Sarju River

The Sarju River (Kumaoni: सरज्यू, Hindi: सरयू), also known as Saryu, is a major river draining Central Kumaon region[4] in the Indian state of Uttarakhand.[5] Originating from Sarmul,Sarju flows through the cities of Kapkot,Bageshwar and Seraghat before joining Mahakali at Pancheshwar. The Sarju is the largest tributary of the Sharda River.[6][7] The river forms the South-eastern border between the districts of Pithoragarh and Almora.[8][9] Temperate and sub-Tropical forests cover the entire Catchment area of the River.[10]

Sarayu River
Sarayu River
Sarayu River
Location
Country India
StateUttarakhand
regionKumaon
Physical characteristics
Source 
 ⁃ locationSarmul, 15 km south of Nanda Kot[1]
 ⁃ coordinates30°7′58″N 80°1′56″E / 30.13278°N 80.03222°E
 ⁃ elevation3,000 m (9,800 ft)
Mouth 
 ⁃ location
Sharda River,[2] Uttarakhand, India
 ⁃ coordinates
29°26′38″N 80°14′33″E / 29.44389°N 80.24250°ECoordinates: 29°26′38″N 80°14′33″E / 29.44389°N 80.24250°E
 ⁃ elevation
429 m (1,407 ft)[3]
Length130 km (81 mi)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 ⁃ leftRamganga, Punger
 ⁃ rightGomati, Panar, Lahor

Course

The Sarju rises at a place known as Sarmul (or Sarmool), which is located in the extreme north of the Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand. The source of the river is situated at 30°7′58″N 80°1′56″E / 30.13278°N 80.03222°E on the southern slope of a ridge of the Nanda Kot and is separated on the east from the source of Ramganga and on the west from the sources of Kuphini (the eastern branch of Pindar river) by spurs leading down from the mass culminating at the Nanda Kot peak.[11] It flows initially around 50 km (31 mi) in southwest direction by the Kumaon Himalayas where it receives Kanalgadh stream from the right and Punger river from the left. About 2 km (1.2 mi) further downstream, the river receives Lahor river from the right.[12] Then the river turns towards south and flows through the city of Bageshwar, where it receives Gomati from the right.[13][14]

The Sarju flows to the lower 65 km in mainly southeastern direction.[15] Much of the drainage of Gangoli region of Pithoragarh district flows into the river via Bhadrapatigad stream, which flows into it from the left. Similarly, several streams join it from right draining much of the Chaugarkha region situated in Almora district; notable ones being Gatgadh, Jalairgadh, Bhaurgadh, Alaknadi and Saniaungadh.[16] About 55 km (34 mi) downstream from its confluence with Gomati in Bageshwar, it receives the Panar river from the right. About five Km further downstream, at 20 km (12 mi) above its mouth, Ramganga meets the left side on the Sarju at Rameshwar, situated at an elevation of 1,500 ft (460 m). Finally Sarju reaches at Pancheshwar at the Nepalese border to Sharda River after travelling a total of 130 km (81 mi).

Geology

Sarju transfers a sedimental load of 498.4 kg/sec during the peak of raining season.[17]

Water Quality Characteristics of Sarju during water years 1987 and 1988[18][19]
Parameter PH Alkalinity Hardness Conductivity Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium Chloride Sulphate
Value 7.9 111.2 101.32 137.11 18.89 11.11 3.50 1.80 8.10 2.41

Tributaries

Bagnath Temple at Bageshwar Uttrakhand - panoramio
Bagnath Temple at Bageshwar is situated at the confluence of Gomati and Sarju

Gomati

Gomati river originates in the higher reaches of Bhatkot and merges into Sarju river at Bageshwar.[20] It flows through the Katyur Valley which constitutes a major Agricultural zone of Kumaon.[21]

Kuloor

The Kuloor river rises above the Bhadrkali Temple near Sani-Udiyar, and flows through Rawatsera, Bans Patan and Ganai Gangoli, before joining the Sarju at Seraghat.

Punger

Punger river rises near village Sangar and joins Sarju from the left at Sartana.[22]

Lahor

Lahor is a small river that joins Sarju from the right.[23]

Panar

Panar originates on the northern slopes of the Mornaula Range, south-east of Almora.[24] Panar joins Sarju near Rameshwar.[25]

Ramganga

Ramganga is the largest tributary of Sarju. It originates from the Namik Glacier in Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand and flows towards Southeast.[26][27] The river is fed by numerous small and big rivers and finally joins river Sarju at Rameshwar.[28]

Gallery

Camping on saryu river - panoramio

Camping on saryu river

Saryu river - panoramio

Close-up view of Sarju water flowing

References

Notes

  1. ^ Sati, Uttaranchal: Dilemma of Plenties and Scarcities, pg-79
  2. ^ Sharda River is known as Kali Ganga in mountainous regions of Kumaon
  3. ^ Sati, Uttaranchal: Dilemma of Plenties and Scarcities, pg-79
  4. ^ Negi, Kumaun: The Land and the People, pg-82
  5. ^ Conder, India, pg-238
  6. ^ Gulia, Discovering Himalaya: Tourism Of Himalayan Region, pg-84
  7. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-18
  8. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-170
  9. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-331
  10. ^ Negi, Himalayan Rivers, Lakes, and Glaciers, pg-120
  11. ^ Walton, Almora: A Gazetteer, pg-283
  12. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-182
  13. ^ Budhawar, The Call of the Mountains: Uttrakhand Explored, pg-39
  14. ^ Guneratne, Culture and the Environment in the Himalaya, pg-134
  15. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-182
  16. ^ Walton, Almora: A Gazetteer, pg-284
  17. ^ Bhatt, Ecology of the Mountain Waters, pg-48,49
  18. ^ All values in mg/l except ph and conductivity
  19. ^ Bhatt, Ecology of the Mountain Waters, pg-97
  20. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  21. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  22. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-183
  23. ^ Aggarwal, Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future, pg-182
  24. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  25. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-19
  26. ^ Negi, Himalayan Rivers, Lakes, and Glaciers, pg-115
  27. ^ Rawat, Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya, pg-18
  28. ^ Negi, Himalayan Rivers, Lakes, and Glaciers, pg-48

Bibliography

  • Rawat, Ajay Singh. Forest Management in Kumaon Himalaya: Struggle of the Marginalised People. Indus Publishing. ISBN 9788173871016.
  • Gulia, K. S. Discovering Himalaya : Tourism Of Himalayan Region (2 Vols.). Gyan Publishing House. ISBN 9788182054103.
  • Negi, Sharad Singh. Kumaun: The Land and the People. Indus Publishing. ISBN 9788185182896.
  • Negi, Sharad Singh. Himalayan Rivers, Lakes, and Glaciers. Indus Publishing. ISBN 9788185182612.
  • Bhatt, Shanker D.; Pande, Ravindra K. Ecology of the Mountain Waters. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788170243663.
  • Conder, Josiah. India. J. Duncan.
  • Aggarwal, J. C.; Agrawal, S. P. Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170225720.
  • Bhatt, Shanker D.; Pathak, Jugal K. Himalayan environment, water quality of the drainage basins. Shree Almora Book Depot.
  • Budhwar, Prem K. The Call of the Mountains: Uttrakhand Explored. Har-Anand Publications. ISBN 9788124115299.
  • Guneratne, Arjun. Culture and the Environment in the Himalaya. Routledge. ISBN 9781135192877.
  • Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad; Kumar, Kamlesh. Uttaranchal: Dilemma of Plenties and Scarcities. Mittal Publications. ISBN 9788170998983.
Kapkote

Kapkot or Kapkote is a village in Bageshwar district, Uttarakhand, India. It houses the headquarters of Kapkot Tehsil, the largest administrative subdivision of Bageshwar district. It is known for being the last bus terminus on the route to Pindari Glacier. Kapkot is located almost 25 kilometres (16 mi) from its district headquarters at Bageshwar.

List of rivers of India

This is a list of rivers of India, starting in the west and moving along the Indian coast southward, then northward. Tributary rivers are listed hierarchically in upstream order: the lower in the list, the more upstream.

The major rivers of India are:

Flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Ganga (with its main tributaries Ramganga, Kali or Sharda, Gomti, Yamuna, Chambal, Betwa, Ken, Tons, Ghaghara, Gandaki, Burhi Gandak, Koshi, Mahananda, Tamsa, Son, Bagmati), Meghna, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna (and their main tributaries)

Flowing into the Arabian Sea: Narmada, Tapi, Sabarmati, PurnaThe remaining rivers are as follows.

List of rivers of Nepal

This is a list of rivers in Nepal, east to west. This list is arranged by drainage basin, indented to show the structure of confluences. Tributaries rising inside India are not shown.

The rivers only of Nepal

Kankai River

yubraj river

Koshi River

Tamor

Arun

Sunkoshi

Dudh Koshi

Imja Khola

Hongu River

Liku River or Likhu Khola

Bhote Koshi

Tama Koshi

Indravati RiverBagmati River

Kamala River

Lakhandei River

Bisnumati River

Gandaki River (Narayani) (Kali Gandaki)

Binai River

East Rapti River

Trishuli River

Seti Gandaki River

Marshyangdi

Budhi Gandaki River

Nisi River

Madi River

Ghaghara River (Karnali)

West Rapti River

Rohni River

Tinau River

Mari River

Jimruk River

Babai River

Sharada Khola

Sarju River

Mohan River

Kandra River

Bheri River

Thuli Bheri River

Sani Bheri River

Thuli River

Seti River

Budhiganga River

Sinja River

Mugu Karnali

Langu River

Panjang River

Humla Karnali

Tanke River

Sharda River (Mahakali Nadi) (Kali River)

Surna River

Chameliya River

Kalapani River

Sharda River

The Sharda River demarcates Nepal's western border with India. It descends from 3,600 m (11,800 ft) at Kalapani to 200 m (660 ft) as it enters the Terai plains in Uttar Pradesh, flowing southeast across the plains to join the Ghaghra river, a tributary of the Ganges.

It is called Mahakali River in Nepali: महाकाली नदी, mahākālī nadī, शारदा नदी, shāradā nadī in Hindi, and Kali Gad (Hindi: काली गाड़, kālī gād) or Kali Ganga in Uttarakhand. It is named after Śāradā, which is another name for Saraswati, the goddess of learning.

It offers potential for hydroelectric power generation. The river is also proposed as source for one of the many projects in the Himalayan component of the Indian Rivers Inter-link project.

Rivers
Lakes
Dams/ Barrages
Glaciers
Related topics
Hydrography of surrounding areas

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