. An eighth one, Appenzell Innerrhoden, uses no intermediate level either, but calls its lowest-level subdivisions Bezirke, although they are functionally equivalent to municipalities elsewhere.

A number of further cantons are considering (or have already decided) an abolition of the district level in the future: Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Schaffhausen, Lucerne, St. Gallen, Schwyz in 2006 voted on its abolition, but voted in favour of keeping the division, some with modifications. Bern in 2006 decided a reduction of its 26 districts to ten administrative regions, which took effect in 2010. St. Gallen, Solothurn and Lucerne removed the administrative role, but retained districts for elections. In 2008 Vaud decided on a reduction from 19 to 10 districts, followed by Thurgau which combined eight into five in 2012. In 2017 Graubünden replaced the 11 districts with 11 regions. In 2018 Neuchâtel eliminated the district level.

For further updated about this districts, see: Population size and population composition – Data, indicators: Cantons, communes or Permanent resident population by age, canton, district and commune 2010–2013.

Eugen Meier

Eugen Meier (30 April 1930 – 26 March 2002) was a Swiss footballer born in Schaffhausen.

During his club career he played for FC Schaffhausen and BSC Young Boys. He earned 42 caps and scored 3 goals for the Switzerland national football team from 1953 to 1962, and participated in the 1954 FIFA World Cup and the 1962 FIFA World Cup.

FC Schaffhausen

FC Schaffhausen is a Swiss football team from the town of Schaffhausen. The club plays in the Challenge League, the second tier of Swiss football.

Greg Mueller

Greg Mueller (born June 2, 1971) is a German and Canadian professional poker player and former professional ice hockey defenceman.Mueller was born in Schaffhausen, Switzerland. He began playing professional ice hockey in 1992 and played his entire career in Germany, playing the Eishockey-Bundesliga for EC Hedos München and the Deutsche Eishockey Liga for Maddogs München and Ratinger Löwen.

Mueller was drawn to poker after one of many long road trips during his hockey career. After retiring from hockey, he decided to take the game more seriously and began playing in tournaments. Since then, Mueller has cashed in many poker tournaments throughout his poker career.Mueller won his first World Series of Poker title in 2009 in the $10,000 limit Texas hold'em championship. Mueller won his second World Series of Poker bracelet and $194,909 only 11 days after his first in a $1,500 Limit Hold'em Shootout event. He won his third in the $10,000 H.O.R.S.E. championship at the 2019 WSOP.

His best showing in the World Poker Tour was a fourth place finish in the 2006 World Poker Challenge, where he won $142,285.As of 2019, his total live tournament winnings exceed $3,350,000. His 43 cashes at the WSOP account for over $2,400,000 of those winnings.

Jürgen Seeberger

Jürgen Seeberger (born 25 March 1965) is a German football manager who currently is in charge of FC Schaffhausen.

Kadetten Schaffhausen

Kadetten Schaffhausen is a Swiss handball team located in Schaffhausen. Their home matches are played at the BBC Arena which has a capacity of 3,500.

They compete in the Swiss First League of Handball and won the championship four times, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. In 2010 they reached the EHF Cup final but lost to the German team TBV Lemgo.

Marco Schällibaum

Marco Schällibaum (born 6 April 1962) is a Swiss football manager and former player.

Murat Yakin

Murat Yakin (Turkish: Murat Yakın; born 15 September 1974) is a Swiss football coach and former Switzerland national team player of Turkish descent. He is currently the manager of FC Schaffhausen.

Neuhausen am Rheinfall

Neuhausen am Rheinfall (sometimes abbrv. as Neuhausen a. Rhf., called Neuhausen until 1938) is a town and a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland.

The town is close to the Rhine Falls, a tourist attraction and mainland Europe's largest waterfall.

René Weiler

René Weiler (born 13 September 1973) is a Swiss football coach and former Swiss national player.

Roberto Di Matteo

Roberto Di Matteo (Italian pronunciation: [roˈbɛrto di matˈtɛːo]; born 29 May 1970) is an Italian former professional footballer and manager.

During his playing career as a midfielder, he played for Swiss clubs Schaffhausen, Zürich and Aarau before joining Lazio of Italy and Chelsea of England. Born in Switzerland to Italian parents, he was capped 34 times for Italy, scoring two goals, and played in UEFA Euro 1996 and the 1998 FIFA World Cup. He retired as a player in February 2002 at the age of 31 following injury problems.Di Matteo began his managerial career with Milton Keynes Dons, who he took to the League One playoffs in 2008–09 before leaving to return West Bromwich Albion to the Premier League. As caretaker manager of Chelsea, he steered the club to double title success, winning both the FA Cup and the club's first UEFA Champions League title in 2012, but was dismissed later that year. He then went on to coach Schalke 04 until May 2015 when he departed after seven months in charge, and had four months as manager of Aston Villa in 2016.

Rüdlingen

Rüdlingen is a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland.

S9 (ZVV)

The S9 is a regional railway line of the S-Bahn Zürich on the Zürcher Verkehrsverbund (ZVV), Zürich transportation network, and is one of the network's lines connecting the cantons of Zürich and Schaffhausen in Switzerland. Between the two Swiss cantons, the line also serves two stations in Germany.

Schaffhausen frank

The Frank was the currency of the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen between 1798 and 1850. It was subdivided into 10 Batzen, each of 4 Kreuzer.

Schaffhausen railway station

Schaffhausen is a railway station in Schaffhausen, the capital of the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen. The station is jointly owned by the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS) and Deutsche Bahn (DB), and is served by trains of both national operators, as well as trains of the Swiss regional operator Thurbo.

The station is a major intermediate station on the DB's High Rhine Railway that briefly transits Swiss territory on its route along the northern bank of the High Rhine between Basel and Singen. The station is also linked to the rest of Switzerland by the Rheinfall line to Zurich via Winterthur, the Eglisau to Neuhausen line that crosses German territory (some Swiss regional train services call at stations Jestetten and Lottstetten in Germany) to reach Eglisau and Zurich, and the Lake line to Rorschach via Stein am Rhein.The station is served by long distance passenger trains running between Stuttgart and Zurich and between Basel and Ulm. Trains of Zurich S-Bahn services S9, S24 and S33 serve the station, with both the S9 and S24 providing a direct service to Zurich. Services S3 and S8 of the St. Gallen S-Bahn operate over the Lake line to St. Gallen and Rorschach respectively.Additionally there is a short local service to Beringen and a further regular local service to Erzingen just over the German border.Regional bus routes terminate on the station forecourt, providing links to various destinations in and around the town of Schaffhausen along with destinations throughout the canton. Several services also connect the station to villages in the neighbouring canton of Zurich.

PostBus Switzerland operates a service to the village of Ramsen. The service also connects the village of Dörflingen which does not have a railway station to Schaffhausen. The bus route crosses the Swiss-German border four times, entering and exiting German territory twice, calling at the village of Büsingen am Hochrhein which is an exclave of Germany entirely surrounded by Swiss territory and its outlying village Stemmer, as well as the village Randegg and the hamlet Murbach in Germany.

Stein am Rhein

Stein am Rhein (abbreviated as Stein a. R.) is a historic town and a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland.

The town's medieval centre retains the ancient street plan. The site of the city wall, and the city gates are preserved, though the former city wall now consists of houses. The medieval part of the town has been pedestrianised and many of the medieval buildings are painted with frescoes.

The official language of Stein is (the Swiss variety of Standard) German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect.

Swiss Challenge League

The Swiss Challenge League or Brack.ch Challenge League is the second highest tier of the Swiss football league system. Ten teams play in the Challenge League. The winners of the league are promoted to the Super League, while the bottom team is relegated to the 1. Liga Promotion.

As of 2018, Liechtenstein's FC Vaduz plays in the Challenge League, as Liechtenstein clubs play in the Swiss league structure.

The Challenge League is partially professional. In 2011, about half the players in the Challenge League worked additional jobs in addition to playing football. Unlike other countries, Switzerland does not have a distinction between professional and semi-professional football.

Climate data for Schaffhausen (Reference period 1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.7
(40.5)
9.9
(49.8)
14.4
(57.9)
19.2
(66.6)
22.3
(72.1)
24.7
(76.5)
24.0
(75.2)
19.4
(66.9)
13.8
(56.8)
7.0
(44.6)
3.5
(38.3)
13.8
(56.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
1.1
(34.0)
5.3
(41.5)
9.2
(48.6)
13.7
(56.7)
16.8
(62.2)
18.9
(66.0)
18.3
(64.9)
14.3
(57.7)
9.7
(49.5)
4.2
(39.6)
1.2
(34.2)
9.4
(48.9)
Average low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
−2.0
(28.4)
1.3
(34.3)
4.4
(39.9)
8.8
(47.8)
11.9
(53.4)
13.8
(56.8)
13.5
(56.3)
10.1
(50.2)
6.4
(43.5)
1.7
(35.1)
−0.9
(30.4)
5.6
(42.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66
(2.6)
59
(2.3)
65
(2.6)
64
(2.5)
88
(3.5)
92
(3.6)
95
(3.7)
86
(3.4)
72
(2.8)
77
(3.0)
64
(2.5)
79
(3.1)
907
(35.7)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 17.6
(6.9)
17.1
(6.7)
5.6
(2.2)
0.8
(0.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
5.1
(2.0)
11.0
(4.3)
57.2
(22.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.0 8.4 10.9 9.9 11.3 11.3 11.3 10.5 8.9 9.8 9.7 10.5 122.5
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 5.1 5.3 2.2 3.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 4.2 19
Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 73 68 70 70 70 72 78 83 85 85 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 39 71 114 147 175 191 214 195 142 85 43 31 1,448
Percent possible sunshine 17 29 36 42 42 46 50 51 44 30 18 14 38
Source: MeteoSchweiz[11]
Capitals of Swiss cantons

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.