The satinbirds or cnemophilines, are a family, Cnemophilidae of passerine birds which consists of three species found in the mountain forests of New Guinea. They were originally thought to be part of the birds-of-paradise family Paradisaeidae until genetic research suggested that the birds are not closely related to birds-of-paradise at all and are perhaps closer to berry peckers and longbills (Melanocharitidae). The current evidence suggests that their closest relatives may be the cuckoo-shrikes (Campephagidae).
|Crested satinbird (Cnemophilus macgregorii)|
In each of the three species of satinbirds, the male is more brightly colored than the female, which is dull and inconspicuous. The male yellow-breasted satinbird has a yellow breast, black head and brown back. The male crested satinbird has a reddish to orange head, back and tail with a black throat and breast. The Loria's satinbird male is the least distinctive, being black. Satinbirds have weak, non-manipulative feet, wide gapes (at one time they were given the name "wide-gaped bird-of-paradise"), as well as an unossified nasal region. Their bodies are compact with rounded wings.
Loria's satinbird may have the broadest range in the central highlands, mostly from 2000–4000 m, but is inconspicuous except at fruiting trees. The crested satinbird inhabits high mountain forest and shrubbery. The yellow-breasted satinbird is the least known. Almost nothing is known of its biology, and it seems scarce and local within the patches of habitat along the central ranges east to the base of the Huon Peninsula.
All species of satinbirds build domed nests, unlike those of birds of paradise. The female lays a single egg and takes care of it without any assistance from the male. Satinbirds feed exclusively on fruit, even at a young age.
The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species are found in eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and eastern Australia. The family has 42 species in 15 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of the sexually dimorphic species (the majority), in particular the highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings, tail or head. For the most part they are confined to dense rainforest habitat. The diet of all species is dominated by fruit and to a lesser extent arthropods. The birds-of-paradise have a variety of breeding systems, ranging from monogamy to lek-type polygamy.
A number of species are threatened by hunting and habitat loss.Cnemophilus
Cnemophilus is a genus of bird in the Cnemophilidae family.
It contains the following species:
Loria's satinbird (Cnemophilus loriae)
Crested satinbird (Cnemophilus macgregorii)Crested satinbird
The crested satinbird, antenna satinbird or crested cnemophilus (Cnemophilus macgregorii), formerly known as the (sickle) crested bird-of-paradise is a species of bird in the family Cnemophilidae. It was formerly placed in the bird-of-paradise family Paradisaeidae until genetic work proved it was unrelated to those birds. It is found in Papua New Guinea. There are two subspecies, nominate macgregorii of southeast Papua New Guinea northwestward to at least the Ekuti Divide, east of the Watut/Tauri Gap and sanguineus of central and eastern Highlands in Papua New Guinea.
Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.Gould League
The Gould League is an independent Australian organisation promoting environmental education, founded in Victoria in 1909 and named after the English ornithologist John Gould. Largely autonomous branches were subsequently established in other Australian states.Lamberto Loria
Lamberto Loria (12 February 1855 – 4 April 1913) was an Italian ethnographer, naturalist and explorer.List of bird genera
List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.List of birds by common name
In this list of birds by common name, a total of 9,722 extant and recently extinct bird species are recognised, belonging to a total of 204 families.List of least concern birds
As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 8405 least concern avian species. 76% of all evaluated avian species are listed as least concern.
No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.
This is a complete list of least concern avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.List of near threatened birds
As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1012 near threatened avian species. 9.3% of all evaluated avian species are listed as near threatened.
No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.
This is a complete list of near threatened avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.Loria's satinbird
The Loria's satinbird or velvet satinbird (Formerly known as the Loria's bird-of-paradise) (Cnemophilus loriae) is a species of bird in the family Cnemophilidae.
It is found in the New Guinea Highlands.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
The common name and Latin binomial commemorate the Italian ethnographer Lamberto Loria.Yellow-breasted satinbird
The yellow-breasted satinbird (Loboparadisea sericea), formerly known as the yellow-breasted bird-of-paradise and also known as the silken satinbird, is a species of bird in the family Cnemophilidae. It is monotypic within the genus Loboparadisea.
It is found in the New Guinea highlands.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.
It is threatened by habitat loss.