Sceptre

A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English) is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial authority or sovereignty.

Codice di hammurabi 03
The Code of Hammurabi stela depicts the god Shamash holding a staff.
Darius the Great
Relief carving of Darius the Great of Persia on his throne, holding a sceptre and lotus

Antiquity

Zeus Hermitage St. Petersburg 20021009
Statue of Jupiter in the Hermitage, holding the sceptre and orb.

The Was and other types of staves were signs of authority in Ancient Egypt. For this reason they are often described as "sceptres", even if they are full-length staffs. One of the earliest royal sceptres was discovered in the 2nd Dynasty tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The staff with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre (the "shepherd's crook").

The sceptre also assumed a central role in the Mesopotamian world, and was in most cases part of the royal insignia of sovereigns and gods. This is valid throughout the whole Mesopotamian history, as illustrated by both literary and administrative texts and iconography. The Mesopotamian sceptre was mostly called ĝidru in Sumerian and ḫaṭṭum in Akkadian.[1]

The ancient Indian work of Tirukkural dedicates one chapter each to the ethics of the sceptre. According to Valluvar, "it was not his spear but the sceptre which bound a king to his people."[2]

Among the early Greeks, the sceptre (Ancient Greek: σκῆπτρον, skeptron, "staff, stick, baton") was a long staff, such as Agamemnon wielded (Iliad, i) or was used by respected elders (Iliad, xviii. 46; Herodotus 1. 196), and came to be used by judges, military leaders, priests, and others in authority. It is represented on painted vases as a long staff tipped with a metal ornament. When the sceptre is borne by Zeus or Hades, it is headed by a bird. It was this symbol of Zeus, the king of the gods and ruler of Olympus, that gave their inviolable status to the kerykes, the heralds, who were thus protected by the precursor of modern diplomatic immunity. When, in the Iliad, Agamemnon sends Odysseus to the leaders of the Achaeans, he lends him his sceptre.

Among the Etruscans, sceptres of great magnificence were used by kings and upper orders of the priesthood. Many representations of such sceptres occur on the walls of the painted tombs of Etruria. The British Museum, the Vatican, and the Louvre possess Etruscan sceptres of gold, most elaborately and minutely ornamented.

The Roman sceptre probably derived from the Etruscan. Under the Republic, an ivory sceptre (sceptrum eburneum) was a mark of consular rank. It was also used by victorious generals who received the title of imperator, and its use as a symbol of delegated authority to legates apparently was revived in the marshal’s baton.

In the First Persian Empire, the Biblical Book of Esther mentions the sceptre of the King of Persia. Esther 5:2 "When the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand. So Esther came near, and touched the top of the scepter."

Under the Roman Empire, the sceptrum Augusti was specially used by the emperors, and was often of ivory tipped with a golden eagle. It is frequently shown on medallions of the later empire, which have on the obverse a half-length figure of the emperor, holding in one hand the sceptrum Augusti, and in the other the orb surmounted by a small figure of Victory.

In literature

The codes of the right and the cruel sceptre are found in the ancient Tamil work of Tirukkural, dating back to the first century BCE. In Chapters 55 and 56, the text deals with the right and the cruel sceptre, respectively, furthering the thought on the ethical behaviour of the ruler discussed in many of the preceding and the following chapters.[3][4] The ancient treatise says it was not the king's spear but the sceptre that bound him to his people—and to the extent that he guarded them, his own good rule would guard him.[2]

Christian era

Scepter of Tsar Boris III
The Royal Sceptre of Boris III of Bulgaria
Pedro Américo - D. Pedro II na abertura da Assembléia Geral
An 1872 portrait of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, holding the very large Imperial Sceptre and invested with other items of the Brazilian Crown Jewels

With the advent of Christianity, the sceptre was often tipped with a cross instead of with an eagle. However, during the Middle Ages, the finials on the top of the sceptre varied considerably.

In England, from a very early period, two sceptres have been concurrently used, and from the time of Richard I, they have been distinguished as being tipped with a cross and a dove respectively. In France, the royal sceptre was tipped with a fleur de lys, and the other, known as the main de justice, had an open hand of benediction on the top.

Sceptres with small shrines on the top are sometimes represented on royal seals, as on the great seal of Edward III, where the king, enthroned, bears such a sceptre, but it was an unusual form; and it is of interest to note that one of the sceptres of Scotland, preserved at Edinburgh, has such a shrine at the top, with little images of the Virgin Mary, Saint Andrew, and Saint James the Great in it. This sceptre was, it is believed, made in France around 1536 for James V. Great seals usually represent the sovereign enthroned, holding a sceptre (often the second in dignity) in the right hand, and the orb and cross in the left. Harold Godwinson appears thus in the Bayeux tapestry.

The earliest English coronation form of the 9th century mentions a sceptre (sceptrum), and a staff (baculum). In the so-called coronation form of Ethelred II a sceptre (sceptrum), and a rod (virga) appear, as they do also in the case of a coronation order of the 12th century. In a contemporary account of Richard I’s coronation, the royal sceptre of gold with a gold cross (sceptrum), and the gold rod with a gold dove on the top (virga), enter the historical record for the first time. About 1450, Sporley, a monk of Westminster, compiled a list of the relics there. These included the articles used at the coronation of Saint Edward the Confessor, and left by him for the coronations of his successors. A golden sceptre, a wooden rod gilt, and an iron rod are named. These survived until the Commonwealth, and are minutely described in an inventory of the regalia drawn up in 1649, when everything was destroyed.

For the coronation of Charles II of England, new sceptres with the Cross and the Dove were made, and though slightly altered, they are still in use today. Two sceptres for the queen consort, one with a cross, and the other with a dove, have been subsequently added.

The flags of Moldova, and Montenegro have sceptres on them.

See also

References

  1. ^ Bramanti, Armando (2017). "The Scepter (ĝidru) in Early Mesopotamian Written Sources". KASKAL. Rivista di storia, ambienti e culture del Vicino Oriente Antico. 2017 (14). ISBN 978-88-94926-03-3.
  2. ^ a b Sundaram, P. S. (1990). Tiruvalluvar: The Kural (First ed.). Gurgaon: Penguin Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-01-44000-09-8.
  3. ^ Tirukkuṛaḷ verses 541–560
  4. ^ Pope, George Uglow (1886). The Sacred Kurral of Tiruvalluva Nayanar (PDF) (First ed.). New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120600223.
1958 America's Cup

The 1958 America's Cup marked the first Cup match sailed in 12-metre class yachts. Twenty years had passed since the last Cup match, held between immense Universal Rule J-class yachts in 1937, and the New York Yacht Club sought a more affordable alternative to restart interest in the Cup. In 1956 Henry Sears led an effort advancing class yachts. The Royal Yacht Squadron of Great Britain agreed to challenge with a new 12-metre, Sceptre. The New York Yacht Club defended with theirs, Columbia, winning the Cup four races to none.

Ard Patrick

Ard Patrick (1899–1923) was an Irish-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. One of the leading two-year-olds of 1901, he improved in 1902 to win The Derby, defeating the filly Sceptre. He returned from Injury problems to record his most important success when he defeated Sceptre and the Derby winner Rock Sand in the 1903 Eclipse Stakes at Sandown Park Racecourse. He was then retired from racing and exported to Germany where he became a successful sire of winners.

British Classic Races

The British Classics are five long-standing Group 1 horse races run during the traditional flat racing season. They are restricted to three-year-old horses and traditionally represent the pinnacle of achievement for racehorses against their own age group. As such, victory in any classic marks a horse as amongst the very best of a generation. Victory in two or even three of the series (a rare feat known as the English Triple Crown) marks a horse as truly exceptional.

Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn at their coronations by British kings and queens.Symbols of 800 years of monarchy, the coronation regalia are the only working set in Europe – other present-day monarchies have abandoned coronations in favour of secular ceremonies – and the collection is the most historically complete of any regalia in the world. Objects used to invest and crown the monarch variously denote his or her roles as head of state, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, and head of the British armed forces. They feature heraldic devices and national emblems of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and recent pieces were designed to reflect the monarch's role as Head of the Commonwealth.

Use of regalia by monarchs in England can be traced back to when it was converted to Christianity in the Middle Ages. A permanent set of coronation regalia, once belonging to Edward the Confessor, was established after he was made a saint in the 12th century. They were holy relics kept at Westminster Abbey – venue of coronations since 1066. Another set was used at religious feasts and State Openings of Parliament. Collectively, these objects came to be known as the Jewels of the Crown. Most of the present collection dates from around 350 years ago when Charles II ascended the throne. The medieval and Tudor regalia had been sold or melted down after the monarchy was abolished in 1649 during the English Civil War. Only four original items pre-date the Restoration: a late 12th-century anointing spoon (the oldest object) and three early 17th-century swords. Upon the Acts of Union 1707, the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs; the Scottish regalia are known today as the Honours of Scotland.

The regalia contain 23,578 stones, among them Cullinan I (530 carats (106 g)), the largest clear cut diamond in the world, set in the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross. It was cut from the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, the Cullinan, discovered in South Africa in 1905 and presented to Edward VII. On the Imperial State Crown are Cullinan II (317 carats (63 g)), the Stuart Sapphire, St Edward's Sapphire, and the Black Prince's Ruby – a large spinel given to Edward the Black Prince by a Spanish king in 1367. The Koh-i-Noor diamond (105 carats (21 g)), originally from India, was acquired by Queen Victoria and has featured on three consort crowns. A small number of historical objects at the Tower are either empty or set with glass and crystals.

At a coronation the monarch is anointed using holy oil poured from an ampulla into the spoon, invested with robes and ornaments, and crowned with St Edward's Crown. Afterwards, it is exchanged for the lighter Imperial State Crown, which is also usually worn at State Openings of Parliament. Wives of kings are invested with a plainer set of regalia, and since 1831 a new crown has been made specially for each queen consort. Also regarded as Crown Jewels are state swords, trumpets, ceremonial maces, church plate, historical regalia, banqueting plate, and royal christening fonts. They are part of the Royal Collection and belong to the institution of monarchy, passing from one sovereign to the next. When not in use the Jewels are on public display in the Jewel House and Martin Tower where they are seen by 2.5 million visitors every year.

HMS Sceptre (P215)

HMS Sceptre (P215) was a third-batch S-class submarine built for the Royal Navy during World War II. Completed in April 1943, she spent the majority of the her career in the North Sea, off Norway. After an uneventful patrol, the submarine participated in Operation Source, an attack on German battleships in Norway using small midget submarines to penetrate their anchorages and place explosive charges. However, the midget submarine that she was assigned to tow experienced technical difficulties and the mission was aborted. During her next patrols, Sceptre attacked several ships, but only succeeded in severely damaging one. She was then ordered to tow the submarine X24, which was to attack a floating dry dock in Bergen. The operation, codenamed Guidance, encountered difficulties with the attacking submarine's charts, and the explosives were laid on a merchant ship close to the dock instead. The dock was damaged and the ship sunk, and X24 was towed back to England. Sceptre then conducted a patrol in the Bay of Biscay, sinking two German merchant ships, before being reassigned to tow X24 to Bergen again. The operation was a success, and the dry dock was sunk.

After a last patrol in which she sank one ship, Sceptre underwent a lengthy refit to serve as a high-speed target submarine for training purposes. When the war ended, the submarine continued training operations, and was sold for scrap in September 1949.

Honours of Scotland

The Honours of Scotland, informally known as the Scottish Crown Jewels, dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, are the oldest surviving set of crown jewels in the British Isles.

The regalia were used together for the coronation of Scottish monarchs from Mary I in 1543 until Charles II in 1651. They were used to represent Royal Assent to legislation in the Estates of Parliament before England and Scotland were unified under one parliament in 1707, at which time the Honours were locked away in a chest and the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs. They were rediscovered in 1818 and have been on public display at Edinburgh Castle ever since. The Honours have been used at state occasions including the first official visit to Scotland as monarch by George IV in 1822 and the first such visit by Elizabeth II in 1953. The Scottish Parliament was founded in 1999 and the Honours are used there once again to represent Royal Assent.

There are three primary elements of the Honours of Scotland: the crown, the sceptre, and the Sword of State. The gold crown, decorated with gems and pearls, is Scottish, and the sceptre and sword were gifts from the pope made in Italy. They also appear on the crest of the royal coat of arms of Scotland and on the Scottish version of the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, where the red lion of the King of Scots is depicted holding the sword and sceptre and wearing the crown. Robes, a pair of spurs and a ring also had been part of the Scottish regalia, and queens consort had their own consort crown, none of which survives today.

The secondary Honours comprise a silver-gilt wand, three items of insignia and a ring once owned by James VII added in 1830, and a necklace with a locket and pendant bequeathed to Scotland by the Duchess of Argyll in 1939.

King Ottokar's Sceptre

King Ottokar's Sceptre (French: Le Sceptre d'Ottokar) is the eighth volume of The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé. Commissioned by the conservative Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle for its children's supplement Le Petit Vingtième, it was serialised weekly from August 1938 to August 1939. Hergé intended the story as a satirical criticism of the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany, in particular the annexation of Austria in March 1938 (the Anschluss). The story tells of young Belgian reporter Tintin and his dog Snowy, who travel to the fictional Balkan nation of Syldavia, where they combat a plot to overthrow the monarchy of King Muskar XII.

King Ottokar's Sceptre was a commercial success and was published in book form by Casterman shortly after its conclusion. Hergé continued The Adventures of Tintin with Land of Black Gold until Le Vingtième Siècle's forced closure in 1940, while the series itself became a defining part of the Franco-Belgian comics tradition. In 1947, Hergé coloured and redrew King Ottokar's Sceptre in his distinctive ligne-claire style with the aid of Edgar P. Jacobs for Casterman's republication. The story introduces the recurring character Bianca Castafiore, and introduced the fictional countries of Syldavia and Borduria, both of which reappear in later stories. The first volume of the series to be translated into English, King Ottokar's Sceptre was adapted for both the 1956 Belvision Studios animation Hergé's Adventures of Tintin and for the 1991 Ellipse/Nelvana animated series The Adventures of Tintin.

Middle-earth objects

J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth fantasy legendarium includes several noteworthy objects. The following list includes weapons, jewellery, ships, musical instruments, substances, and other items.

Portuguese Crown Jewels

The Portuguese Crown Jewels were the pieces of jewelry, regalia, and vestments worn by the Monarchs of Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Monarchy. Over the nine centuries of Portuguese history, the Portuguese Crown Jewels have lost and gained many pieces. Most of the current set of the Portuguese Crown Jewels are from the reigns of King João VI and King Luís I.

Purushanda

Purushanda (also variously Purushkanda, Purushhattum or Burushattum) was an ancient city-state in central Anatolia, lying south of the Kızılırmak River in what is now modern Turkey. Its site has yet to be discovered. It may have been situated south-east of Lake Tuz, possibly on the mound of Acemhöyük (located at the village of Yeşilova, Aksaray) approximately 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) north-west of the city of Aksaray. Another possible location is the mound of Karahöyük near Konya.The city is prominently mentioned in the Cappadocian Texts, a collection of Hittite writings unearthed at Kanesh. They depict it as a major seat of power in the region, describing its ruler as "Great King" (rubā'um rabi'um) whereas other rulers are merely "kings". A separate text known as the "King of Battle" (šar tamhāri), dating to the 14th century BC, recounts a heavily embellished account of the Akkadian king Sargon carrying out an expedition against Purushanda's ruler Nur-Dagan (or Nur-Daggal). The story is ahistorical, as it apparently portrays the 23rd-century Sargon in an anachronistic 19th-century BC setting. Some modern scholars consider it a work of fiction, although the Akkadian language version was also found among the Amarna letters (Egypt), and it may have some basis in historical fact.In the story, Sargon yearns for battle but is advised against it by his generals. Nonetheless, when a message arrives from a group of Akkadian merchants in Purushanda pleading for help from Sargon against the oppressive Nur-Dagan, the king mobilises his army and marches off through difficult terrain. Nur-Dagan is hopeful that flooding and the terrain will thwart Sargon, but the Akkadian launches a lightning attack which captures Purushanda. Nur-Dagan is taken prisoner and grovels before Sargon, declaring him to be a peerless mighty king and perhaps swearing allegiance as a vassal. After three years the Akkadians leave, taking with them the fruits of the land as spoils of war.Purushanda features again in the stories of the campaigns of the 17th century BC Hittite ruler Anitta. The Purushandan kingdom appears to have been a significant rival of Kanesh, the kingdom ruled by Anitta. The Hittite king launched a war against Purushanda but according to the Anitta Text, a Hittite account of later date, the Purushandan king surrendered to the Hittite army:

When I went into battle, the Man of Purushanda brought gifts to me; he brought to me a throne of iron and a sceptre of iron as a gift. But when I returned to Nesa [Kanesh] I took the Man of Purushanda with me. As soon as he enters the chamber, that man will sit before me on the right.The text indicates that the right to rule over Purushanda's territory – symbolised by the regalia of office, the throne and sceptre – was surrendered to Anitta. Its king was reduced to the status of a privileged vassal, entitled to join Anitta at the court in Kanesh in recognition of his voluntary surrender and his high-born status. The kingdom itself probably ceased to exist at this point and was absorbed into Hittite-ruled territory.

Room Full of Mirrors

Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix is a 2005 biography of the influential rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter Jimi Hendrix. It was written by Charles R. Cross.

Room Full of Mirrors was released in the year of the 35th anniversary of Hendrix's death and is composed of over many interviews that Cross conducted. More than half of the people interviewed had never spoken about Jimi since his death. It takes the reader from his troubled home in Seattle's projects to his time at military school and from his attempts to make it big in New York City's Greenwich Village to his rise to fame as the leader of the psychedelic rock music style.

Cross took the name Room Full of Mirrors from the song on Jimi Hendrix's First Rays of the New Rising Sun. First Rays of the New Rising Sun is an attempt to recreate the studio album Hendrix was working on at the time of his death.

Rootes Arrow

Rootes Arrow was the manufacturer's name for a range of cars produced under several badge-engineered marques by the Rootes Group (later Chrysler Europe) from 1966 to 1979. It is amongst the last Rootes designs, developed with no influence from future owner Chrysler. The range is almost always referred to by the name of the most prolific model, the Hillman Hunter.

A substantial number of separate marque and model names were applied to this single car platform. Some were given different model names to justify trim differences (Hillman GT, Hillman Estate Car) and, from time to time, models were sold in some European markets under the Sunbeam marque (Sunbeam Sceptre for instance), and at other times used UK marque/model names. Singer Gazelle and Vogue models were also sold in the UK for one season badged as Sunbeams after the Singer brand was withdrawn.

The models sold – not all concurrently – were, alphabetically by marque:

Chrysler Hunter, Chrysler Vogue

Dodge Husky

Hillman Arrow, Hillman Break de Chasse, Hillman Estate Car Hillman GT, Hillman Hunter, Hillman Hustler, Hillman Minx, Hillman Vogue

Humber Sceptre

Paykan

Singer Gazelle and Singer Vogue

Sunbeam Alpine and Sunbeam Rapier fastback coupés

Sunbeam Arrow, Sunbeam Break de Chasse, Sunbeam Hunter, Sunbeam Minx, Sunbeam Sceptre, and Sunbeam VogueThe most prolific model within the Arrow range, the Hillman Hunter, was the Coventry-based company's major competitor in the medium family car segment. In its 13-year production run, its UK market contemporaries included the Ford Cortina, Morris Marina, Vauxhall Victor, and Austin/Morris 1800. The sports-oriented Sunbeam Rapier occupied a segment contested by the Ford Capri, MGB GT, Vauxhall Firenza, and to an extent the Triumph Dolomite, while the more upmarket Humber Sceptre competed with other premium-specification cars based on conventional saloons, such as the Vanden Plas 1300 and 1500, the Wolseley 18/85, and the Ford Cortina 1600E and 2000E.

The Arrow range extended to several body styles: saloon, estate, fastback coupé and a two different coupe utilities (pick-ups) (the Dodge Husky from South Africa and the Paykan Pick-Up in Iran, each model had a unique body). Depending on the model, they had two doors or four doors. Not all marques were represented in all body styles, with the coupés being reserved for Sunbeam.

Rural Municipality of Clinworth No. 230

Clinworth No. 230 is a rural municipality in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, located in the Census Division 8. The seat of the municipality is located in the village of Sceptre, where the office is shared with the Village of Sceptre.

Sceptre, Saskatchewan

Sceptre is a village in southwestern Saskatchewan, with a population of 99 as of the 2006 census.

The former school was reopened in 1988 as the Great Sandhills Museum, with exhibits showcasing the area's natural and human history.The village is home to various works of public art, including cartoon-like fire hydrants, murals, and the world's largest metal wheat sculpture. The latter was created in 1990 and stands 33 feet (10 m) tall.Sceptre is situated just north of the Great Sand Hills, a vast area of arid grassland and sand dunes. One of the more easily accessible parts of the dunes is located about 10 km south of the village. Though located on private land, the public is permitted to enter the area.

It is the birthplace of Bert Olmstead, a five-time Stanley Cup winner.

Sceptre (horse)

Sceptre (1899–1926) was a British-bred and British-trained Thoroughbred racemare whose career ran from 1901 to 1904. In 1902, she became the only racehorse to win four British Classic Races outright.

Sceptre (yacht)

Sceptre (K-17) was the unsuccessful challenger of the 1958 America's Cup for the Royal Yacht Squadron.

Syldavia

Syldavia is a fictional country in The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé. It is located in the Balkans and has a rivalry with the fictional neighbouring country of Borduria. Syldavia is depicted in King Ottokar's Sceptre, Destination Moon, Explorers on the Moon (briefly), Tintin and the Lake of Sharks, and The Calculus Affair, and is mentioned in Tintin and the Picaros.

The Sceptre and the Mace

The Sceptre and the Mace (French: Le sceptre et la masse) is a Canadian short documentary film, directed by John Howe and released in 1957. The film uses the royal visit by Queen Elizabeth II to Canada in 1957 to explore and explain the role of The Crown in a constitutional monarchy, focusing in particular on the opening of the 23rd Canadian Parliament, which remains to this day the only session of Parliament in Canadian history formally opened by the Queen herself rather than by the Governor General of Canada.The film won the Canadian Film Award for Best Theatrical Short Film at the 10th Canadian Film Awards in 1958.The film was later broadcast by CBC Television as an episode of the documentary series History Makers in 1970.

Was-sceptre

The was (Egyptian wꜣs "power, dominion") sceptre is a symbol that appeared often in relics, art, and hieroglyphics associated with the ancient Egyptian religion. It appears as a stylized animal head at the top of a long, straight staff with a forked end.

Was sceptres were used as symbols of power or dominion, and were associated with ancient Egyptian deities such as Set or Anubis as well as with the pharaoh. Was sceptres also represent the Set animal. In later use, it was a symbol of control over the force of chaos that Set represented.

In a funerary context the was sceptre was responsible for the well-being of the deceased, and was thus sometimes included in the tomb equipment or in the decoration of the tomb or coffin. The sceptre is also considered an amulet. The Egyptians perceived the sky as being supported on four pillars, which could have the shape of the was. This sceptre was also the symbol of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome, the nome of Thebes (called wꜣst in Egyptian).Was sceptres were depicted as being carried by gods, pharaohs, and priests. They commonly occur in paintings, drawings, and carvings of gods, and often parallel with emblems such as the ankh and the djed-pillar. Remnants of real was sceptres have been found. They are constructed of faience or wood, where the head and forked tail of the Set-animal are visible. The earliest examples date to the First Dynasty.

The Was (wꜣs) is the Egyptian hieroglyph character representing power.

Regalia
  • Items
  • Rituals
By continent
Specific customs
See also

Languages

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