Saur Revolution

The Saur Revolution (/sɔːr/; Persian: إنقلاب ثور‎ or ۷ ثور (literally 7th Saur); Pashto: د ثور انقلاب‎), also called the April Revolution or April Coup, was a coup d'état (or self-proclaimed revolution) led by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) against the rule of Afghan President Mohammed Daoud Khan on 27–28 April 1978. Daoud Khan and most of his family were killed at the presidential palace.[2] The revolution resulted in the creation of a government with Nur Muhammad Taraki as President (General Secretary of the Revolutionary Council), and was the precursor to the 1979 intervention by the Soviets and the 1979–1989 Soviet–Afghan War against the Mujahideen.

Saur (pronounced like sour in English) is the Dari (Persian) name of the second month of the Persian calendar, the month in which the uprising took place.[3] At a press conference in New York in June 1978, Minister of Foreign Affairs Hafizullah Amin, a member of the coup, said that the event was not a coup but a revolution by the "will of the people".[4]

Saur Revolution
Part of the Cold War, origins of the war in Afghanistan, and the prelude to the Soviet–Afghan War
Day after Saur revolution in Kabul (773)

Outside the presidential palace gate (Arg) in Kabul, the day after the Saur revolution on 28 April 1978
Date27–28 April 1978
(1 day)
Location
Result

PDPA victory

Belligerents

Afghanistan Republic of Afghanistan

PDP of Afghanistan
Commanders and leaders
Afghanistan Mohammed Daoud Khan 
Afghanistan Abdul Qadir Nuristani
Mohammad Aslam Watanjar[1]
Abdul Qadir
Nur Muhammad Taraki[1]
Hafizullah Amin
Babrak Karmal[1]

Background

With the support and assistance of minority political party People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), Mohammed Daoud Khan had taken power in the 1973 Afghan coup d'état by overthrowing the monarchy of King Zahir Shah,[5][6] and had established the first Republic of Afghanistan.

President Daoud was convinced that closer ties and military support from the Soviet Union would allow him to settle border issues with Pakistan. However, Daoud, who was ostensibly committed to a policy of non-alignment, became uneasy over Soviet attempts to dictate Afghanistan's foreign policy, and relations between the two countries deteriorated.[7]

Under the secular government of Daoud, factionalism and rivalry developed in the PDPA, with two main factions being the Parcham and Khalq factions. On 17 April 1978, a prominent member of the Parcham, Mir Akbar Khyber, was murdered.[8]:771 Although the government issued a statement deploring the assassination, Nur Mohammad Taraki of the PDPA charged that the government itself was responsible, a belief that was shared by much of the Kabul intelligentsia. PDPA leaders apparently feared that Daoud was planning to eliminate them.[8]

During the funeral ceremonies for Khyber a protest against the government occurred, and shortly thereafter most of the leaders of PDPA, including Babrak Karmal, were arrested by the government. Hafizullah Amin, was put under house arrest, which gave him a chance to order an uprising, one that had been slowly coalescing for more than two years.[3] Amin, without having the authority, instructed the Khalqist army officers to overthrow the government.

The Revolution

Day after Saur revolution
The day after the Saur revolution in Kabul

Preliminary steps for the coup came in April, when a tank commander under Daoud warned of intelligence suggesting an attack on Kabul in the near future, specifically April 27th. On the commander's recommendation, tanks were positioned around the Arg. On the 27th, the tanks turned their guns on the palace. The tank commander who made the request had, in secret, defected to Khalq beforehand.[9]

According to an eyewitness, the first signs of the impending coup in Kabul, about noon on 27 April, were reports of a tank column headed toward the city, smoke of unknown origin near the Ministry of Defense, and armed men, some in military uniform, guarding Ariana Circle, a major intersection. The first shots heard were near the Ministry of Interior in the New City (Shari Nau) section of Kabul, where a company of policemen apparently confronted an advancing tank column. From there the fighting spread to other areas of the city. Later that afternoon, the first fighter planes, Sukhoi Su-7s, came in low and fired rockets at the national palace in the center of the city. In early evening, an announcement was broadcast on government-owned Radio Afghanistan that the Khalq were overthrowing the Daoud government. The use of the word Khalq, and its traditional association with the communists in Afghanistan, made clear that the PDPA was leading the coup, and also that the rebels had captured the radio station.[10]

The aerial attacks on the palace intensified about midnight as six Su-7s made repeated rocket attacks, lighting up the city. The next morning, 28 April, Kabul was mostly quiet, although the sound of gunfire could still be heard on the southern side of the city. As the people of Kabul ventured out of their homes they realized that the rebels were in complete control of the city and learned that President Daoud and his brother Naim had been killed early that morning. A group of soldiers had surrounded the heavily-damaged palace and demanded their surrender. Instead, Daoud and Naim, pistols in hand, charged out of the palace at the soldiers, and were shot and killed.[10]

Government after the revolution

The revolution was initially welcomed by many people in Kabul, who were dissatisfied with the Daoud government. The PDPA, divided between the Khalq and Parcham, succeeded the Daoud government with a new regime under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki of the Khalq faction. In Kabul, the initial cabinet appeared to be carefully constructed to alternate ranking positions between Khalqis and Parchamis. Taraki (Khalqi) was Prime Minister, Karmal (Parchami) was senior Deputy Prime Minister, and Hafizullah Amin (Khalqi) was foreign minister. The unity, however, between Khalq and Parcham lasted only briefly. Taraki and Amin in early July relieved most of the Parchamis from their government positions. Karmal was sent abroad as Ambassador to Czechoslovakia. In August 1978, Taraki and Amin claimed to have uncovered a plot and executed or imprisoned several cabinet members, even imprisoning General Abdul Qadir, the military leader of the Saur revolution until the Soviet invasion and subsequent change in leadership in late 1979. In September 1979, it was Taraki's turn to become a victim of the Revolution, as Amin overthrew and executed him.[11][12]

Once in power, the PDPA implemented a socialist agenda. It changed the national flag from traditional Islamic green color to a near-copy of the red flag of the Soviet Union, a provocative affront to the people of this conservative Islamic country.[11] It prohibited usury, without having in place any alternative for peasants who relied on the traditional, if exploitative, credit system in the countryside. That led to an agricultural crisis and a fall in agricultural production.[13][14] Land reform was criticized by one journalist as "confiscating land in a haphazard manner that enraged everyone, benefited no one, and reduced food production," and the "first instance of organized, nationwide repression in Afghanistan's modern history."[15]

Women's rights

The PDPA, an advocate of equal rights for women, declared the equality of the sexes.[16] The PDPA made a number of statements on women's rights, declaring equality of the sexes and introduced women to political life. A prominent example was Anahita Ratebzad, who was a major Marxist leader and a member of the Revolutionary Council. Ratebzad wrote the famous May 28, 1978 New Kabul Times editorial, which declared: "Privileges which women, by right, must have are equal education, job security, health services, and free time to rear a healthy generation for building the future of the country ... Educating and enlightening women is now the subject of close government attention."[17] Women were already guaranteed freedoms under the 1964 Constitution, but the PDPA went further by declaring full equality.

Human rights

The revolution also introduced severe repression of a kind previously unknown in Afghanistan. According to journalist Robert D. Kaplan, while Afghanistan had historically been extremely poor and underdeveloped, it "had never known very much political repression" until 1978.[15]

The soldiers' knock on the door in the middle of the night, so common in many Arab and African countries, was little known in Afghanistan, where a central government simply lacked the power to enforce its will outside of Kabul. Taraki's coup changed all that. Between April 1978 and the Soviet invasion of December 1979, Afghan communists executed 27,000 political prisoners at the sprawling Pul-i-Charki prison six miles east of Kabul. Many of the victims were village mullahs and headmen who were obstructing the modernization and secularization of the intensely religious Afghan countryside. By Western standards, this was a salutary idea in the abstract. But it was carried out in such a violent way that it alarmed even the Soviets.

— Robert D. Kaplan, Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, [15]

Kaplan states that it was the Saur Revolution and its harsh land reform program, rather than the December 1979 Soviet invasion "as most people in the West suppose", that "ignited" the mujahidin revolt against the Kabul authorities and prompted the refugee exodus to Pakistan.[15]

Legacy

The Khalqist regime pushed hard for socialist reforms and was brutal in its repression of opposition. Discontent fomented amongst the people of Afghanistan, and after several uprisings the following year—March in the town of Herat, June in the Chindawol district of Kabul, August at the fortress of Bala Hissartroops from the USSR entered Afghanistan in December 1979, citing the Brezhnev Doctrine as basis for their intervention. Insurgent groups fought Soviet troops and the PDPA government for more than nine years until the final withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan in February 1989. Instability remained in Afghanistan, with war continuing to plague the country for more than four decades after the revolution.

In 1991, PDPA member Babrak Karmal from the moderate Parcham faction denounced the revolution, saying:

It was the greatest crime against the people of Afghanistan. Parcham's leaders were against armed actions because the country was not ready for a revolution... I knew that people would not support us if we decided to keep power without such support."[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "The KGB in Afghanistan: Mitrokhin Documents Disclosed". Federation of American Scientists. 25 February 2002.
  2. ^ "Mohammad Daud Khan". Afghanland.com. 2000. Archived from the original on 2017-08-17. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
  3. ^ a b Rubin, Barnett R. (2002). "The Fragmentation of Afghanistan". Yale University Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 9780300095197.
  4. ^ AP Archive (2015-07-24), SYND 6 6 78 AFGHAN FOREIGN MINISTER HAFIZULLAH PRESS CONFERENCE ON RECENT COUP, retrieved 2018-03-11
  5. ^ "Afghanistan: 20 years of bloodshed". BBC News. 1998-04-26. Retrieved 2018-03-12.
  6. ^ "Daoud's Republic". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  7. ^ Steele, Jonathan (2012-01-01). Ghosts of Afghanistan: The Haunted Battleground. Counterpoint Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 9781582437873.
  8. ^ a b Dupree, Louis (2014-07-14). Afghanistan. Princeton University Press. p. 771. ISBN 9781400858910.
  9. ^ Ansary, Tamim (2012). Games Without Rules: the often interrupted history of Afghanistan. New York: Public Affairs. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-61039-094-1.
  10. ^ a b Thompson, Larry (December 2009). "Surviving the '78 Revolution in Afghanistan". www.hackwriters.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
  11. ^ a b Arnold, Anthony (1985). Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion in Perspective. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 74–75, 77, 83, 86. ISBN 9780817982133. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  12. ^ Clements, Frank (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 207. ISBN 9781851094028. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  13. ^ "The "Great Saur Revolution". Workers' Liberty. Retrieved 2011-04-06.
  14. ^ "Afghanistan – COMMUNISM, REBELLION, AND SOVIET INTERVENTION". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d Kaplan, Robert D. (1990). Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-0395521328. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  16. ^ Gibbs, David N. (June 2006). "Reassessing Soviet Motives for Invading Afghanistan". Critical Asian Studies, Vol. 38, No. 2. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  17. ^ Prashad, Vijay (2001-09-15). "War Against the Planet". ZMag. Archived from the original on 2008-01-27. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
  18. ^ "Ghosts of Afghanistan: Hard Truths and Foreign Myths by Jonathan Steele - review". The Guardian. 25 September 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2018.

External links

Abdul Hadi Dawi High School

Abdul Hadi Dawi High School, located in Kabul's District 9 near the 3rd Mikrorayon, is named after Abdul Hadi Dawi (Abdul Hadi Dawai) a renowned Afghan poet, diplomat and government official. It is one of the few top and prestigious schools of the country.

The High school is basically for boys and was first constructed under Babrak Karmal regime with the aid and support of former Soviet Union government that backed the Afghan Communist Party both financially and militarily at the time.

At first it was named Enqelaab (Revolution) High school in commemoration of the 7th of Saur Revolution, but during Doctor Najibullah's presidency its name was changed to Abdul Hadi Dawi High school.

Abdul Qadir (Afghan communist)

Colonel Abdul Qadir (1944 – 22 April 2014) was born in Herat and trained as a pilot in the Soviet Union. In 1973 he also participated in the coup d'etat that created the Republic of Afghanistan under the Presidency of Mohammad Daoud Khan. In 1978 he was the leader of the Afghan Air Force squadrons that attacked the Radio-TV station during the Saur Revolution. He served as the leader of the country for three days when the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) took power and declared the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

Abdul Rahman Pazhwak

Abdul Rahman Pazhwak (Persian: عبدالرحمن پژواک‎; born March 7, 1919 – June 8, 1995) was an Afghan poet and diplomat. He was educated in Afghanistan and started his career as a journalist, but eventually joined the foreign ministry. During the 1950s, he became ambassador to the United Nations and served as president of the UN General Assembly from 1966 to 1967. During the early 1970s, he served for short periods as Afghan ambassador to West Germany and India. In 1976, he became ambassador to the United Kingdom. He served in that position until the 1978 Saur Revolution. He then returned to Afghanistan and was put under house arrest. He was allowed to leave for medical treatment in 1982 and received asylum in the United States, where he lived until 1991, before moving to Peshawar, Pakistan.

Abdul Rahman Pazhwak died in Hayatabad in Peshawar on 8 June 1995. He was in Baghwani village off Surkh Road in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.

Baha'uddin Jan

Baha'uddin Jan was the pir naqshbandi (Sufi leader) of the Aymāq people of Purchaman District, Farah. He, along with his two sons, was killed following the communist Saur Revolution at the end of the 1970s, by security forces from Kabul who were eliminating political and religious opposition to the new regime.

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA; Dari: جمهوری دمکراتی افغانستان‎, Jumhūri-ye Dimukrātī-ye Afġānistān; Pashto: دافغانستان دمکراتی جمهوریت‎, Dǝ Afġānistān Dimukratī Jumhūriyat), renamed in 1987 to the Republic of Afghanistan (Dari: جمهوری افغانستان‎; Jumhūrī-ye Afġānistān; Pashto: د افغانستان جمهوریت‎, Dǝ Afġānistān Jumhūriyat), commonly known as Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari: افغانستان, Afġānistān), existed from 1978 to 1992, during which time the socialist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) ruled Afghanistan.

The PDPA came to power through a military coup known as the Saur Revolution, which ousted the government of Mohammad Daoud Khan. Daoud was succeeded by Nur Muhammad Taraki as head of state and government on 30 April 1978. Taraki and Hafizullah Amin, the organiser of the Saur Revolution, introduced several contentious reforms during their rule, the most notable being equal rights to women, universal education and land reform. Soon after taking power a power struggle began between the Khalq faction led by Taraki and Amin and the Parcham faction led by Babrak Karmal. The Khalqists won and the Parchamites were purged from the party. The most prominent Parcham leaders were exiled to the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union.

After the Khalq–Parcham struggle, a power struggle within the Khalq faction began between Taraki and Amin. Amin won the struggle, and Taraki was killed on his orders. His rule proved unpopular within his own country (due to the reforms mentioned earlier) and in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union intervened, supported by the Afghan government, in December 1979, and on 27 December Amin was assassinated by Soviet military forces. Karmal became the leader of Afghanistan in his place. The Karmal era, lasting from 1979 to 1986, is best known for the Soviet war effort in Afghanistan against mujahideen insurgents. The war resulted in large numbers of civilian casualties, as well as millions of refugees who fled into Pakistan and Iran. The Fundamental Principles, a constitution, was introduced by the government in April 1980, and several non-PDPA members were allowed into government as part of the government's policy of broadening its support base. Karmal's policies failed to bring peace to the war-ravaged country, and in 1986 he was succeeded as PDPA General Secretary by Mohammad Najibullah.

Najibullah pursued a policy of National Reconciliation with the opposition, a new Afghan constitution was introduced in 1987 and democratic elections were held in 1988 (which were boycotted by the mujahideen). After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988–1989, the government faced increasing resistance. 1990 proved to be a year of change in Afghan politics: a new constitution was introduced, which stated that Afghanistan was an Islamic republic, and the PDPA was transformed into the Watan Party, which has survived to this day as the Democratic Watan Party. On the military front, the government proved capable of defeating the armed opposition in open battle, as in the Battle of Jalalabad. However, with an aggressive armed opposition, internal difficulties such as a failed coup attempt by the Khalq faction in 1990 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Najibullah government collapsed in April 1992.

Geographically, the DRA was bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; the Soviet Union (via the Turkmen, Uzbek, and Tajik SSRs) in the north; and China in the far northeast covering 652,000 km2 (252,000 sq mi) of its territory.

Ghulam Haidar Rasuli

Major General Ghulam Haidar Rasuli (1919 – April 1978) was born in Rostaq, Takhar Province and a supporter of Mohammed Daoud Khan, who came out of retirement after the 1973 coup which removed King Zahir Shah and put Daoud in power. He received early military education at the Military High School, graduating in 1933, before receiving military training in India from 1956 to 1958. In 1966, he became the director of recruitment in the Ministry of National Defense. He was placed in charge of the Central Forces of Afghanistan in 1973 and became Chief of General Staff two years later. Rasuli was appointed Minister of Defense of Afghanistan on 7 November 1977, but was killed during the April 1978 Saur Revolution. Major Gen. Ghulam Haidar Rasuli was the son of Ghulam Rasul a Muhammadzai Barakzai from Kandahar. Ghulam Haidar Rasuli was the Great Grand son of the Amir Mohammad khan full brother of Amir Dost Muhammad khan Barakzai (amir of Afghanistan) from the muhammadzai Barakzai tribe.

Hafizullah Amin

Hafizullah Amin (Pashto/Dari: حفيظ الله امين‎; born 1 August 1929 – 27 December 1979) was an Afghan communist politician during the Cold War. Amin was born in Paghman and educated at Kabul University, after which he started his career as a teacher. After a few years in that occupation, he went to the United States to study. He would visit the United States a second time before moving permanently to Afghanistan, and starting his career in radical politics. He ran as a candidate in the 1965 parliamentary election but failed to secure a seat. Amin was the only Khalqist elected to parliament in the 1969 parliamentary election, thus increasing his standing within the party. He was one of the leading organizers of the Saur Revolution which overthrew the government of Mohammad Daoud Khan. In 1979 he named himself president, prime minister, and chairman of the Khalq wing. He has been described as "ruthless" and a "radical Marxist".Amin's short-lived presidency was marked by controversies from beginning to end. He came to power by disposing of his predecessor Nur Muhammad Taraki and later ordering his death. Amin made attempts to win support from those who revolted against the communist regime which had begun under Taraki, but his government was unable to solve this problem. Many Afghans held Amin responsible for the regime's harshest measures, such as ordering thousands of executions. Thousands of people disappeared without trace during his time in office. The Soviet Union, which was dissatisfied with Amin, intervened in Afghanistan while invoking the Twenty-Year Treaty of Friendship between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. Amin was assassinated by the Soviets on December 27, 1979 as part of Operation Storm-333, having ruled for slightly longer than three months.

Haqiqat-e Inquilab-e Saur

Haqiqat-e Inquilab-e Saur (Dari: حقيقت انقلاب ثور‎, 'Truth of the Saur Revolution') was a daily newspaper in Afghanistan. In the mid-1980s, it had a circulation of 50,000 and was the main print medium in the country. It was named for Afghanistan's Saur Revolution, the 1978 Communist coup that overthrew Mohammed Daoud Khan.

Khalq

Khalq (Pashto: خلق‎, meaning "Masses" or "People") was a faction of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA). Its historical leaders were Presidents Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin. It was also the name of the leftist newspaper produced by the same movement. It was supported by the USSR and was formed in 1965 when the PDPA was born. The Khalqist wing of the party was made up primarily of Pashtuns from non-elite classes. However, their Marxism was often a vehicle for tribal resentments. Bitter resentment between the Khalq and Parcham factions eventually led to the failure of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government that was formed as a result of the Saur Revolution in 1978. It was also responsible for the radical reforms and brutal dissident crackdowns that encouraged the rebellion of the religious segments present in the Afghan society, which led to the creation of the Mujahideen and, eventually, to the Soviet military intervention in December 1979.

List of heads of state of Afghanistan

This article lists the heads of state of Afghanistan since the foundation of the first Afghan state, the Hotak Empire, in 1709.

The Hotak Empire was formed after a successful uprising led by Mirwais Hotak and other Afghan tribal chiefs from Kandahar against Mughal and Persian rule.After a long series of wars, the Hotak Empire was eventually replaced by the Durrani Afghan Empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747.After the collapse of the Durrani Empire in 1823, the Barakzai dynasty founded the Emirate of Afghanistan (transformed into the Kingdom of Afghanistan in 1926) and ruled Afghanistan until 1973, when the last King Mohammed Zahir Shah was deposed in a coup d'état, led by his first cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan. Daoud then established the Republic of Afghanistan, which lasted until the Saur Revolution in 1978.

Since 1978, Afghanistan has been in a state of continuous internal warfare and foreign interventions.

The former president Hamid Karzai became the first ever democratically elected head of state of Afghanistan on 7 December 2004. The current president is Ashraf Ghani, since 29 September 2014.

Mohammad Aslam Watanjar

Mohammad Aslam Watanjar (1946 – 24 November 2000) was an Afghan general and politician. He played a significant role in the coup in 1978 that killed the Afghan president Mohammad Daud Khan and started the "Saur Revolution". Watanjar later became a member of the politburo in the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, playing prominent roles in the communist coup as well as the coup that overthrew the constitutional monarchy.

National Reconciliation

National Reconciliation is the term used for establishment of so-called 'national unity' in countries beset with political problems. In Afghanistan the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan government under Babrak Karmal issued a ten-point reconciliation program in 1985 upon the advice of Soviet leadership. Karmal appointed a six member group who belonged to no political party to his government to pursue the task. Mohammad Najibullah later intensified and broadened the proposals in 1987 and ended early in the 1990s to stop the Afghan civil war which had haunted the country since 1978 after the Saur Revolution. At the National Reconciliation meeting they came to the conclusion that the Soviet armed forces in Afghanistan should withdraw.

National Revolutionary Party of Afghanistan

National Revolutionary Party (Pashto: حزب انقلاب ملی Hezb Enqilab Mile) was a political party in Afghanistan. The party was founded in 1974 by President Mohammed Daoud Khan, who had seized control of Afghanistan from his cousin, King Zahir, in a bloodless coup on July 17, 1973.The party was formed in an attempt by Daoud to garner support and grassroots backing for his republican regime. Daoud also intended the party to undermine support in Afghanistan for the communists, who had actually helped him come to power in 1973. To this end, the party sought to be an umbrella organization for all of the factions of the progressive movement in Afghanistan. In order to help the party in its attempt to garner support, all other political parties were banned.The party was run by a central committee which comprised Maj. Gen. Ghulam Haidar Rasuli; Defense Minister, Sayyid Abd Ullah; Finance Minister, Dr Abd Ul Majid; and Professor Abd Ul Quyyum.The party did not survive the Saur Revolution in April 1978, which saw the overthrow and death of Daoud and his family, and the rise to power of the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.

National Students Federation

The National Students Federation Pakistan (NSF) is a left-wing student federation in Pakistan. In the late 1960s, NSF adopted the political ideologies of Marxism–Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought.Its predecessor, the DSF (Democratic Students Federation), had links to the Communist Party of Pakistan. It had power base among progressive students from Dow Medical and DJ Science Colleges. It dominated student politics in Karachi, then the Federal Capital of the country. In a convention at the national level of students, held in Khaliqdina Hall, Karachi (1953), the DSF renamed itself to NSF (National Students Federation) in the late 1960s, laying claim to being a national movement and hoping to spread the Student Revolution to the whole country. Demonstrations and strikes had already paralyzed the Karachi for several days. The government apparently gave in by sacrificing the Minister for Education, Mr Fazlur Rahman, who hailed fromEast Pakistan. He was sacked from his post. It was not much of a victory for the students. APSO was banned and the leaders were thrown in the Karachi Central Jail. NSF (The National Students Federation) a small nationalist and right-wing group which had been propped up by the help of Karachi University Vice Chancellor to counter DSF's activities, was invaded practically overnight by the now-banned DSF party members, who were still outside. The former DSF members had enough muscle and organisational skills to take over the control of NSF in 1956, thus its new "left" leaning profile emerged. Due to its links with communist movement, DSF was infested with the presence of double agents/informers from the secret service.

National anthem of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

Garam shah lā garam shah (English: "Be ardent, be more ardent") was the national anthem of Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992.The music was the work of Jalīl Ghahlānd and was arranged by Ustad Salim Sarmad, and the lyrics were by the poet Sulaiman Layeq on behalf of the government of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki, who decided to change the national symbols after the Saur Revolution of 1978.

Like many national anthems, it was sometimes sung abbreviated: only the chorus and the first stanza.

People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan

The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Persian: حزب دموکراتيک خلق افغانستان‎, Hezb-e dimūkrātĩk-e khalq-e Afghānistān, Pashto: د افغانستان د خلق دموکراټیک ګوند‎, Da Afghanistān da khalq dimukrātīk gund; abbreviated PDPA) was a political party established on 1 January 1965. While a minority, the party helped former prime minister of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, to overthrow King Mohammed Zahir Shah in 1973, and establish the Republic of Afghanistan. Daoud would eventually become a strong opponent of the party, firing PDPA politicians from high-ranking jobs in the government cabinet. This would lead to uneasy relations with the Soviet Union.

In 1978 the PDPA, with help from the Afghan National Army, seized power from Daoud in what is known as the Saur Revolution. Before the civilian government was established, Afghan National Army Air Corps colonel Abdul Qadir was the official ruler of Afghanistan for three days, starting from 27 April 1978. Qadir was eventually replaced by Nur Muhammad Taraki. After the Saur Revolution, the PDPA established the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan which would last until 1987. After National Reconciliation talks in 1987 the official name of the country was reverted to Republic of Afghanistan (as it was known prior to the PDPA coup of 1978). Under the leadership of Najibullah in 1990, the party's name was changed to Homeland Party (حزب وطن, Hezb-e Watan). The republic lasted until 1992 as the mujahideen rebels took over. The PDPA dissolved, with some officials joining the new government, some joining militias, whilst others deserted. Pro-Najibists relaunched the Hezb-e Watan in 2004 and again in 2017.For most of its existence, the party was split between the hardline 'Khalq' and moderate 'Parcham' factions.

Republic of Afghanistan

The Republic of Afghanistan (Dari: جمهوری افغانستان‎, Jǝmhūri Afġānistān; Pashto: د افغانستان جمهوریت‎, Dǝ Afġānistān Jumhūriyat) was the name of the first republic of Afghanistan, created in 1973 after Mohammed Daoud Khan deposed his cousin, King Mohammad Zahir Shah, in a non-violent coup. Daoud was known for his progressive politics and attempts to modernise the country with help from both the Soviet Union and the United States, among others.In 1978, a military coup known as the Saur Revolution took place, instigated by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, in which Daoud and his family were killed. The "Daoud Republic" was subsequently succeeded by the Soviet-allied Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.

Sher Mohammad Karimi

General Sher Mohammad Karimi (born November 11, 1945) is the Chief of Army Staff in the Military of Afghanistan. An ethnic Pashtun, Karimi was born in Khost Province of Afghanistan.

After the 1978 Saur Revolution in Afghanistan, Karimi was arrested and incarcerated by the PDPA communist party because of his Western education. He was employed as a director during Dr. Mohammad Najibullah Government in ministry of defence. Unlike many of his communist colleagues and the majority of the Afghan officer corps, Karimi had never received training in the Soviet Union. He was eventually forced into exile in Pakistan until the removal of the Taliban government in late 2001.

Karimi returned to his special-operations roots at Fort Bragg, North Carolina in February 2010. Previously, he served as the Chief of Operations for the Afghan Ministry of Defense.

War in Afghanistan

War in Afghanistan, or Afghan war, may refer to:

Conquest of Afghanistan by Alexander the Great (330 BC – 327 BC)

Islamic conquest of Afghanistan (637–709)

Conquest of Afghanistan by the Mongol Empire (13th century), see Mongol invasion of Central Asia

The Mughal Empire's various campaigns against the Persians for control of Afghanistan

The collapse of the Mughal Empire led the Durranis to counter Indian and Persian aggression

Anglo-Afghan Wars (First British involvement with Afghanistan):

First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–42)

Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–81)

Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919)

Panjdeh incident (1885)

Reforms of Amānullāh Khān and civil war (1929), civil war occurred when Habibullāh Kalakāni briefly overthrew the government and became emir

War in Afghanistan (1978–present) (sometimes known as "Second Afghan Civil War"):

Saur Revolution (1978), Communist insurrection

Soviet–Afghan War (1979–1989), Soviet involvement

Afghan Civil War (1989–92), collapse of the communist Najibullah government

Afghan Civil War (1992–96), leads to the Taliban controlling most of Afghanistan, with the Northern Alliance controlling northern Afghanistan

Afghan Civil War (1996–2001), Taliban period

War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

History
Politics
1940s
1950s
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
Frozen conflicts
Foreign policy
Ideologies
Organizations
Propaganda
Races
See also

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