Savi's pipistrelle

Savi's pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii sometimes classified as Pipistrellus savii) is a species of vesper bat found across North West Africa, the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. It feeds at night on flying insects. In the summer it roosts under bark, in holes in trees, in old buildings and in rock crevices but in winter it prefers roosts where the temperature is more even such as caves, underground vaults and deep rock cracks.

Savi's pipistrelle
Hypsugo-savi-VE-Trtar
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Hypsugo
Species:
H. savii
Binomial name
Hypsugo savii
Bonaparte, 1837

Taxonomy

Philetor brachypterus

Hypsugo macrotis

Hypsugo cadornae

Hypsugo dolichodon

Hypsugo pulveratus

Hypsugo savii

Hysugo alaschanicus

Relationship of H. savii with other members of its genus[2]

Based on mitochondrial DNA, specifically the regions that encode cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome b, Savi's pipistrelle is most closely related to Hypsugo alaschanicus.[2]

Description

Savi's pipistrelle is a small species of bat with a head and body length of between 1.75 and 2 inches (44 and 51 mm) and a forearm (elbow to wrist) length between 1.25 and 1.5 inches (32 and 38 mm). It weighs between 0.26 and 0.35 ounces (7.4 and 9.9 g). It has broad, rounded ears each with a short tragus that is widest in the middle and narrows towards the rounded tip. The face, ears and wing membranes are black. The short fur on the upperside of the head and body is dark brown and that on the underside is pale, with the chin, throat and chest contrasting sharply with the animal's back. The tail is rounded and is rather longer than is the case in other closely related species.[3]

Distribution

Savi's pipistrelle is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe, North West Africa, the Middle East, central Asia, Mongolia and northern Japan. It also occurs in the Canary Islands, Switzerland and Austria and has been recorded from Slovakia.[4] It mainly occurs in mountainous regions where it is found at altitudes of up to 2,500 metres (8,200 ft). It favours bushy slopes with clumps of trees, scrubland, cliffs, gorges and ruins.[3] In the summer it hides by day under the bark of trees, in rock clefts, in hollow trees, in holes in walls, in buildings under rafters and roof tiles. In winter it seeks more protected places to roost such as near the entrances of caves, in underground vaults and in deep rock crevices, where it normally hides alone.[3]

Biology

Savi's pipistrelle feeds on flying insects which it catches on the wing using echolocation to locate its prey. It has been found that it synchronises the emittance of the ultrasonic sounds used for this purpose with its wing beats, in order to maximise detection distances.[5] It drinks by making repeated low flights over water, raising its wings and scooping up water with its tongue.[3] It may forage over pastureland, in villages and round streetlights.[1] Savi's pipistrelle breeds in the summer, and up to 70 female bats may roost together in "maternity" communities.[1]

Status

Savi's pipistrelle is listed as being of "Least Concern" in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This is because its population is believed to be stable and there are no particular threats that affect it. Many nations protect all their bats, and Savi's pipistrelle is also protected through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) in the countries that have ratified that treaty. It is also protected in Europe by its inclusion in Annex IV of the EU Habitats and Species Directive.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Hutson, A.M.; Spitzenberger, F.; Juste, J.; Aulagnier, S.; Palmeirim, J.; Paunovic, M.; Karataş, A. (2008). "Pipistrellus savii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
  2. ^ a b Lim, LEE-SIM; Csorba, Gábor; Wong, Cheng-MIN; Zubaid, Akbar; Rahman, Sultana Parvin Habeebur; Kumaran, Jayaraj Vijaya; Khan, Faisal ALI Anwarali; Huang, JOE Chun-Chia; Najimudin, Nazalan; Görföl, Tamás (2016). "The systematic position of Hypsugo macrotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and a new record from Peninsular Malaysia". Zootaxa. 4170 (1): 169–177. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4170.1.10. PMID 27701281.
  3. ^ a b c d Konig, Claus (1973). Mammals. Collins & Co. pp. 65–66. ISBN 0-00-212080-1.
  4. ^ Lehotská, Blanka; Lehotský, Roman (2006). "First record of Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera) in Slovakia". Biologia. 61 (2): 192. doi:10.2478/s11756-006-0042-8.
  5. ^ Holderied, M. W.; von Helversen, O. (2003). "Echolocation range and wingbeat period match in aerial-hawking bats". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 270 (1530): 2293–2299. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2487. PMC 1691500. PMID 14613617.
African yellow bat

The African yellow bat (Scotophilus dinganii) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. Other common names include African yellow house bat, yellow-bellied house bat, and Dingan's Bat. It is one of fifteen species in the genus Scotophilus.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Eptesicus

Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:

Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)

Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)

Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)

Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)

Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)

Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)

Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)

Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)

Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)

Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)

Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)

Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)

Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)

Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)

Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)

Eptesicus lobatus

Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)

Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)

Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Eptesicus taddeii

Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)

Greenish yellow bat

The greenish yellow bat (Scotophilus viridis) is a species of vesper bat. It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are dry and moist savanna.

Grey long-eared bat

The grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It hunts above woodland, often by day, and mostly for moths. It is extremely similar to the more common brown long-eared bat, and was only distinguished in the 1960s, but has a paler belly.

Harlequin bat

The harlequin bat (Scotomanes ornatus) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Scotomanes.

This bat is found in south-eastern Asia from India to China and Vietnam.This is a common and widespread species. It lives in forests and caves and roosts in trees.

Hypsugo

The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

Lesser yellow bat

The lesser yellow bat (Scotophilus borbonicus) is a vesper bat found only on Madagascar and Réunion. On Réunion, it was considered common early in the 19th century, but was last sighted late in the 19th century. Only a single specimen attributed to this species, collected in 1868, is known from Madagascar. It was listed as a critically endangered species in 1996 due to habitat loss, and may be extinct.

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Orlova Chuka

Orlova Chuka (Bulgarian: Орлова чука) is a cave situated in the Danubian Plain, north-eastern Bulgaria. With a total length of 13,437 m, Orlova Chuka is the second longest cave in the country after Duhlata. The cave was discovered in 1941 and opened for tourists in 1957. Orlova Chuka is home to 14 species of bats.

Petralona cave

The Petralona cave (Greek: Σπήλαιο Πετραλώνων) also Cave of the Red Stones (Greek: Σπήλαιο " Κόκκινες Πέτρες "), a Karst formation – is located at 300 m (984 ft) above sea-level on the western foot of Mount Katsika, about 1 km (0.62 mi) east of the eponymous village, about 35 km (22 mi) south-east of Thessaloniki city on the Chalkidiki peninsula, Greece. The site came to public attention when in 1960 a fossilized archaic human skull was found. The cave had been discovered accidentally only a year earlier (1959) after erosion had left clefts in the rock. "Bejeweled" with impressive stalactite and stalagmite formations and holding an abundance of fossils, the cave soon attracted geologists and paleontologists. After decades of excavations the cave is open to the public and scientific work is documented and presented in an adjacent archaeological museum.The cave's most prominent fossil specimen, since known among paleoanthropologists as the "Petralona Skull".

The on-site Anthropological Museum of Petralona displays a selection of the cave's findings.

Rendall's serotine

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna, moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

Savi (disambiguation)

Savi was the capital of the 17th- and 18th-century African Kingdom of Whydah, in modern Benin.

Savi or SAVI may also refer to:

Savi, Benin, a town and arrondissement

Savi language, a Dardic language of Afghanistan

Savi Technology, a U.S. company

Stimulator of interferon genes, a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM173 gene

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

White-winged serotine

The white-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis) is a species of vesper bat.

It can be found in the following countries: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, and Uganda.

It is found in these habitats: subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical mangrove forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, and moist savanna.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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