Satin

Satin is a weave that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back, one of three fundamental types of textile weaves along with plain weave and twill. The satin weave is characterized by four or more fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn. Floats are missed interfacings, for example where the warp yarn lies on top of the weft in a warp-faced satin. These floats explain the high luster and even sheen, as unlike in other weaves, the light reflecting is not scattered as much by the fibres. Satin is usually a warp-faced weaving technique in which warp yarns are "floated" over weft yarns, although there are also weft-faced satins.[1] If a fabric is formed with a satin weave using filament fibres such as silk, polyester or nylon, the corresponding fabric is termed a satin, although some definitions insist that the fabric be made from silk.[2] If the yarns used are short-staple yarns such as cotton, the fabric formed is considered a sateen.

Many variations can be made of the basic satin weave, including a granite weave and a check weave.

Satin is commonly used in apparel: women's lingerie, nightgowns, blouses, and evening gowns, but also in boxer shorts, shirts and neckties. It is also used in the production of pointe shoes for use in ballet. Other uses include interior furnishing fabrics, upholstery, and bed sheets.

Satin weave in silk 90
Satin weave. The warp yarns are shown running top to bottom, weft running sideways folding at each side.
Satin bedding
Purple satin fabric

Origins

Robe a la Française c. 1765
Satin robe. English, circa 1765

Originally, during the Middle Ages, satin was made of silk; consequently it was very expensive, used only by the upper classes. Satin became famous in Europe during the twelfth century. The name derives its origin from the Chinese port city of Quanzhou, whose name in (medieval) Arabic was Zayton.[3] During the latter part of the Middle Ages, it was a major shipping port of silk, using the maritime Silk Road to reach Europe. It was mostly used in the Arabian countries.

Types of satin weaves

Fabrics created from satin weaves are more flexible, with better draping characteristics than plain weaves, allowing them to be formed around compound curves, which is useful in carbon-fiber composites manufacturing. In a satin weave, the fill yarn passes over multiple warp yarns before interlacing under one warp yarn. Common satin weaves are:[4]

  • 4-harness satin weave (4HS), also called crowfoot satin, in which the fill yarn passes over three warp yarns and under one warp yarn. It is more pliable than a plain weave.
  • 5-harness satin weave (5HS); the fill yarn passes over four warp yarns and then under one warp yarn.
  • 8-harness satin weave (8HS), in which the fill yarn passes over seven warp yarns and then under one warp yarn, is the most pliable satin weave and forms most easily around compound curves.

Types of satin

  • Antique satin is a type of satin-back shantung, woven with slubbed or unevenly spun weft yarns.[5][6]
  • Baronet or baronette has a cotton back and a rayon or silk front, similar to georgette.[7]
  • Charmeuse is a lightweight, draping satin-weave fabric with a dull reverse.[8]
  • Double face(d) satin is woven with a glossy surface on both sides. It is possible for both sides to have a different pattern, albeit using the same colors.[9]
  • Duchess(e) satin is a particularly luxurious, heavy, stiff satin.[9]
  • Faconne is jacquard woven satin.[10]
  • Farmer's satin or Venetian cloth is made from mercerised cotton.[10]
  • Gattar is satin made with a silk warp and a cotton weft.[11]
  • Messaline is lightweight and loosely woven.[12]
  • Polysatin or poly-satin is an abbreviated term for polyester satin.
  • Slipper satin is stiff and medium- to heavy-weight fabric.[13]
  • Sultan is a worsted fabric with a satin face.[10]
  • Surf satin was a 1910s American trademark for a taffeta fabric used for swimsuits.[14]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Emery, Irene (1994). The Primary Structures of Fabrics. Washington, D. C. Thames and Hudson. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-500-28802-3.
  2. ^ Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary, 1977.
  3. ^ Tellier, Luc-Normand (2009). Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective. Presses de l'Université du Québec. p. 221. ISBN 978-2-7605-1588-8. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  4. ^ "Woven fabric style guide". ACP Composites.
  5. ^ Young, Deborah (2015). Swatch Reference Guide to Fashion Fabrics. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 1628926562. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  6. ^ Rowe, T. (2009). Interior Textiles: Design and Developments. Elsevier. p. 69. ISBN 1845696875. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  7. ^ Cumming, Valerie; Cunnington, C.W.; Cunnington, P.E. (2010). The dictionary of fashion history. Oxford: Berg. p. 231. ISBN 1847887384.
  8. ^ Shaeffer 2003, p. 123.
  9. ^ a b Shaeffer 2003, p. 124.
  10. ^ a b c Lewandowski, Elizabeth J. (2011). The complete costume dictionary. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 309. ISBN 9780810877856.
  11. ^ Maitra, K.K. (2007). Encyclopaedic dictionary of clothing and textiles. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 185. ISBN 9788183242059.
  12. ^ Shaeffer 2003, p. 128.
  13. ^ Shaeffer 2008, p. 238.
  14. ^ Shaeffer 2003, p. 282.

Bibliography

External links

  • Media related to Satin at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of satin at Wiktionary
Angora rabbit

The Angora rabbit (Turkish: Ankara tavşanı), which is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, is bred for the long fibers of its coat, known as Angora wool, that are gathered by shearing, combing, or plucking. Because rabbits do not possess the same allergy-causing qualities as many other animals, their wool is an important alternative. There are at least 11 distinct breeds of Angora rabbit, four of which are currently recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association (ARBA): English Angora, French Angora, Giant Angora, and Satin Angora. Others include: German Angora, Chinese Angora, Finnish Angora, Japanese Angora, Korean Angora, Russian Angora, St. Lucian Angora, and Swiss Angora.

Charmeuse

Charmeuse (French: [ʃaʁmøːz]) is a lightweight fabric woven with a satin weave, in which the warp threads cross over four or more of the backing (weft) threads. These float threads give the front of the fabric a smooth, reflective finish, whereas the back has a dull finish. It can be made of silk or a synthetic lookalike such as polyester. Silk charmeuse is more expensive and delicate but is softer and a better insulator. Polyester charmeuse is cheaper and can often withstand machine washing, but it does not breathe as well as silk. Charmeuse differs from plain satin in that charmeuse has a different ratio of float (face) threads.

The luster and delicate hand make charmeuse suited to lingerie, flowing evening gowns, and draped blouses. Bridal gowns sometimes use charmeuse; however, the fabric does not hold a shape well, so it is not used for full, flared skirts; the charmeuse tends to cling and hang against the body. It is best suited to a more fluid, slinky bias cut, and drapes well.

Its uses in menswear include the lining of jackets and slacks, handkerchiefs, ties, and underwear such as charmeuse boxer shorts.

When woven from polyester it can be a challenging fabric to sew; it tends to be slippery and may be difficult to control through the presser foot of a sewing machine. Seams have a tendency to pucker and pull; a smaller stitch length and properly balanced tensions can minimize this, though the experience of the sewer will affect the finished result as well. Pins can make holes and marks in polyester charmeuse so it is very important to use proper, sharp dressmaker's pins with a smooth, not abrupt, taper to the point. For greater ease of sewing, a sizing product can be sprayed on before cutting and washed out after the garment is completed.

The look of satin is prized for dressy garments, especially when cut on the bias, since it flows well on the body and catches light in stunning patterns.

Damask

Damask (; Arabic: دمشق‎) is a reversible figured fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibres, with a pattern formed by weaving. Damasks are woven with one warp yarn and one weft yarn, usually with the pattern in warp-faced satin weave and the ground in weft-faced or sateen weave. Twill damasks include a twill-woven ground or pattern.

Gold (color)

Gold, also called golden, is a color.

The web color gold is sometimes referred to as golden to distinguish it from the color metallic gold. The use of gold as a color term in traditional usage is more often applied to the color "metallic gold" (shown below).

The first recorded use of golden as a color name in English was in 1300 to refer to the element gold and in 1423 to refer to blond hair.Metallic gold, such as in paint, is often called goldtone or gold tone. In heraldry, the French word or is used. In model building, the color gold is different from brass. A shiny or metallic silvertone object can be painted with transparent yellow to obtain goldtone, something often done with Christmas decorations.

Golgo 13

Golgo 13 (Japanese: ゴルゴ13, Hepburn: Gorugo Sātīn) is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Takao Saito, published in Shogakukan's Big Comic magazine since October 1968. The manga won the 1975 Shogakukan Manga Award for general manga and the Grand Prize at the 2002 Japan Cartoonists Association Awards. The series follows the title character, a professional assassin for hire.

Golgo 13 is the oldest manga still in publication, and its tankōbon edition has the third-highest number of volumes. It has sold 280 million copies in various formats, including compilation books, making it the second-best-selling manga series in history. It has been adapted into two live-action feature films, an anime film, an original video animation, an anime television series and six video games.

Jeanne Pruett

Jeanne Pruett (born Norma Jean Bowman on January 30, 1937) is an American country music singer and Grand Ole Opry star, best known for her 1973 country hit, "Satin Sheets", that spent three weeks at No. 1.

"Satin Sheets" is Jeanne Pruett's signature song. The song sounded much more country than the songs that were coming out of Nashville at the time. When "Satin Sheets" became a hit in 1973, it was also a Top 40 Pop hit.

Lady in Satin

Lady in Satin is an album by jazz singer Billie Holiday released in 1958 on Columbia Records, catalogue CL 1157 in mono and CS 8048 in stereo. It is the penultimate album completed by the singer and last released in her lifetime (her final album, Last Recording, being recorded in March 1959 and released just after her death). The original album was produced by Irving Townsend, and engineered by Fred Plaut.

List of guinea pig breeds

There are many breeds of guinea pig or cavy which have been developed since its domestication ca. 5000 BC. Breeds vary widely in appearance and purpose, ranging from show breeds with long, flowing hair to those in use as model organisms by science. From ca. 1200 AD to the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532, selective breeding by indigenous South American people resulted in many landrace varieties of domestic guinea pigs, which form the basis for some of the modern, formal breeds. Early Andean varieties were primarily kept as agricultural stock for food, and efforts at improving the guinea pig as a food source continue to the modern era.

With the export of guinea pigs to Europe in the 15th century, the goal in breeding shifted to focus on the development of appealing pets. To this end, various competitive breeding organizations were founded by fanciers. The American Cavy Breeders Association, an adjunct to the American Rabbit Breeders Association, is the governing body in the United States and Canada. The British Cavy Council governs cavy clubs in the United Kingdom. Similar organizations exist in Australia (Australian National Cavy Council) and New Zealand (New Zealaland Cavy Council) Each club publishes its own Standard of Perfection and determines which breeds are eligible for showing. New breeds continue to emerge in the 21st century.

Though there are many breeds of guinea pig, only a few breeds are commonly found on the show table as pets. Most guinea pigs found as pets were either found undesirable by breeders or were bred to be pleasant pets regardless of how well they meet the breed standard of perfection. The English/American Short-haired, the Abyssinian (rough-coated), the Peruvian (long-coated), and the Sheltie (also known as Silkie, long-coated) breeds are those most frequently seen as pets, and the former three are the core breeds in the history of the competitive showing of guinea pigs. In addition to their standard form, nearly all breeds come in a Satin variant. Satins, due to their hollow hair shafts, possess coats of a special gloss and shine. However, there is growing evidence that the genes responsible for the satin coat also can cause severe bone problems, including osteodystrophy and Paget's disease. Showing satin variations is prohibited by some cavy breeders' associations because of animal welfare reasons.

All cavy breeds have some shared general standards: the head profile should be rounded, with large eyes and large, smooth ears. The body should be strong and of compact build. Coat colour should in all variations be clearly defined and thorough from root to tip. These standards are best met by long established, commonly bred breeds, as their breeders have had enough time and animals to effectively breed for these qualities. The coat colour ideal of good definition and thoroughness is rarely met by other than the smooth-coated breeds, which have had well established, separate breeding lines for different colours.

Mark Satin

Mark Ivor Satin (born November 16, 1946) is an American political theorist, author, and newsletter publisher. He is best known for contributing to the development and dissemination of three political perspectives – neopacifism in the 1960s, New Age politics in the 1970s and 1980s, and radical centrism in the 1990s and 2000s. Satin's work is sometimes seen as building toward a new political ideology, and then it is often labeled "transformational", "post-liberal", or "post-Marxist". One historian calls Satin's writing "post-hip".After emigrating to Canada at the age of 20 to avoid serving in the Vietnam War, Satin co-founded the Toronto Anti-Draft Programme, which helped bring American war resisters to Canada. He also wrote the Manual for Draft-Age Immigrants to Canada (1968), which sold nearly 100,000 copies. After a period that author Marilyn Ferguson describes as Satin's "anti-ambition experiment", Satin wrote New Age Politics (1978), which identifies an emergent "third force" in North America pursuing such goals as simple living, decentralism, and global responsibility. Satin spread his ideas by co-founding an American political organization, the New World Alliance, and by publishing an international political newsletter, New Options. He also co-drafted the foundational statement of the U.S. Green Party, "Ten Key Values".

Following a period of political disillusion, spent mainly in law school and practicing business law, Satin launched a new political newsletter and wrote a book, Radical Middle (2004). Both projects criticized political partisanship and sought to promote mutual learning and innovative policy syntheses across social and cultural divides. In an interview, Satin contrasts the old radical slogan "Dare to struggle, dare to win" with his radical-middle version, "Dare to synthesize, dare to take it all in".Satin has been described as "colorful" and "intense", and all his initiatives have been controversial. Bringing war resisters to Canada was opposed by many in the anti-Vietnam War movement. New Age Politics was not welcomed by many on the traditional left or right, and Radical Middle dismayed an even broader segment of the American political community. Even Satin's personal life has generated controversy.

Nights in White Satin

"Nights in White Satin" is a song by the Moody Blues, written and composed by Justin Hayward. It was first featured as the segment "The Night" on the album Days of Future Passed. When first released as a single in 1967, it reached number 19 on the UK Singles Chart and number 103 in the United States in 1968. It was the first significant chart entry by the band since "Go Now" and its recent lineup change, in which Denny Laine had resigned and both Hayward and John Lodge had joined.

When reissued in 1972, in the United States the single hit number two – for two weeks – on the Billboard Hot 100 (behind "I Can See Clearly Now" by Johnny Nash) and hit number one on the Cash Box Top 100. It earned a gold certification for sales of over a million U.S. copies. It also hit number one in Canada.

Sateen

Sateen is a fabric made using a satin weave structure but made with spun yarns instead of filament.The sheen and softer feel of sateen is produced through the satin weave structure. Warp yarns are floated over weft yarns, for example four over and one under. (In a weft-faced satin or sateen, the weft yarns are floated over the warp yarns.) Standard plain weaves use a one-over, one-under structure. The long floats produce a surface that is smooth to the touch and reduces light scattering to increase shine. This weave structure is more susceptible to wear than other weaves.

In modern times cheaper rayon is often substituted for cotton. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. Some are only calendered to produce the sheen, but this disappears with washing.

Satin Doll

"Satin Doll" is a jazz standard written by Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn with lyrics by Johnny Mercer. Written in 1953, the song has been recorded by Ella Fitzgerald, 101 Strings, Terry Callier, and Nancy Wilson. Its chord progression is well known for its unusual use of chords and opening with a ii-V-I turnaround.

Selenite (mineral)

Selenite, also known as satin spar, desert rose, or gypsum flower are four crystal structure varieties of the mineral gypsum. These four varieties of gypsum may be grouped together and called selenite.

All varieties of gypsum, including selenite and alabaster, are composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (meaning that it has two molecules of water), with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. Selenite contains no significant selenium, the similarity of the names of the substances coming from the Ancient Greek word for the Moon.

Some of the largest crystals ever found are of selenite, the largest specimen found in the Naica Mine's Cave of the Crystals being 12 metres long and weighing 55 tons.

Syzygium malaccense

Syzygium malaccense is a species of flowering tree native to Malesia and Australia. It is one of the species cultivated since prehistoric times by the Austronesian peoples. They were carried and introduced deliberately to Remote Oceania as canoe plants. In modern times, it has been introduced throughout the tropics, including many Caribbean countries and territories.

The Knight in White Satin Armor

"The Knight in White Satin Armor" is the 25th episode of the HBO original series The Sopranos and the 12th of the show's second season. It was written by Robin Green and Mitchell Burgess, and directed by Allen Coulter, and originally aired on April 2, 2000.

Underwear fetishism

Underwear fetishism is a sexual fetishism relating to undergarments, and refers to preoccupation with the sexual excitement of certain types of underwear, including panties, stockings, pantyhose, bras, or other items. Some people can experience sexual excitement from wearing, while others get their excitement when observing, handling, or smelling the underwear worn by another, or watching somebody putting underwear on or taking it off. Some may steal used underwear to get satisfaction. Not only does this include physical contact with the garment(s), or their wearers, but also includes arousal by printed or electronic image with depictions of underwear.

Underwear fetishism is not considered as paraphilia unless it causes distress or serious problems for the person or those associated with them.

Velvet

"Panne" redirects here. For the wetland feature, see Salt pannes and pools.

Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive soft feel. By extension, the word velvety means "smooth like velvet." Velvet can be made from either synthetic or natural fibers.

Warp printing

Warp printing is a fabric production method which combines textile printing and weaving to create a distinctively patterned fabric, usually in silk. The warp threads of the fabric are printed before weaving to create a softly blurred, vague pastel-coloured pattern. It was particularly fashionable in the eighteenth century for summer wear.The silk and taffeta fabrics produced by this technique have a variety of names, including chiné, Pompadour taffeta (after Madame de Pompadour) and chiné à la branche. Chiné velvet was also possible, although the technique was very difficult and expensive and only made in a few places in France in the eighteenth century.

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